日本が脱原発によりエネルギーを得るための朝日新聞5提言のすべて

朝日新聞社は7月13日に、日本が脱原発によりエネルギーを得るための、提言をしていますが、この提言は5部で構成されている大きなものです。
久しぶりに新聞記者の魂を見せてもらいました。
渾身の力作ということができます。
スラチャイも深く感動させられました。
で、ここに日本が脱原発によりエネルギーを得るための朝日新聞5提言のすべてを英日対訳で一括公開いたします。
第1部~第5部についてはリンク掲載ですが、第5部については、以下に全文も掲載いたします。
(スラチャイ記)

This is the all of a five-part editorial series proposing ways for Japan to achieve a society that does not depend on nuclear power generation for its energy supply.
(日本が脱原発によりエネルギーを得るための朝日新聞5提言のすべて。 trans. by srachai)

1) 提言 原発ゼロ社会―いまこそ
http://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-2b3e.htmlhttp://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-2b3e.html

2) 脱原発への道筋―高リスク炉から順次、廃炉へ脱原発への道筋―高リスク炉から順次、廃炉へ
http://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-34d3.htmlhttp://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-34d3.html

3) 廃棄物の処理―核燃料サイクルは撤退
http://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-6286.htmlhttp://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-6286.html

4) 自然エネルギー政策―風・光・熱 大きく育てよう自然エネルギー政策―風・光・熱 大きく育てよう
http://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-3781.htmlhttp://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-3781.html

5) 新たな電力体制―分散型へ送電網の分離を〈社説特集〉
http://kiyoshimatforklog.cocolog-nifty.com/blog/2011/07/post-b45a.html


2011/07/19
--The Asahi Shimbun, July 13
EDITORIAL/ Seeking a society without nuclear power generation: Let consumers regain leadership in developing energy policy.
新たな電力体制―分散型へ送電網の分離を〈社説特集〉

2011年7月13日21時45分

This is the last of a five-part editorial series proposing ways for Japan to achieve a society that does not depend on nuclear power generation for its energy supply.

* * *

Two key factors for producing necessary electricity while reducing our reliance on nuclear power are "distributed generation" and "the separation of generation and transmission."
 原発を減らしつつ、電力を確保する。それを実現させるキーワードは「電源の分散」と「発電と送電の分離」だ。

For decades, Japan has been building giant nuclear power plants near the seashore that send electricity over long distances to large cities that consume huge amounts of power.
 海岸近くに大規模な原発を何基も建設し、遠方の大消費地に電気を送る。

The disastrous accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant has dramatically demonstrated that such centralized power generation, which was promoted as the best approach to ensuring a stable power supply, could cause widespread power disruptions and enormous economic damage when a major disaster takes place.
今回の事故では、安定供給に向くとされた集中立地型がむしろ大規模災害時に大きなリスクとなることがあらわになった。

To create a power supply system less vulnerable to disasters and crises, it would be better to use distributed power sources with the help of independent local power generators instead of depending solely on existing regional utilities.
 災害や危機に強い電力体制をつくるには、既存の電力会社だけに頼らず多様な事業者に発電を担ってもらい、電源を分散させるほうがいい。

It would also help to expand the use of technologies, such as photovoltaics, to generate more power in small quantities close to where it is needed.
太陽光など消費地で発電する「地産地消」も広げたい。

Establishing a decentralized electricity generation system requires allowing various independent power suppliers to connect their facilities to the power grid on fair terms.
 そのためには、さまざまな発電業者が公平に接続できる送電網が不可欠だ。

Since 1995, Japan has been taking steps to liberalize power generation and throw its retail electricity market open to competition.
 日本では1995年以降、発電分野の自由化や、需要者に直接電気を売る小売り(配電)分野の市場開放を進めてきたが、

But the proposed separation of power generation and transmission has been on ice because of strong opposition from electric power companies.
発電と送電の分離は電力会社の強い反対で見送られた。

The existing large power utilities have been restricting connections to their networks of high-voltage transmission lines under the pretext of ensuring stable power supply.
 既存大手は「安定供給」を理由に自社の送電網への接続を厳しく制限し、

The fees charged on newly arrived independent power producers for using transmission lines are so high that they discourage new entries into the business.
送電網の使用料も新規参入者には高すぎる。

As a result, as of April, there were only 32 newcomers in the nation's electricity retail market, accounting for a puny 3 to 4 percent of the total power supply.
結果的に、電力小売市場の新規事業者は今年4月時点で32社、供給に占める割合も3~4%にとどまる。

We now need to find viable alternatives to nuclear power.
 今後は原子力に代わる電力を探さなければならない。

It is clearly necessary to make greater use of alternative power sources, such as renewable energy, small gas-powered turbines and surplus power from independent generators installed by companies and rooftop solar panels at households.
自然エネルギーや小規模なガスタービン、あるいは企業の自家発電設備や太陽光などの設備をつけた家庭から生まれる余剰電力といった多様な電源を、もっと活用する。

To promote such dispersed generation, transmission services should be separated from the production of electric power to ensure fairer operations.
 それには、送電部門を発電部門から切り離し、もっと公平に運用する体制を整えるべきだ。

That would increase competition among power generators and retailers, thereby helping to keep down electricity bills.
そうすれば発電業者や小売業者の競争を促すことにもなり、電気料金を抑制する効果も期待できる。

As a negative result of the virtual monopoly of regional power markets by big utilities, however, their transmission line networks are separated and not effectively interconnected with each other.
 ただ、地域独占の弊害から、送電網は電力会社ごとに事実上分断されている。

In addition, two different power frequencies have been used in this small country--50 hertz for eastern Japan and 60 hertz for western Japan--under an internationally unique policy that doesn't make any sense.
狭い日本の東と西で周波数が別々なのも、世界から見れば非常識だ。

Since electricity cannot be stored in large quantities, it is necessary to adjust output constantly to fluctuating demand.
 電気は大量に「ためる」ことができず、常に需要と供給の量を合わせないといけない。

This is a big challenge especially when dealing with alternative energy sources, which are susceptible to weather conditions.
 特に、自然エネルギーは気象条件に左右されやすい。

Since the possible locations for power generation using renewable sources are limited, it is also difficult to match supply with demand within an area served by an existing utility.
発電場所が限定されるため、既存の電力会社管内では需要とマッチしないという問題もある。

Expanding the scope of transmission operations to cover wider areas would increase options for supply-demand adjustments and make it easier to tap renewables.
 送電を広域化すれば、需給調整の選択肢が広がり、活用しやすくなる。

This would create a new power supply system based on a combination of dispersed generation and wide-area transmission.
「分散発電・広域送電」の考え方だ。

While it may be impossible to immediately create a fully integrated national grid that allows electricity to flow freely from anywhere in the country to anywhere else, it would be possible and beneficial to integrate the operations of the networks of transmission lines first in eastern Japan, which was directly hit by the March 11 disaster.
一度に全国網を構築するのは無理でも、まずは震災の直接的な影響を受けた東日本から送電網を一体運営してはどうか。

Utilities argue that since transmission services would not generate much profit, separating them from power generation would lead to reduced investment in transmission lines and thereby increase the risk of accidents.
 電力会社は「送電事業は薄利だから、分離すると設備投資がおろそかになり事故が起きやすくなる」と主張する。

But this problem could be solved by designing the system cleverly so that fees for using transmission lines will be reasonably based on the necessary costs.
Information about the costs should be fully disclosed for transparency.
 しかし、必要なコストをきちんと情報開示し、送電網の使用料に反映できる方式にするなど、制度設計を工夫すれば対応は可能だ。

In Europe and the United States, power generation and transmission are already managed and operated under separate systems or by different companies.
 欧米ではすでに発電部門と送電部門を別の管理体系にしたり別会社化したりしている。

Especially in Europe, efforts toward wider transmission have resulted in benefits like stimulating new investment and nurturing power interchange businesses.
特に欧州では広域化を促進することで、新規投資や電力融通ビジネスが盛んになる効果も上げている。

There are, however, many challenges to overcome before such a system can be created.
 課題は少なくない。

It must now be assumed that more power consumers in Japan will generate electricity on their own or supply power to each other in a limited scale.
 これからは需要側が自ら発電したり、限られた範囲で電気を融通しあったりすることも想定しなければならない。

But the existing transmission lines are designed for one-way flows of electricity from large power plants to consumers.
ところが、これまでの送電網は大規模発電所から需要側への一方通行を前提につくられている。

The proposed policy change would require building a smart grid based on new technology that can handle flows of electricity in the opposite direction without affecting the voltage or frequency.
逆の潮流を受けても電圧や周波数に影響が出ないよう、新たな技術を使って賢い送電網(スマートグリッド)にする必要がある。

Another key issue for debate on the idea is who should be in charge of operating the grid.
 送電網の経営主体も議論になろう。

Should it be the government, or one company devoted to the task?
国有化がいいのか、一企業の経営とするのか、

Or some other organization like an association of power consumers?
利用者組合などの組織に委ねるか。

The establishment of a new regulatory and supervisory body for promoting power interchange among generators and ensuring fair connections to the grid should also be considered.
電力融通や公平な接続を促す規制・監視機関も考えなければいけない。

These reforms cannot be carried out overnight.
 こうした改革は、一朝一夕にはできない。

In Japan's progress toward a new power supply system, one area where efforts will produce immediate results is demand-side reform for energy and power conservation.
新たな電力体制に向けて、すぐに効果をあげられるのは、省エネ、節電といった「需要側の改革」だ。

A crucial factor here is how households use electricity.
 たとえば、家庭での電気の使い方。

The share of households in the nation's overall demand for electricity has been rising steadily in the postwar era and now stands at one-third.
電力需要に占める家庭消費の割合は戦後ほぼ一貫して伸び続け、今では約3分の1を占める。

When it is necessary to curb power consumption during peak demand hours, as in the current power crunch, efforts by households to cut their power use are vital.
今回の電力不足のように、ピーク時の需要抑制が必要な場合、家庭内での電力調整は、きわめて重要だ。

It is urgent to introduce smart meters--electrical meters that track and show how much power is used by which electric appliances in what hours of the day.
 どんな時間帯にどんな機器でどれだけ電気が使われているかがわかる「スマートメーター」の導入を急ぎたい。

Sharing such information with power suppliers would make it possible to set different electricity rates for different hours and power sources and thereby increase the use of home electric appliances in hours when demand and prices are lower.
 電力を供給する側とデータを共有すれば、時間別や電源別の料金体系を設け、電力の安い時間帯にうまく家電を動かすような工夫も可能になる。

With its sophisticated technologies for information and communication devices and electronic equipment, Japan has the potential to pursue world-leading projects for smart use of power.
情報家電や電子機器に強い日本だからこそ、世界に先駆けた試みができるはずだ。

Given the costs of dealing with the nuclear disaster, rising raw materials prices and the planned introduction of a feed-in tariff program to mandate utilities to buy electricity from renewable sources at fixed prices, electricity bills are likely to trend up for the time being.
 原発事故の処理や資源価格の上昇、自然エネルギーの固定価格買い取り制度の導入などを考えると、電力料金は当面、値上げの方向にある。

It is time for Japan to adopt a coherent strategy for smarter and more efficient use of electricity, with conservation as its centerpiece, as a way to reduce the burden on households and the economy as a whole.
 家計や経済への負荷を減らす意味でも、節電を軸に賢い電気の使い方を追求するときだ。

We need to break with the longstanding habit of using electricity as much as we want while depending totally on the regional utilities for power supply.
電気を使いたいだけ使い、供給は「お任せ」にしてきた姿勢を改めなければならない。

The power supply reforms to reduce the nation's dependence on nuclear power and replace the centralized generation approach with a decentralized system based on distributed energy facilities would mean a shift from a society dependent on a limited number of power suppliers to a self-sustaining one.
 「脱原発」「集中から分散へ」という電力改革は、依存型のエネルギー確保から、

Every member of society would be involved in the pursuit of the best ways to produce, distribute and consume power.
だれもがエネルギーのあり方にかかわる自立型社会への転換を意味する。

In other words, this will be a process for consumers to regain leadership in the development of the energy policy.
エネルギー政策の主権を、消費者側に取り戻す作業と言い換えてもいい。

In such a society, consumers will examine the costs and risks involved in various power generation methods, select power sources on their own and shoulder the burden of necessary costs.
 発電にかかるコストやリスクを吟味し、自分たちで電力を選び、必要な費用であれば負担していく。

This is an evolutionary path for democracy.
それは民主主義を深化させる道でもある。

These reforms would lead to new lifestyles, new jobs and new ways of working.
 改革の先に、新しい生活や新しい仕事、働き方の芽がある。

It is time for us to take the step in a new direction instead of fearing change.
変化をおそれるより、一歩を踏み出すときだ。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-07-21 03:50 | 英字新聞

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