自民新憲法原案 「緊急事態」を軸に改正論議を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Mar. 5, 2012)
Talks on revising Constitution should focus on emergencies
自民新憲法原案 「緊急事態」を軸に改正論議を(3月4日付・読売社説)

The ruling and opposition parties should take this opportunity to resume discussion on what shape the nation should take.
 与野党が、「国のかたち」の論議を再開する契機とすべきである。

The Liberal Democratic Party's Headquarters for the Promotion of Revision to the Constitution has finalized a draft of its second set of proposals for rewriting the Constitution. The draft is a revised version of proposals the LDP announced in 2005.
It will work out a definite plan in April through discussions within the party.
 自民党の憲法改正推進本部が、第2次憲法改正草案の原案を決定した。2005年に発表した新憲法草案の改訂版だ。党内論議を経て、4月に成案をまとめる。

We strongly praise the party's proactive stance toward revision of the Constitution.
 自民党の憲法改正に積極的な姿勢を、まずは高く評価したい。

Noteworthy in the draft is a new provision concerning times of emergency that gives the prime minister the authority to declare a state of emergency in such cases as an armed attack on the country, terrorism or a massive natural disaster.
 原案で目を引くのは、緊急事態条項を新設したことだ。武力攻撃やテロ、大規模災害などの際、首相は「緊急事態」を宣言できる。

The new provision would also enable the cabinet to create ordinances that have the same force and effect as laws, and enable the prime minister to issue orders to the heads of local governments accordingly during emergencies.
法律と同じ効力を持つ政令の制定や、地方自治体の首長に対する首相の指示なども可能になる。

This provision also is meant to prevent such extrajudicial measures from violating people's fundamental human rights without justification.
 この条項には、超法規的措置によって基本的人権が無原則に侵害されることを防ぐ意味もある。

It had been pointed out as problematic that the Constitution does not contain provisions about dealing with emergencies. Most countries have such clauses in their constitutions.
 ほとんどの国の憲法に規定されている緊急事態への対処に関する条文が、現行憲法にないことは以前から問題視されていた。

===

Learn from March disaster

Taking into account the lesson of the Great East Japan Earthquake, the government's crisis-control capabilities must be enhanced. It is an appropriate judgment to include stipulations about states of emergency.
 東日本大震災の教訓を踏まえ、政府の危機対処能力を高めねばならない。緊急事態条項を盛り込むのは、当然の判断である。

With regard to national security, the draft preserves the war-renouncing Article 9, while adding one sentence that states the first paragraph of Article 9 "shall not prevent Japan from invoking the right to self-defense."
Concerning the Self-Defense Forces, the draft says a military will be maintained for self-defense.
 安全保障に関しては、9条の「戦争放棄」は堅持し、「自衛権の発動を妨げるものではない」との一文を加えた。自衛隊は「自衛軍」として保持するとした。

On the subject of collective self-defense, the draft appears to clarify the position that the Constitution can be interpreted to allow the nation to exercise its collective self-defense.
 集団的自衛権について「解釈上は、行使できる」との立場を明確にしたものと言えよう。

The government's odd interpretation of the current Constitution as saying the nation "possesses the right to collective-self-defense but cannot wield it" has long been a major hindrance to boosting the effectiveness of the Japan-U.S. alliance.
 「集団的自衛権は保持しているが、行使できない」という政府のおかしな現行憲法の解釈が、日米同盟の実効性を強化する上で大きな足かせになってきた。

It is a matter of urgency to enable the nation to wield its right to collective self-defense, without waiting for the Constitution to be revised.
憲法改正を待たずとも、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にすることは急務だ。

It is disappointing that the draft lacks a provision calling for a review of the two-chamber system of the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors.
 衆参の二院制を見直す条文がない点は物足りない。

===

Diet system causes turmoil

The presence of the "too powerful upper house," which has almost the same functions as the lower house, has prevented the passage of bills and caused disarray in the divided Diet, as seen in the frequent submissions of censure resolutions.
衆院とほぼ同様の権能を持つ「強すぎる参院」の存在が、ねじれ国会では、法案成立を妨げ、問責決議の連発などの混乱も招いている。

Under the current Constitution, bills that have passed the lower house but failed to pass the upper house need to pass the lower house a second time with at least a two-thirds majority. Paralysis of the Diet's functions must be prevented by easing the requirement, for instance, from two-thirds to a simple majority.
 衆院の再議決要件を「3分の2以上の多数」から「過半数」に緩和することなどで、国会が機能不全に陥らないようにすべきだ。

The draft also said the number of seats in electoral districts for both houses of the Diet shall be fixed by "considering comprehensively" not only the population but also such factors as geography and transportation infrastructure. Depending on its interpretation, it might allow further widening of gaps in the value of a vote among constituencies.
 原案は、選挙に関して各選挙区の定数を人口だけでなく地勢、交通などを「総合的に勘案」して定めるとしている。その解釈によっては、「1票の格差」の拡大を許すことにならないか。

In the Diet, both houses' deliberative councils on the Constitution began discussions last autumn. The Democratic Party of Japan's research panel on the Constitution also said it would discuss the state-of-emergency stipulations and the ideal form of the two-chamber system.
 国会では、憲法改正を審議する衆参の憲法審査会が昨秋、活動を始めた。民主党の憲法調査会も緊急事態条項や二院制のあり方などを検討するという。

There should be more than a few points of discussion on which the ruling and opposition parties can compromise. We hope they will discuss the issues vigorously.
 与野党が歩み寄れる論点は、決して少なくないはずだ。精力的に議論を重ねてもらいたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 4, 2012)
(2012年3月4日01時14分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-03-06 07:50 | 英字新聞

<< 風知草:果断さについて=山田孝男 社説:震災1年/1爪痕と再出発... >>