「鞆の浦」判決 景観保護と地域振興の両立を

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Oct. 3, 2009)
Save Tomonoura beauty, boost local economy
「鞆の浦」判決 景観保護と地域振興の両立を(10月3日付・読売社説)

The Hiroshima District Court on Thursday handed down a ruling that acknowledged local residents' right to benefit from the beauty of a precious landscape.
 貴重な景観の美しさを享受する「景観利益」の保護を前面に打ち出した司法判断である。

The court ordered Hiroshima Gov. Yuzan Fujita not to issue a license for a prefectural and municipal project to reclaim a scenic shore in the Tomonoura area of Fukuyama, Hiroshima Prefecture.
 広島県福山市の「鞆(とも)の浦」で、県と市が計画している埋め立て・架橋事業について、広島地裁が、埋め立て免許の交付差し止めを認める判決を言い渡した。

The magnificent landscape of Tomonoura inspired ancient poems featured in the Manyoshu, an anthology of classical poetry. It also was a key junction in the Seto Inland Sea that prospered as a port for ships waiting for the right tide to sail. Several buildings from the Edo period (1603-1867) have been preserved in the area.
 万葉集にも詠まれた景勝地の鞆の浦は、「潮待ちの港」として栄えた瀬戸内の要衝だ。町並みには江戸時代の面影が残る。

The picturesque bay also is known as the place where renowned director Hayao Miyazaki stayed for two months to develop ideas for his 2008 animated film "Gake no Ue no Ponyo" (Ponyo on the Cliff by the Sea).
宮崎駿監督が映画「崖(がけ)の上のポニョ」の構想を練ったことでも知られる。

The court acknowledged that the Tomonoura area is an asset belonging to the Japanese people and has historical and cultural value. The court also pointed out that the daily benefits local residents receive from the scenery might be seriously damaged if the area is reclaimed.
 判決は、鞆の浦について、「歴史的、文化的価値を有する国民の財産」との認識を示した。さらに埋め立てが行われれば、「住民が日常的に恩恵を受けている景観利益について、重大な損害が生じる恐れがある」と指摘した。

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Local community split

We think it was appropriate that the court carefully weighed the importance of preserving the landscape against the need to reclaim land and build a bridge in the area before deciding in favor of the former. This is the first time that a court has ordered the suspension of a public works project before it had begun on the grounds that a landscape should be preserved.
 景観利益の重要性と、埋め立てや架橋の必要性を天秤(てんびん)にかけ、景観利益の保護に軍配を上げた適切な判断といえよう。景観利益を理由に、公共事業が事前に差し止められるのは、初めてである。

The ruling likely will influence the development of tourist spots in the future.
 観光地の開発のあり方に、一石を投じることになろう。

In 2006, the Supreme Court rejected a demand by residents living near a condominium in Kunitachi, Tokyo, that a real estate developer remove the upper floors of the building because they spoiled the local scenery. However, it also stated that local residents have the right to benefit from an attractive neighborhood and that this right should be protected. The top court's view apparently influenced the latest ruling.
 景観利益については、東京都国立市の住民らが高層マンションの上層階撤去を求めた訴訟で、最高裁が2006年、「法的保護に値する」との判断を示した。この考え方が、今回の判決に影響を及ぼしたのだろう。

Nevertheless, the fact remains that many streets in the Tomonoura area are too narrow for cars to pass and are often jammed with tourist vehicles. The community's population is decreasing and graying.
 鞆の浦の街路は、車がすれ違えないほど狭い所が多く、観光客の車などで混雑が深刻だ。人口は減り、高齢化も進んでいる。

The reclamation project aimed to revitalize the local community by building a bypass bridge spanning Tomoko port to resolve the traffic problem and by reclaiming the local shore to build a ferry pier and a parking lot for tourists' vehicles.
 県と市の開発計画は、港を横切る海上のバイパス橋で交通難を解消し、湾岸の埋め立て地に観光客用の駐車場やフェリーふ頭を整備し、地域の活性化を図ろうというものだ。

A group of residents filed this suit, but many other residents supported the project, which they felt would make their daily lives more convenient. A rift has reportedly emerged in the community between proponents and opponents of the project.
 訴訟は、開発に反対する住民らが起こしたが、一方で、利便性の向上を望み、事業に賛成する住民も多い。住民の間には亀裂が生まれているという。

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Time for Plan B

The Hiroshima governor applied to the central government in June last year for approval to issue a reclamation license. But then Construction and Transport Minster Kazuyoshi Kaneko demurred on the matter, saying the prefectural government should first secure the public's consent. The license had yet to be approved when there was a change in government in late August.
 藤田雄山知事は昨年6月、国に埋め立て免許の認可を申請した。だが、金子前国土交通相は、「国民の合意が必要」と慎重姿勢を取り続け、認可されないまま政権が交代した。

New Transport and Construction Minister Seiji Maehara said he will decide what action to take after seeing how higher courts rule on the case.
 前原国交相は、上級審の判断を見定めた上で対応する考えを示している。

There reportedly is an alternative plan to build a tunnel through the mountains in the area instead of building a bridge across the bay. Preserving a beautiful landscape while revitalizing a community at the same time is no easy task, but the prefectural and municipal governments may need to reconsider their development plan to achieve this goal.
 山側にトンネルを通す代替案もあるという。景観を保全しながら、地域を振興させていく。難しい課題だが、これを実現するために、自治体は計画を再検討することも必要ではないだろうか。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 3, 2009)
(2009年10月3日01時27分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2009-10-03 11:34 | 英字新聞

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