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衆院選政権公約 実現可能な政策へ論議深めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 23, 2012)
Deeper discussions needed for realistic manifestos
衆院選政権公約 実現可能な政策へ論議深めよ(8月22日付・読売社説)

 ◆ポピュリズムは排除すべきだ◆

Unless policy pledges are feasible, politics will be unable to make any progress. This is the bitter lesson learned from the failed manifesto of the Democratic Party of Japan.
 実現可能な公約でなければ、政治は前に進まない。破綻した民主党政権公約(マニフェスト)の苦い教訓である。

With the dissolution of the House of Representatives and a general election expected to take place "sometime soon," ruling and opposition parties are gearing up for the election. The major issue is how the DPJ will revise its manifesto, a document cynically called "a synonym for lies" that has disgraced the party.
 「近いうち」に衆院解散・総選挙が行われると予想される中、与野党は選挙準備に力を入れ始めた。大きな課題は「ウソの代名詞」と揶揄(やゆ)されるほど民主党がその名を貶(おとし)めたマニフェストをどう作り直すかだ。

The main campaign issues in the next lower house election are shaping up to be the consumption tax rate increase, Japan's possible participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade negotiations, and the nation's nuclear and energy policies.
 次期衆院選では、消費税率引き上げ、環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)参加問題、原子力・エネルギー政策などが争点になろう。

===

Specify fiscal resources
 ◆確たる財源を明示せよ◆

Policies quickly cobbled together just before an election tend to become "discount sales" that smack of populism and suck up to voters' interests. We hope each party holds down-to-earth discussions, even during the current Diet session, to come up with realistic policies.
 選挙直前に急ごしらえした政策は有権者受けを狙って、大衆迎合主義(ポピュリズム)色の強い“バーゲンセール”となりがちである。各党とも今国会中から地に足のついた議論を重ね、現実的な政策を掲げてもらいたい。

The most glaring fault of the DPJ manifesto for the 2009 lower house election was the party's insistence that--without mentioning a consumption tax rate hike--it could find 16.8 trillion yen in fiscal resources to implement its policy pledges through such measures as overhauling budget allocations. There was never any prospect this could be achieved.
 民主党の2009年衆院選マニフェストが抱える最大の欠陥は、消費税率引き上げに言及せず、確たる見通しもないのに16・8兆円もの財源を予算組み替えなどで捻出できると主張したことだ。

The DPJ must now be painfully aware just how poorly thought-out its manifesto was.
 いかにずさんな公約だったか、民主党は痛感しただろう。

Referring to the manifesto for the next lower house election, Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda said at a general meeting of DPJ lawmakers of both Diet chambers on Aug. 8, "It's necessary to thoroughly and carefully discuss these issues within the party and make innovative efforts to ensure these discussions are 'visible.'"
 野田首相は8日の民主党両院議員総会で、次期衆院選マニフェストに言及し、「党内で大いに丁寧な議論をし、それを『見える化』する工夫が必要だ」と訴えた。

Noda's argument sounds reasonable, but it also sounds like words of reflection. It is essential that many lawmakers are involved in the manifesto-compiling process and fight the election with a shared awareness.
 もっともな主張だが、反省の弁でもある。多くの議員が公約作成に参画し、共通認識を持って選挙戦に臨むことは重要だ。

There are probably concerns that if party members openly discuss policy matters, they would reveal their cards to other parties. But this process would be a yardstick voters could use when deciding who deserves their ballot.
 政策をオープンに議論すれば、他党に手の内を明かすことになるとの懸念はあるだろう。だが、そうした経緯も含めて、有権者の判断材料になる。

If the lower house is not dissolved during the current Diet session, both the DPJ and the opposition Liberal Democratic Party should make their presidential elections, both scheduled for September, an opportunity to set the course for their election manifestos.
 今国会で衆院解散がなければ、民主、自民両党は9月の党代表選と総裁選を、それぞれ公約の方向性を打ち出す場とすべきだ。

We also think it necessary to again consider what the point of an election manifesto is. A party that is in opposition may not know well how the system works until it takes power. Unpredictable events may occur, such as major disasters and abrupt changes in economic and international situations.
 政権公約とは何なのか、改めて考え直すことも必要ではないか。野党であれば、政権を担当するまで分からないこともあろう。経済、世界情勢の激変や大災害など予見できない事態も起こりうる。

A party in power should flexibly revise or withdraw its policy pledges if its manifesto obviously becomes unrealistic or difficult to achieve.
 公約が現実にそぐわない、あるいは実現困難と判明した段階で、臨機応変に修正、撤回するのが、政権党の仕事である。

Rather, it is preferable to carry out policies that are necessary and serve national interests, even if they run counter to the manifesto. In this instance, reasons for the policy change must be explained to the people.
 たとえマニフェストに反していても、必要な政策、国益に資する政策を実現することは、むしろ望ましい。その際、有権者に対して、政策変更の理由をきちんと説明しなければならない。

Needless to say, it is essential for politicians to deliver on their pledges. But it is insincere to insist on adhering to policies that are no longer useful. It benefits nobody to fall into a trap of "manifesto supremacism."
 政治家にとって、公約順守が大事であることは言うまでもないことだ。だが、用をなさない公約を金科玉条のごとく守ると言い張るのは不誠実だ。「マニフェスト至上主義」に陥ってはならない。

 ◆参院選との関係明確に◆

A manifesto is supposed to be part of a cycle: parties try to achieve their stated aims, and voters evaluate the party's level of achievement in the next election. However, the DPJ manifesto has caused fundamental problems in state politics.
 マニフェストは、「政党が実現に努力し、有権者はその達成度を次の選挙で評価する」というサイクルが基本だ。ただし、国政の場合には根本的な問題がある。

===

Problems in DPJ manifesto

The first problem involves a House of Councillors election.
 第一に、参院選との関係だ。

After acknowledging its visions had been overly optimistic, the DPJ revised part of its 2009 election manifesto when it drew up the party's pledges for the 2010 upper house election. In connection with the consumption tax, the 2010 campaign manifesto stated, "Suprapartisan discussions will be started on drastic reform of the tax system, including the consumption tax."
 民主党は、09年衆院選マニフェストの見通しが甘かったことを認めて、10年の参院選公約では、その一部を修正した。消費税については「消費税を含む税制抜本改革に関する協議を超党派で開始する」と明記している。

But afterward, the promises for the 2010 election were put to one side and debate focused on the advisability of sticking to the manifesto for the lower house election.
 だが、その後、参院選公約は議論にならず、消費税の記載のない衆院選マニフェストを守るかどうかに焦点が当たっている。

How can the manifesto for a lower house election be tied to campaign pledges for an upper house election? The DPJ must clarify its stance on this point as well as its handling of the pledges for the upper house election in which it suffered a major setback.
 マニフェストと参院選公約はどういう関係にあるのか。参院選で敗北した時の公約の扱いも合わせて位置づけを明確にすべきだ。

A consumption tax increase was a central point of contention in the DPJ presidential election last summer. Noda was elected after clarifying his position in favor of a consumption tax hike. This also marked a policy change by the party.
 昨年夏の民主党代表選で、消費税率引き上げは焦点の一つだった。野田首相は、消費増税を明確にして勝利し、代表に就任した。これも党の大きな政策転換だ。

Voters cast ballots after not only measuring the extent to which a manifesto has been achieved, but also evaluating whether such a policy change is worthwhile.
 国民が選挙で審判を下すのは、マニフェストの達成度だけではなく、こうした政策変更の是非も含む党の姿勢や実績だろう。

===

Diet will stay divided
 ◆ねじれ国会が前提だ◆

Secondly, the next lower house election will inevitably be fought on the premise that the Diet will remain divided.
 第二に、次期衆院選は、衆参ねじれ国会を前提とした戦いにならざるを得ないことである。

This is because neither the DPJ nor the LDP holds a majority by itself in the upper house. No matter which party wins the lower house poll, it will need to form a coalition with a party--or parties--with similar policies to form a stable government after the election.
 参院では、民主、自民両党とも単独過半数を得ていない。どちらの党が勝っても、選挙後、政権を安定させるには政策の近い党と連立を組まねばなるまい。

Cooperation from opposition parties will be crucial for achieving policy goals.
 政策を実現するには、野党の協力も欠かせない。

It is natural for parties to advocate their policies in lower house elections, but in view of the likelihood of a coalition government and a divided Diet, it is not realistic to give specific promises, such as setting deadlines for implementing policies.
 衆院選で自党の政策を主張するのは当然だが、連立やねじれの状況を考えれば期限などを具体的に約束するのは現実的ではない。

We urge all parties to compile campaign pledges for the next general election without pursuing populist lines so they can take responsibility for Japan's future.
 次期衆院選の公約は、各党が大衆迎合に走らず、日本の将来に責任を持てるよう作成すべきだ。

Voters, for their part, must understand fully that there are limits to the implementation of campaign pledges.
有権者も、公約には限界があることを十分理解する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 22, 2012)
(2012年8月22日01時51分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2012-08-24 05:51 | 英字新聞

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