エジプト議会 民主化遂行で経済立て直しを

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Feb. 4, 2012)
Egypt must rebuild economy by building democracy
エジプト議会 民主化遂行で経済立て直しを(2月3日付・読売社説)

An important milestone has been achieved in Egypt's progress toward democracy.
 民主化への重要な一里塚である。

An election for the People's Assembly, or lower house of parliament, has been carried out, with a political party founded by the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamic fundamentalist organization, emerging as the biggest winner.
 エジプトで、人民議会(下院)選が行われ、イスラム原理主義組織「ムスリム同胞団」が設立した政党が第1党となった。

After the overthrow in February last year of the regime of President Hosni Mubarak, the transfer to civilian government has been progressing under the provisional rule of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.
 1年前のムバラク政権崩壊後、軍最高評議会の暫定統治下で、民政移行プロセスが進行中だ。

Another major advance for democratization is the fact that the National Emergency Law, which granted overwhelming powers to the police, was lifted in principle for the first time in about 30 years in the wake of the lower house election.
下院選後、警察に絶大な権限を与えた「非常事態法」が約30年ぶりに原則的に解除されたのも前進だ。

The Muslim Brotherhood had been banned from engaging in political activities under the Mubarak regime, although it garnered considerable public support through its benevolent activities, such as providing medical services to the poor.
 ムスリム同胞団は、貧困層への慈善や医療活動などで社会に浸透していたが、旧政権下で弾圧され政治活動を禁じられていた。

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Thorny road to power shift

This time, however, it was free to take part in the parliamentary election, fielding candidates of its own party, the Freedom and Justice Party.
 しかし、今回は自前の政党「自由公正党」を押したてて議会選に臨むことができた。

The party won nearly a half of the lower house seats, and its secretary general has been elected speaker of the lower chamber.
下院では定数の半数近い議席を獲得し、党幹事長が下院議長に選ばれた。

Nevertheless, there are a mountain of challenges that must be resolved before the shift from the provisional rule to a civilian government can be realized.
 とはいえ、民政移行まで踏むべきステップは多い。

If the ongoing election of the upper house, or Shura (Consultative) Council of the legislature, is concluded in February as scheduled, the two chambers are to set up a 100-member panel to draft a constitution. The draft of the new constitution will then be put to a national referendum, and a new president is to be elected by the end of June.
 いま行われている上院選が2月中に終われば、議会は憲法起草委員会を設置する。新憲法案が国民投票にかけられ、6月末までに大統領選が行われる予定だ。

There are fears that the process of writing the new constitution may be hard going, as it will face such issues as the powers and duties of the president and parliament, what role the military should play and to what extent the constitution should reflect Islamic teachings.
 憲法の中身をめぐっては、大統領と国会の役割や、軍の位置づけのほか、イスラム色がどこまで反映されるか、などが議論のポイントで、難航する恐れもある。

This is because while many young Egyptians have been seeking an immediate end to military rule, many others still pin their hopes on the military as a source of stability during the transition.
 国内には、若者層を中心に軍政の即時終結を求める声もあるが、安定を保障する存在として軍に信望を寄せる国民も多いからだ。

How relations develop between the military and the Muslim Brotherhood is said to be of key significance to Egypt's political future.
 軍とムスリム同胞団の関係が、今後の政治動向のカギを握ると言えよう。

If the two remain hostile to each other, as they did in the Mubarak era, the country's politics can hardly move forward.
旧政権下のように、互いに敵対していては、政治は前に進むまい。

Reconciliation and compromise between the two forces are indispensable for averting confusion.
混乱の回避へ、歩み寄りが求められる。

The military and the Muslim Brotherhood also have a responsibility to buckle down to the task of rehabilitating the Egyptian economy.
 軍とムスリム同胞団には、経済再建に取り組む責任もある。

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Islamic strength on rise

The economic downturn in Egypt ever since last year's political upheaval has been serious, resulting from such causes as sharp declines in the number of tourists.
 昨年の政変以降、観光客が激減するなど、経済の落ち込みは深刻だ。

The military rulers have acknowledged the need for support from the International Monetary Fund and have entered negotiations with the IMF on specific aid plans.
軍政は、国際通貨基金(IMF)による支援の必要性を認め、協議に入った。

The Muslim Brotherhood is committed to efforts to make Islamic values compatible with a market economy.
 ムスリム同胞団は、イスラムの価値観と市場経済の両立を目指し、

For example, it has indicated it is in favor of adopting a policy of exempting foreign tourists from the Islamic ban on drinking.
外国人観光客にまで禁酒を強いるような戒律の強制はしない方針を示唆している。

This can be taken as a sign of pragmatism on the part of the Muslim Brotherhood in light of the importance of tourism to the Egyptian economy.
エジプト経済における観光の重みを踏まえた、現実路線の表れに違いない。

In parliament, the Freedom and Justice Party is reportedly groping for ways to formulate an alliance with secular political parties.
 議会では、自由公正党は世俗派政党との連携を模索中だ。

Attention is being paid to whether the FJP and secular parties can reach an agreement on basic policy matters.
基本政策で合意はできるのかどうか。

In the Middle East and North Africa, where the storm of transformations called the "Arab Spring" has been blowing, the power of Islamist forces has been on the rise along with moves for democratization.
 「アラブの春」と呼ばれる変革の波に洗われる中東・北アフリカ地域では、民主化に伴い、イスラム主義勢力が台頭している。

The Muslim Brotherhood's moves from now on will likely serve as a litmus test about whether democracy can take root in these regions.
エジプトのムスリム同胞団の動向は、この地域で民主化が定着するか否かを占う試金石になろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 3, 2012)
(2012年2月3日01時19分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-02-05 02:52 | 英字新聞

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