君が代判決―司法の務め尽くしたか

この記事の骨子は多数決には賛成だが少数意見も尊重しなければならない、だと思います。
妥当な記事だと思いますが、皆さんのご意見はいかがでしょうか?
そもそも、思想・良心の自由を保障する憲法の条項をたてにして、厳かな儀式のとき騒ぐ人のほうがおかしい。
議論するのはかまわないが、儀式中、儀式の雰囲気を損なう行為はやめて欲しいものだ。
そういう人は、もともと教員には不向きなのだと考えます。
(スラチャイ記)

2011/06/02
--The Asahi Shimbun, June 1
EDITORIAL: Decision on 'Kimigayo' evades crucial question of minority rights
君が代判決―司法の務め尽くしたか

Supreme Court justices are allowed to write their own opinions on controversial cases that are separate from the court's majority opinion.
 最高裁の裁判官は、多数決で決まる法廷意見とは別に、個別意見を表明することができる。

Whether they express concurring or dissenting opinions, these statements help us better understand the court's position on a given issue by providing arguments and observations that are not included in the majority opinion.
結論に反対する内容ではなくても、最大公約数である法廷意見の足りない点を補い、意のあるところを説くことで、判決をめぐる議論と理解は深まる。

The Supreme Court ruled on May 30 that a Tokyo public high school principal who ordered faculty members to stand and sing the "Kimigayo" national anthem during a graduation ceremony did not violate Article 19 of the Constitution, which guarantees freedom of thought and conscience.
 卒業式などの君が代斉唱の際、都立学校の校長が教員に起立斉唱を命じても、思想・良心の自由を保障する憲法に違反しない――。

But the verdict was accompanied by lengthy opinions written by the justices.
そう述べた判決にも長文の補足意見がついた。

Presiding Justice Masahiko Sudo of the court wrote: "If teachers become fearful and suspicious of one another because the enforcement (of singing the national anthem) entails disciplinary measures against noncompliers, the spirit of education will die."
 「不利益処分を伴う強制が、教育現場を疑心暗鬼とさせ萎縮させることがあれば、教育の生命が失われる」

Sudo also called for the "utmost restraint" in the enforcement of this practice and any rendering of adverse dispositions.
「強制や不利益処分は可能な限り謙抑的であるべきだ」(須藤正彦裁判長)、

And Justice Katsumi Chiba noted, "It is important to create an environment in which any display of respect for the national anthem and the national flag will be spontaneous, not forced."
「国旗・国歌が強制的にではなく、自発的な敬愛の対象となるような環境を整えることが重要だ」(千葉勝美裁判官)。

We have repeatedly made the same arguments. The Supreme Court acknowledged in its majority opinion that the principal's order indirectly limited freedom of thought and conscience, but said that the constraint is permissible in view of the established history and meaning of the ceremony in question and the status of teachers as public servants.
 いずれも私たちが繰り返し主張してきたことと重なる。法廷意見も、職務命令が思想・良心の自由の間接的な制約になると認めた。そのうえで、長年の慣例や式典の意義、公務員の立場などを考えれば、そうした制約も許され得るとしている。

We should note that the highest court was not unconditional in ruling this case constitutional.
 手放し、無条件の合憲判断ではないことに留意しよう。

We stress this point to the nation's educational administrators, and especially to Osaka prefectural assembly members, who will be voting soon on a draft ordinance that would oblige teachers to stand during the singing of the national anthem.
教育行政に携わる人、そして起立条例案の採決が迫る大阪府議会の関係者は、判決の趣旨をしっかり理解してほしい。

But we are frankly disappointed with the Supreme Court, and we cannot trust it.
 一方で、最高裁の姿勢には疑念と失望を禁じ得ない。

The plaintiff, a former teacher, was reprimanded for refusing to stand just once.
 原告の元教員は1度だけ起立を拒み、戒告処分を受けた。

But even though he obeyed the principal's order later on so as not to further disrupt the ceremonies, he was refused re-employment as a contract worker when he reached his mandatory retirement age.
その後は現場を混乱させたくないとの思いで命令に従ったが、定年後の再雇用を認められなかった。

However, the school re-employed another teacher who had been disciplined much more severely for a different reason. This teacher had been suspended and had his salary cut.
ところが、別の理由で停職や減給などもっと重い処分を受けた教員は採用された。

The Tokyo District Court ruled that the school abused its discretionary power by treating the plaintiff unfairly in comparison with the other teacher, but this ruling was reversed by the Tokyo High Court.
The Supreme Court effectively upheld the appellate court's decision by examining only the constitutionality of the principal's order and not going into the appropriateness of the school's decision not to re-employ the plaintiff.
 一審の東京地裁は扱いの不均衡を踏まえ、裁量権の乱用があったとしたが、最高裁は職務命令と憲法の関係のみを論じ、不採用の当否は判断しなかった。結果として、原告が逆転敗訴した二審判決が確定した。

This was an important issue, and the Supreme Court could easily have addressed it, had it wanted to. But it did not, which forces us to conclude that it dodged the issue on purpose.
 最高裁にその思いがあれば審理できるにもかかわらず、そしてそれに値する重要な問題であるのに、あえて避けたとしか思えない。

In failing to come to the plaintiff's rescue, the Supreme Court undermined its own plausibility in its call for "careful consideration" of the matter in its verdict.
このようなケースにすら救いの手を伸べず、ただ判決文の中で「慎重な配慮」を求めても説得力に欠けよう。

The judiciary's important mission is to stand up for the minority by not being influenced by the wishes of the majority or prevalent social trends.
 多数者の意向や勢いに流されず、少数者を保護する。それが司法の大切な使命だ。

The legal profession must be especially thorough and discriminating when dealing with cases involving freedom of thought, conscience, expression or religious belief.
とりわけ思想、良心、表現、信教など精神的自由に関する分野では、厳格なチェックが求められる。

When a court of law abandons that responsibility, our society loses its diversity and will eventually decline.
 裁判所がその職務を放棄したとき、私たちの社会は多様性を失い、やがて色あせていく。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-06-03 08:27 | 英字新聞

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