移植法衆院通過 臓器提供の拡大へ踏み出した

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Jun. 19, 2009)
Vote a step forward for more organ donations
移植法衆院通過 臓器提供の拡大へ踏み出した(6月19日付・読売社説)

Current rules place tight restrictions on organ transplants in Japan, often forcing Japanese to travel abroad to receive transplants. This has to stop.
 日本国内では臓器移植を厳しく制限しながら、海外で臓器をもらう。こんな状況を、続けるわけにはいかない。

Thursday's vote in the House of Representatives signifies that many lawmakers recognize this fact and intend to expand opportunities for organ donations within Japan.
 多くの衆院議員がそう認識し、国内での臓器提供の拡大を図る意思を明確に示したと言えるだろう。

The lower house scheduled votes on four different bills in a plenary session on Thursday to revise the Organ Transplant Law. Plan A--which clears the way for more organ transplants within the country--passed the lower house.
 臓器移植法改正案は18日、四つの案が衆院本会議にかけられ、国内で臓器移植の道を大きく広げる「A案」が可決された。

With the exception of the Japanese Communist Party, which decided to abstain from voting, each party allowed its lawmakers to vote freely on the bills. Lawmakers therefore voted according to their own beliefs.
 棄権を決めた共産党以外は党議拘束をはずし、議員一人ひとりが自らの信念で記名投票した。

Of the 430 votes cast in the lower house, 263 were for Plan A, easily exceeding the 167 votes against it. With the approval of Plan A, voting for the remaining three proposals was called off.
賛成が263票で、反対167票を大きく上回った。最初にA案が可決されたため、他の3案は採決されなかった。

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More in line with WHO

Plan A recognizes brain death as legal death per se and stipulates that if a person has not given clear permission to undergo a brain-death diagnosis or to become an organ donor if declared brain-dead, the decision will be entrusted to that person's family.
 A案は、脳死を「人の死」と位置付けた上で、脳死判定を受けるかどうか、脳死とされた後に臓器提供するかどうかは、本人の意思が不明なら家族に委ねる、という内容である。

This is almost the same as the World Health Organization's guiding principles as well as the organ transplant laws of other major industrialized nations.
 これは世界保健機関(WHO)の指針や主要各国の臓器移植法とほぼ同じものだ。

The nation's current Organ Transplant Law is the strictest in the world regarding the conditions for becoming an organ donor. Firstly, it requires a brain-dead person to have left in writing his or her intention to donate, such as in the form of an organ donor card. Even with this, however, organ donation can still be stopped if the family of the brain-dead person opposes it.
 日本の現行の臓器移植法は、臓器提供の条件が世界の中で突出して厳しい。まず本人がカードなど書面で提供意思を残していることが絶対条件だ。それでも家族が反対すれば移植はできない。

As a result, only 81 transplants using organs from brain-dead persons have been carried out in the about 12 years since the current Organ Transplant Law came into force in October 1997. In contrast, several thousand organ transplants are conducted in the United States every year, and several hundred in major European nations.
 その結果、法律の施行から約12年で、脳死移植は81例にとどまっている。米国では毎年数千例、欧州の主要国でも年間数百例あるのにあまりにも少ない。

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Allow access for children

Under the Civil Code, the will to donate organs is legally recognized only when a donor is aged 15 or older. Therefore, organ transplants for infants and young children within the country are practically impossible due to the differences in organ sizes from donor to recipient.
 また、提供意思を示す能力があるのは民法上15歳からとされ、臓器の大きさが合わない乳幼児は、国内移植の道が事実上、閉ざされている。

This has resulted in a constant stream of Japanese children being taken overseas to receive organ transplants, often after their parents have made pleas for funds. Japanese adults also have gone abroad for operations, with some seeking organ transplants in China, where it is said that most organs come from executed criminals. Other nations have criticized Japan for these circumstances.
 このため、多くの子どもが支援金を募って海外で移植を受けてきた。大人も、中国で死刑囚から摘出されたと見られる臓器の移植を受けるなどしている。こうした日本の現状に対して、海外の視線は厳しい。

Plan A--which enables organ donation through family consent--also scraps the age limit for organ donation, which means young children will be able to receive transplants in Japan. Organ donations from adults also are expected to increase significantly.
 家族の同意で移植を可能にするA案は、15歳の壁を取り払い、乳幼児に国内移植の道を開く。大人の臓器提供もかなり増えると予想されている。

One of the three bills that did not make it to vote would have partially eased conditions on organ donation, including those aged 14 or younger only being allowed to donate with family consent. However, it is difficult to fundamentally change the current situation.
 採決されなかった3案には、15歳未満に限り家族同意で移植を可能とするなど、提供条件を部分的に緩和する案もあったが、現状を根本的に改めることは難しい。

Deliberations on the bill to revise the Organ Transplant Law will move on to the House of Councillors. There also is a move to seek the submission of a new proposal.
 臓器移植法改正案の審議は、舞台を参院に移す。さらに新たな提案を模索する動きもある。

This is a difficult issue involving viewpoints on life and death, but we cannot delay any longer in reaching a decision.
 死生観を問われる難しい問題だが、これ以上、結論を先送りすることはできない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 19, 2009)
(2009年6月19日01時48分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2009-06-19 08:57 | 英字新聞

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