「ほっ」と。キャンペーン

水説:ビスマルクの年金=潮田道夫

(Mainichi Japan) February 16, 2012
Bismarck's pension system
水説:ビスマルクの年金=潮田道夫
 <sui-setsu>

The world's first modern pension system was introduced by Chancellor of the German Empire Otto von Bismarck in the 19th century. The move was designed to propitiate the German people at a time when the newly forged empire was trying to stamp out the rising appeal of socialism.
  年金制度は19世紀プロイセンのビスマルク首相にさかのぼる。台頭しつつあった社会主義勢力を弾圧する一方、年金で国民を懐柔した。有名な「アメとムチ」政策のアメ。

Bismarck's pension system was based on the assumption that workers would pass away just a few years after retirement in their mid-50s on, according to Michael W. Hodin, a member of the U.S. Council on Foreign Relations.
 米外交問題評議会のマイケル・W・ホーディン氏(人口問題担当)によれば、「ビスマルクモデルは人々が50代半ば、あるいはその後半まで働いた後に引退し、その後数年間でこの世を去るというシナリオを前提にしていた」(フォーリン・アフェアーズリポート11年2月号)。

Since people at the time had a shorter lifespan, the government did not have to spend much money on pension benefits. One theory has it that Bismarck even set up the system with the aim of diverting part of the pension premiums to help finance Germany's hefty military expenditures.
 当時の人々の寿命は短かったから、国は年金をたいして払わなくても済んだ。一説には、ビスマルクは積み立てた年金を戦費に回すのが狙いだった、ともいう。

In the United States, President Franklin D. Roosevelt introduced a pension system in 1935 under the Social Security Act. Under the system, pension eligibility started at 65. However, since the average lifespan in the country was 61 at the time, only those who lived very long lives were around to collect.
 米国ではルーズベルト大統領が1935年社会保障法で年金制度を導入した。この年金も支給開始年齢は65歳。当時の平均寿命は61歳であり、例外的に長生きした人でないと年金をもらえなかった。

University of Tokyo professor Fumiaki Kubo says pension systems were originally set up to support those who lived longer than average. In other words, pension systems were part of policy measures to care for those who grew too old to work.
 久保文明東大教授の説くところでは、年金制度の目的はそもそも平均寿命を超えて生きてしまった人々の面倒を見るためであった。つまりは働けないほどの老人向け施策だったわけだ。

Currently, the average lifespan of a Japanese woman is 86.39 years, while that of a Japanese man is 79.64. If the spirit of Bismarck's pension system were applied, Japanese women would become eligible for benefits at the age of about 88, and men at around 82.
 日本人の平均寿命はいま、女性が86・39歳、男性が79・64歳だ。ビスマルク流にやると、年金の支給開始は女性で88歳ぐらい、男性で82歳ぐらいということになろう。

Bismarck's and Roosevelt's systems would not be worthy of the term "pension" as it is understood today.
 ひどいね。ビスマルクにしろルーズベルトにしろ、彼らの年金は今日的感覚では年金の名に値しない。

The social security programs we now have are far better than those introduced by these two bygone leaders, but may also be a bit too generous.
 私たちの社会保障制度はビスマルクやルーズベルトよりはるかに充実している。しかし、少々、気前が良すぎるのかもしれない。

Japan can sustain its pension programs right now because the ratio of premium-paying workers to pensioners is three to one. However, the ratio will be one to one in the not-too-distant future. If social programs remain as they are now, this will put an unsustainable burden on workers paying premiums.
 日本はいま現役3人に対し高齢者1人の人口比率だからなんとかなっているが、早晩この比率は1対1になる。制度が現状のままなら現役の負担が大き過ぎて、社会保障制度は維持できない。

Considering these problems, we can no longer laugh at Bismarck's stinginess. Any great social security program is meaningless unless it is sustainable.
 こうなってみると、ビスマルクのけちを笑っている場合でない。維持できなければどんなに立派な社会保障制度をつくっても無意味である。

The government's plan to reform the tax and social security systems together, which has created great confusion and disturbance in the Diet, is aimed at reducing costs and increasing income. Nevertheless, discussions are focused excessively on a consumption tax hike to increase revenue while failing to come up with concrete cost reduction ideas.
 いま国会でもみくちゃになっている「税と社会保障の一体改革」。「出を制して入るを図る」が万古不易の再建策のはずだが、「入る」の消費増税だけが突出して、削るほうが甘い。

For example, Japan has delayed a decision on raising the pension eligibility age, though Germany has hiked its eligibility age from 65 to 67. In other words, Japanese political leaders are avoiding a decision that would be highly unpopular among the elderly.
 例えば年金支給開始年齢。あのドイツでさえ65歳を67歳にすることにしたのに、日本は先送り。一事が万事。年配層に嫌われるようなことから逃げまくっている。

Bismarck says, "People never lie so much as after a hunt, during a war or before an election."
 ビスマルクが言っている。「人がウソをつくのは狩りの後、戦争の最中、そして選挙の前」

(By Michio Ushioda, Expert Senior Writer)
毎日新聞 2012年2月15日 東京朝刊
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by kiyoshimat | 2012-02-18 07:38 | 英字新聞

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