リオ+20 環境を守る責任は新興国にも

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jun. 25, 2012)
Emerging economies must accept environmental responsibilities
リオ+20 環境を守る責任は新興国にも(6月24日付・読売社説)

The summit ended as an illustration of how difficult it is for the international community to make truly concerted efforts to tackle global environmental problems.
 地球環境問題に国際社会が一致協力して対処することの難しさを際立たせる結果となった。

The U.N. development summit to establish sustainable development goals, known as Rio+20, ended in Rio de Janeiro with the adoption of an agreement confirming the importance of making environmental protection consistent with economic growth.
 ブラジルのリオデジャネイロで開かれていた「国連持続可能な開発会議」(リオ+20)は、環境保全と経済成長を両立させる重要性を確認した文書を採択して閉幕した。

The summit, held 20 years after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, was attended by heads of state and government officials of about 190 countries and territories, who discussed environmental protection measures for the next 10 years.
 1992年の国連環境開発会議(地球サミット)から20年が経過したのを受け、約190か国・地域の首脳や政府関係者らが今後10年間の環境保護策を協議した。

Yet it must be said that the summit produced extremely poor results.
 だが、成果は極めて乏しかったと言うしかない。

The leaders failed to decide on a global schedule for shifting to a "green economy," the biggest focus of the summit, leaving each country to tackle environmental problems on its own.
 最大の焦点だった「グリーン経済」に移行する世界共通の工程表策定はできず、各国の自主的取り組みに委ねることになった。

Building a "green economy," which means shifting to a low-carbon society by reducing dependence on oil and other fossil fuels while at the same time fostering industries related to environmental protection, is a task the whole world faces.
 石油など化石燃料への依存度を減らし、環境関連産業を育成しながら低炭素社会へと転換していく「グリーン経済」の構築は、世界全体の課題と言えよう。

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An old divide between nations

At the summit, Japan and other industrialized countries asserted that all countries must aim at shifting toward a green economy. But developing countries opposed the idea, saying it would hinder their economic growth.
 会議では、日本など先進国が「全ての国が移行を目指すべきだ」と主張し、途上国は「経済成長の足かせになる」と反発した。

Thus the summit ended up achieving no progress on the confrontation between developed and developing economies.
先進国と途上国が対立する構図は結局、変わらなかった。

Following the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, landmark accords such as the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have been concluded, with countries making efforts to pursue the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities."
 地球サミットを機に、気候変動枠組み条約などが締結され、各国は「共通だが差異ある責任」を原則に対策を進めてきた。

The principle is based on the notion that, historically, global environmental degradation has mainly stemmed from the economic activities of the developed countries, making it necessary for the industrialized countries to assume heavier responsibilities for environmental problems.
 環境破壊を招いたのは、先進国の経済活動であり、環境保護について、先進国は途上国より重い責任を持つという考え方だ。

This notion was later put into concrete form in the Kyoto Protocol based on the U.N. framework convention, under which only the developed countries are held responsible for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
 それを具体化したのが、気候変動枠組み条約に基づく京都議定書だ。先進国だけが温室効果ガスの排出削減義務を負っている。

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China joins big-league emitters

Yet the global situation has changed greatly. Greenhouse gas emissions from such emerging economies as China and India, which have achieved rapid economic growth, continue to increase, with China surpassing the United States to become the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitter.
 しかし、状況は大きく変わった。急速な経済発展を遂げた中国、インドなど新興国の排出量が増え続け、中国は米国を抜いて世界一の排出国となった。

Despite these facts, Chinese Prime Minister Wen Jiabao insisted during the latest summit talks on defining his country as a "large developing country," maintaining China's stance that the developed countries must assume responsibility for environmental problems.
 それにもかかわらず、中国の温家宝首相は今回の会議でも、自国を「大きな途上国」と位置付け、先進国が責任を果たすべきだとの姿勢を崩さなかった。

It is obvious that to protect the global environment, such emerging economies as China have to assume their own responsibilities, commensurate to their economic scale.
 地球環境を守るためには、中国など新興国も応分の責任を負わねばならないのは明らかだ。

At the summit, leaders agreed to reinforce the U.N. Environment Programme.
 会議では、国連環境計画(UNEP)の強化で合意した。

But more than the expansion of a U.N. organization that is preoccupied with coordinating conflicting interests among member countries, what is needed is for developed countries to encourage newly emerging economies and developing countries to more actively tackle environmental problems.
だが、各国の利害調整に追われる国連機関の拡充よりも、必要なのは新興国、途上国に積極的な取り組みを促す先進国の働きかけだ。

Foreign Minister Koichiro Gemba has made clear Japan's intention of extending financial assistance of 6 billion dollars (about 477 billion yen) to developing countries over three years from fiscal 2013. It is also important for Japan to take the lead in offering technological assistance, such as energy-saving technologies, to developing countries.
 玄葉外相は、3年間で60億ドル(約4770億円)の途上国支援を表明した。日本が率先して、省エネルギーなどの技術支援を進めることも大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, June 24, 2012)
(2012年6月24日01時28分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-06-26 07:09 | 英字新聞

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