「ほっ」と。キャンペーン

衆院選抜本改革 現行制度の問題点を洗い出せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Feb. 28, 2012)
Scrutinize problems of current lower house election system
衆院選抜本改革 現行制度の問題点を洗い出せ(2月27日付・読売社説)

To carry out drastic reform of the House of Representatives election system, it is indispensable to scrutinize the current system's problems and reflect on what politics should be.
 衆院の選挙制度の抜本改革には、現行制度の問題点を洗い出し、あるべき政治の姿を考える作業が欠かせない。

In connection with the issue of rectifying the vote-value disparity, discussions continue in the Diet to drastically change the existing system, which combines single-seat constituencies and proportional representation, in addition to cutting the number of lower house seats.
 国会では、「1票の格差」の是正問題を契機に、定数削減と合わせて、小選挙区比例代表並立制を抜本的に改めるべきだとの議論が続いている。

A suprapartisan parliamentary league of lawmakers seeking drastic reform of the lower house election system, for example, decided during its general meeting on Thursday that it will aim to introduce a multiple-seat constituency system.
 超党派の「衆院選挙制度の抜本改革をめざす議員連盟」が23日の総会で、中選挙区制の導入を目指すと決めたのもその一つだ。

More than 150 lawmakers from the ruling and opposition parties are members of the group, with former Liberal Democratic Party Secretary General Koichi Kato and Democratic Party of Japan Supreme Adviser Kozo Watanabe serving as representatives.
 議連は、加藤紘一・自民党元幹事長と渡部恒三・民主党最高顧問が代表世話人を務め、150人超の与野党議員が参加している。

It is worth noting that the idea of reinstating the multiple-seat constituency system, which New Komeito and other political parties sought in the past, has become a suprapartisan movement involving members of the DPJ and the LDP.
 かつて公明党などが求めていた中選挙区制の復活が、民主、自民両党を含む超党派の動きに広がったことは注目されよう。

Discussion documents prepared by the league argue that under the current single-seat constituency system, candidates only voice opinions that go down well with everyone.
 議連が作成した討議資料は、現行の小選挙区制度について、「候補者が万人受けする主張ばかりをする」と指摘している。

Because candidates need support from a wide range of people to be elected, the league says they tend to get caught up in populism. It added that candidates' policy expertise becomes impaired and their quality as a whole deteriorates.
 当選に幅広い支持が不可欠なため、候補者がポピュリズムに陥りやすいというものだ。政策的専門性が低下し、「候補者の資質が全体として劣化」したという。

===

Status quo yields lopsided results

In addition, as seen in the resounding victory of the LDP in the 2005 lower house election and of the DPJ in the 2009 lower house election, the documents also say the single-seat constituency system tends to make the number of seats won by a party either extremely large or very small, making politics rather unstable.
 また、2005年と09年の衆院選で自民、民主各党がそれぞれ圧勝したように、獲得議席の振れ幅が極端になり、「政治をかえって不安定化する」とも明記した。

We share such concerns. However, the most important thing is whether reinstating the multiple-seat constituency system will lead to improved politics.
 問題意識は共有できる。肝心なのは、中選挙区制の復活が政治の改善につながるかどうかだ。

The multiple-seat constituency system, which was in place until 1993, drew much criticism. Under that system, political parties and policies were not given top priority when election campaigns were fought. Instead, candidates competed by doing favors for voters, which costs a lot of money. In the LDP, faction-led politics dominated. It was also pointed out that a change in government was difficult to achieve.
 1993年まで実施されていた旧中選挙区制には、多くの批判があった。選挙が政党・政策本位ではなく、個人のサービス競争に陥り、カネがかかる。自民党では、派閥政治がはびこった。政権交代が困難だとも指摘された。

The situation of politics and money has changed remarkably in the past 20 years, as has the status of faction-led politics, but a return to the harmful effects experienced in the past would be unworthy to be called reform.
 この約20年間で、政治とカネや、派閥政治のあり方は様変わりしたとは言え、かつての弊害を繰り返すのでは改革に値しない。

===

Many ideas in the arena

The league is discussing a plan to reduce the number of lower house seats from the current 480 to either 400 or 450. It is also considering creating constituencies with two to five seats and a new voting method. These ideas need to be thoroughly discussed.
 議連は、総定数を現行480から400または450に減らし、2人区~5人区を設ける案や投票方式を工夫することなどを検討している。十分な吟味が必要だ。

For drastic reform of the lower house election system, discussions are under way on various measures beside the proposed multiple-seat constituency system. Revisions to the current system are one idea. Another is a system combining single-seat constituencies and proportional representation with a new method of allotting proportional representation seats in a way beneficial to parties that hold a smaller number of seats from single-seat electoral contests. A proportional representation system is also being discussed.
 抜本改革に向け、中選挙区制以外にも、現行制度の修正や小選挙区比例代表連用制、比例代表制なども議論の対象となっている。

One thing that must be kept in mind is that election system reform should make it difficult for a divided Diet to occur so political confusion will not be created. It is also important to think about the respective roles shouldered by the lower house and the House of Councillors, and create a lower house election system suitable for the lower house's role.
 忘れてならないのは、衆参ねじれを起きにくくし、政治の混乱を招かないという視点だ。衆参の役割分担を考え、それにふさわしい選挙制度にすることも大切だ。

It is also necessary to deepen discussions by setting up an election system council of experts, rather than simply leaving the matter to politicians, who tend to care most of all about the rise and fall of their own parties.
 自党の消長を第一に考えがちな政治家任せにせず、有識者による選挙制度審議会を設けて論議を深める必要もあろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 27, 2012)
(2012年2月27日01時08分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-02-29 07:02 | 英字新聞

<< G20声明 欧州は自前の安全網... 風知草:どこで間違えたか=山田孝男 >>