安保改定50年 日米同盟深化へ戦略対話を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jun. 20, 2010)
Talks needed to boost Japan-U.S. alliance
安保改定50年 日米同盟深化へ戦略対話を(6月19日付・読売社説)

Saturday marked the 50th anniversary of the automatic ratification of the revised Japan-U.S. Security Treaty--without the approval of the House of Councillors--amid demonstrators surrounding the Diet building.
 デモ隊が国会議事堂を取り囲む混乱の中、新しい日米安全保障条約が自然承認されてから、19日で50年を迎えた。

There is no question that the Japan-U.S. alliance has played an important role in ensuring peace, stability and economic prosperity in Japan and the rest of Asia during the past half century.
 この間、日本とアジアが平和と安定を確保し、経済的な繁栄を享受してきたことに、日米同盟が重要な役割を果たしてきたことは論をまたない。

Setting aside the way the revised treaty was approved by the Diet, the political decision of the Cabinet of then Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi to revise the treaty and maintain the bilateral alliance was correct.
 安保条約の国会承認の手法はともかく、安保条約を改定し、日米同盟を堅持するという当時の岸内閣の政治的判断は誤っていなかったと言えよう。

 「60年安保」は、国際的には東西冷戦、国内では保革対決の時代だった。戦後復興から高度成長期に入る直前で、多くの国民には悲惨な戦争体験の記憶が残る中、国論は大きく割れた。
The conflicts surrounding the 1960 security treaty mirrored the Cold War between the East and West abroad and a showdown between conservatives and reformists at home. At that time, this country was completing its postwar reconstruction and entering a period of high economic growth. Public opinion was split over the revised security treaty, with memories of tragic war experiences still fresh in many people's minds.

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Govt appeals to public
 ◆条約改定は正しかった◆

The government and the Liberal Democratic Party, which were promoting revision of the security treaty, appealed to the public by promising to correct inequalities of the original security treaty signed in 1951 and clarify the U.S. obligation to defend Japan. A group opposing revision, including the Japan Socialist Party, insisted the pact be abolished, saying it would make it easier for Japan to become embroiled in a war.
 政府・自民党など条約改定推進派は、1951年の旧安保条約の不平等性を是正し、米国の日本防衛義務を明確化すると訴えた。社会党など反対派は、「日本が戦争に巻きこまれやすくなる」などと条約破棄を主張していた。

Lawmakers of the ruling and opposition parties, as well as the general public, spent a huge amount of political energy on the issue. After the LDP steamrolled a bill to ratify the revised security treaty through the House of Representatives on May 19-20, 1960, large-scale demonstrations against the security treaty took place.
 与野党の国会議員から一般国民まで多大な政治的エネルギーが費やされた。5月19~20日の自民党の強行採決による条約批准案の衆院通過を受けて、抗議デモ・集会が大規模化していく。

In mid-June of the year, Michiko Kanba, a 22-year-old University of Tokyo student, was crushed to death during a clash between demonstrators and riot police, and a planned visit to Japan by then U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower was canceled. The Yomiuri Shimbun and six other Tokyo-based newspaper companies issued a joint appeal to the demonstrators that said, "Abandon violence and protect parliamentarism."
 6月中旬には、東大生・樺美智子さんが圧死し、アイゼンハワー大統領の来日が中止となった。読売新聞など在京新聞7社が「暴力を排し議会主義を守れ」と題する異例の共同宣言を発表した。

Kishi announced his resignation right after the security treaty went into effect on June 23, 1960.
 岸首相は、6月23日の条約発効の直後に退陣を表明した。

The Japan-U.S. alliance, which was born after many difficulties were overcome, effectively staved off the military threat posed by the former Soviet Union during the Cold War.
 多くの困難を経て生まれた日米同盟は冷戦中、旧ソ連の軍事的脅威への有効な歯止めとなった。

In the post-Cold War period, the bilateral alliance functioned as a deterrent to new threats from regional conflicts, including that on the Korean Peninsula, weapons of mass destruction and terrorism. By redefining the Japan-U.S. Security Treaty, Japan and the United States came to regard their alliance as a kind of public asset to bolster the stability of Asia-Pacific region.
 冷戦後も、朝鮮半島などの地域対立や大量破壊兵器、テロなど新たな脅威の抑止力として機能した。「安保再定義」により、日米同盟はアジア・太平洋の安定を支える「公共財」と位置づけられた。

The Japanese and U.S. governments later reviewed the Guideline for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation, increasing the effectiveness of the bilateral alliance.
 日米防衛協力指針も見直され、同盟の実効性が高まった。

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Reconsidering relationship

South Korea and Southeast Asian nations were now seriously concerned about the deterioration in the Japan-U.S. relationship caused by former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama's poor diplomacy--evidence that other Asian nations also perceive the Japan-U.S. alliance as a public asset.
 鳩山前首相のお粗末な外交による日米関係の悪化を、韓国や東南アジア各国が本気で懸念していたのは、日米同盟を「公共財」とみなしている証左でもある。

Ironically, Hatoyama's words and deeds, which could have been interpreted as distancing Japan from the United States gave many people a good opportunity to reconsider the Japan-U.S. relationship. It is vital for us to think about how to deepen and develop the Japan-U.S. alliance based on history and past developments in the relationship between the two countries.
 前首相の「離米」ともとれる言動は皮肉にも、多くの国民が日米関係を再考する機会となった。過去の歴史と経緯を踏まえ、この先、同盟をどう深化、発展させるかを考えることが肝要だろう。

 ◆「普天間」を前進させよ◆

The issue of relocating functions of the U.S. Marine Corp's Futenma Air Station is the first thing that needs to be worked on.
 最初に取り組むべきは、米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題だ。

In doing so, the administration of Prime Minister Naoto Kan needs to realize not only that the relocation plan returned to the original plan--building alternative facilities near the Henoko district of Nago, Okinawa Prefecture--but also that the situation has become much worse, as many Okinawans have turned against the plan.
 その前提として、菅政権は、現状は、沖縄県名護市辺野古周辺に代替施設を建設する現行計画に戻っただけではなく、地元が反対に回った分、現行計画よりも格段に悪い状況に陥ったことを自覚する必要がある。

First of all, the government should properly implement the Japan-U.S. agreement reached late last month, which says the location of the alternative facilities and the method for building runways will be decided by the end of August. It also is important to patch up strained relationships with Okinawa Prefecture and the Nago city government, and make tenacious efforts to seek acceptance of the plan.
 まず、8月までに代替施設の位置や建設工法を決定するとの5月末の日米合意をきちんと履行することが求められる。沖縄県や名護市との関係を修復し、粘り強く理解を求める努力も大切だ。

In November 2003, when he was president of the Democratic Party of Japan, Kan said it was possible to maintain the security of the Far East without U.S. Marine Corps bases and troops being stationed in Okinawa Prefecture.
 菅首相は、民主党代表だった2003年11月、「米海兵隊基地と兵員が沖縄にいなくても極東の安全は維持できる」などと発言したことがある。

Kan has clarified he will adhere to the Japan-U.S. agreement on the base relocation plan, but this should not be just ad hoc realism. To build a relationship of mutual trust with the United States, it is necessary for him to break away from his past position on the issue.
 現在は、日米合意を順守すると明言しているが、その場しのぎの「現実主義」であってはならない。米側と信頼関係を築くには、過去の立場との決別が必要だ。

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Making ties even stronger

Japan and the United States should continually hold strategic dialogues.
 日米両国が戦略的な対話を重ねることも重要である。

How can the two nations realize stability on the Korean Peninsula and persuade China to act responsibly as a major power politically and economically? How should Japan and the United States cooperate with each other and other nations to tackle such issues as global warming, the war on terrorism and disarmament?
 いかに朝鮮半島を安定させ、中国に政治、経済両面で大国としての責任ある対応を求めるのか。地球温暖化、テロとの戦い、軍縮などの課題に、日米がどう協力し、関係国とも連携するのか。

By deepening discussions on such issues and by Japan playing more active roles in the international community, the nation could build an even stronger alliance with the United States.
 こうした議論を深めつつ、日本が国際的な役割を一層果たしていくことが、より強固な同盟関係の構築につながろう。

Security is the core of the bilateral alliance. North Korea has been developing nuclear missiles and sank a South Korean patrol vessel in March. China has rapidly been building up and modernizing its military. The Chinese Navy is expanding its operations to wider areas, causing friction with neighboring nations. Japan cannot be so optimistic about its security environment.
 同盟の中核は安全保障にある。北朝鮮は核ミサイルの開発を進め、韓国軍哨戒艦を攻撃した。中国は急速に軍備を増強・近代化し、海軍の活動範囲を広げ、周辺国との摩擦を起こしている。日本の安保環境は楽観できない。

 ◆防衛協力強化が重要だ◆

Fully preparing for emergencies through close cooperation between the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces in peacetime will ultimately serve as a deterrence against such emergencies.
 自衛隊と米軍が平時から緊密に連携し、緊急事態に対処できる態勢を整えておくことが、結果的にそうした事態の抑止力になる。

The alliance sometimes is compared to riding a bicycle: The inertia of a bicycle will carry it forward, but unless we pedal, the bike will eventually slow down and fall.
 同盟関係は時に、自転車の運転に喩(たと)えられる。
 慣性力が働いている間は自転車は前に進むが、きちんとペダルをこぎ続けなければ、いずれ失速し、最後は倒れてしまう。

To maintain the alliance, it is vital for the two nations to set common goals and work hard together to achieve them. It is also indispensable to make ceaseless efforts to settle pending issues one by one.
 同盟を維持するには、両国共通の目標を設定し、その実現に向けた共同作業に汗を流すとともに、両国間の懸案を一つ一つ処理していく不断の努力が欠かせない。

It is not enough to merely chant, "The Japan-U.S. alliance is the foundation of Japan's diplomacy."
 「日米同盟が日本外交の基軸」といった言葉を単に唱えるだけでは済まされない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 19, 2010)
(2010年6月19日01時33分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-06-20 07:59 | 英字新聞

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