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ドイツの脱原発―素早い行動が生む果実

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 27
EDITORIAL: Japan can learn from Germany's phaseout of nuclear energy
ドイツの脱原発―素早い行動が生む果実

It has been almost a full year since Germany chose to return to the path of phasing out nuclear power.
 ドイツが脱原発の道に回帰して、間もなく1年になる。

The country’s goal is to close all of its 17 reactors by 2022. And its industry and society are all moving toward that same goal, creating new jobs and businesses on the way.
 10年後の22年までに17基の原発をすべて閉鎖する。そんなゴールを見すえて、産業界や社会が一斉に動き、新たな雇用やビジネスが生まれている。

Japan can learn much from Germany’s example: to act promptly based on a clear-cut government goal and plan, and seize the fruits of those labors.
 政府の明確な目標と計画のもと、素早い行動で果実を手にする――。脱原発に向けて、日本が学ぶべきことは多い。

What symbolizes Germany's change is the action taken by its industry.
 ドイツの変化を象徴しているのは産業界の動きだ。

Germany's major utilities, E.ON AG and RWE, canceled their participation in Britain's nuclear plant construction project, despite the fact they had already set up a joint venture. The decision was made as they took into account the rising construction costs and the mounting risks involving the nuclear power industry. In line with government policy toward electricity deregulation, they also separated their power distribution sections within Germany.
 電力大手のエーオンとRWEは、英国の原発建設計画からの撤退を決めた。すでに合弁会社を設立していたが、今後の建設費増や原発事業のリスクを重視した判断だ。政府の電力自由化策に応じて、ドイツ国内の送電線部門も切り離した。

German electronics titan Siemens has also ceased its involvement in nuclear power. The company is starting to transform itself into a "green" company, investing in R&D for new power grids and power storage, as well as in offshore wind farms. Siemens no doubt decided to pursue these measures on expectations of profits.
 電機大手シーメンス社も、原子力事業から完全撤退した。新しい送配電システムや蓄電の研究開発、洋上風力発電所への投資を進め、「グリーン企業」への変身を図りつつある。そこに新たな収益源を期待しているからだろう。

The economic effects of the spread of renewable natural energy, such as wind, solar and biomass, deserve close attention. According to the German government's estimates, natural energy created 380,000 jobs, including work in the manufacturing to distribution services.
 注目したいのは、風力や太陽光、バイオマスなどの自然エネルギー普及による経済効果だ。ドイツ政府の推計では、ものづくりから流通サービス業まで約38万人の雇用が生まれた。

There are also many projects seeking to create communities with high-level energy efficiency by improving insulation in buildings and homes. Measures to save electricity and conserve energy are blended quite naturally into daily life, which then stimulates the economy. There seems to be a positive cycle here.
 ビルや住宅の断熱性を向上させて、エネルギー効率の高い街をつくる取り組みも広がっている。節電や省エネが生活に無理なくとけ込み、経済も活性化する好循環がそこに見える。

In the aftermath of the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, eight reactors in Germany, mainly old ones, were stopped. As a result, the ratio of nuclear-generated electricity fell to the 10-percent range. The government's goal is to increase the percentage of natural energy, which rose to about 20 percent as a result of the fall in nuclear power, to 35 percent by 2020.
 福島第一原発の事故を受け、古い原発を中心に8基の運転が停止された。この結果、原発の発電量は昨年、全体の10%台に下落した。逆に約20%まで増えた自然エネルギーの比率を、20年までに35%水準に引き上げるのが政府の目標だ。

However, the swift pace of this shift has exceeded expectations and is also causing confusion. One example is the lowering of buyback rates for solar energy.
 ただ、予想以上の変化の早さは混乱も生んでいる。太陽光発電の買い取り価格の引き下げはその一例だ。

The spread of solar energy has been buoyed by the buyback program whereby utilities purchase the generated renewable energy at a fixed rate. However, excessive investment has forced consumers to pay higher electricity bills, so the buyback price is due to be cut by more than 20 percent.
 自然エネルギーによる発電を固定価格で電力会社に買い取らせる仕組みは、その普及を支えてきた。しかし投資が過熱し、電気料金を通じて消費者の負担増を招いたため、買い取り価格を2割以上引き下げる予定だ。

To spread the use of renewables at a steady pace, it is necessary to stay abreast of the detailed changes in power generation costs and adjust the buyback rates accordingly. This would prove to be a valuable lesson for Japan as its buyback program begins in earnest in July.
 自然エネルギーを着実に広げるには、発電コストの変化をきめ細かく把握し、買い取り価格を点検していく必要がある。今年7月から買い取り制度が本格スタートする日本にとっても、他山の石となろう。

Germany is stimulating its economy and society by setting a firm goal for the phaseout of nuclear power and deftly combining that with a support program for renewable energy. That is the kind of invention and action that Japan needs.
 脱原発への確固たる目標に自然エネルギーへの支援策をうまく組みあわせて、経済や社会の活性化につなげる。日本に必要なのはそんな発想と行動だ。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-06-03 08:01 | 英字新聞

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