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ドイツ「脱原発」 再生エネ普及に高いハードル

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Jan. 17, 2013)
Spread of renewable energy faces many hurdles
ドイツ「脱原発」 再生エネ普及に高いハードル(1月16日付・読売社説)

Many obstacles must be surmounted before the nation can introduce renewable energy, such as wind and solar power, on a full scale. Japan should learn from Germany's trial-and-error approach.
 風力や太陽光など再生可能エネルギーの本格的普及へハードルは高い。日本はドイツの試行錯誤に学ばねばならない。

Germany has adopted a policy of ending nuclear power by abolishing all nuclear plants by 2022. Berlin pins its hopes on renewable energy as alternative power sources.
 ドイツは、2022年までの原子力発電所全廃を決め、「脱原発」を打ち出した。代替電力として再生エネに期待をかけている。

The main pillar of this policy to promote renewable energy in Germany is a fixed-price purchase system that was established in 2000. Under this system, power companies are obliged to purchase electricity generated from renewable energy sources at high fixed prices for a specific number of years.
 普及策の柱は、2000年に制定した再生エネの「固定価格買い取り制度」だ。電力会社が、再生エネの電力を一定年数、高値の固定価格で買い取る制度だ。

This resulted in a surge of companies entering the solar power generation and other renewable energy markets. The percentage of electricity generated by renewable energy sources to total electricity increased from 7 percent in 2000 to 20 percent in 2011.
 これによって太陽光発電などへ参入が急増し、再生エネが発電総量に占める割合は、00年の7%から11年の20%まで伸びた。

However, this has resulted in a continuous increase in electricity rates because the cost of purchasing electricity from renewable energy sources is added to the rates.
 問題は、買い取り費用を上乗せするため、電気料金の引き上げに歯止めがかからない点にある。

Germans naturally complained after it was announced in October last year that in 2013 their average annual electricity bills were expected to rise by about 100 euros, or about 12,000 yen, per household.
 昨年10月、13年の年間電気代が1世帯あたり100ユーロ(約1万2000円)程度上昇する見通しが発表されるや、国民の不満が一気に高まったのも当然だろう。

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Negative impact on business

Industrial circles also oppose the electricity rate hike because they are concerned about the negative impact the higher costs will have on their businesses.
 産業界も、料金引き上げに反発する。コスト高による経営への打撃を懸念するからだ。

Admitting shortcomings in the fixed-price purchase system, German Environment Minister Peter Altmaier announced in the same month that the government would drastically review its renewable energy policy. The system, therefore, is now at a major crossroad.
 アルトマイヤー独環境相は昨年10月、固定価格買い取り制度の欠点を認め、再生エネ政策を抜本的に見直す方針を表明した。制度は大きな岐路に立たされている。

The spread of renewable energy has not necessarily led to the promotion of related industries or employment in Germany. It is symbolic that German solar panel makers collapsed one after another when they lost out to cheap Chinese-made solar panels.
 再生エネ普及は、必ずしも関連産業の振興や雇用につながっていない。安い中国製の太陽光パネルに押され、ドイツのメーカーの破綻が相次いだことは象徴的だ。

Wind power generation, a major renewable energy source, also has problems. Wind power plants have been set up mainly in the northern part of Germany, but areas that consume large amounts of electricity are industrial zones in the south. New power lines from north to south are needed, but their construction faces difficulty due to opposition from environmental groups.
 主力の風力発電にも問題がある。発電所が設置されているのは主に北部で、電力の大量消費地は南部の工業地帯だ。北から南へ送電線の新設が必要なのに、環境保護団体の反対で難航している。

In Japan, a fixed-price purchase system was launched last July under the Democratic Party of Japan-led administration of then Prime Minister Naoto Kan. It was modeled on Germany's system.
 日本では民主党の菅政権が、ドイツを参考に再生エネの固定価格買い取り制度導入に踏み切り、昨年7月、制度はスタートした。

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Learn from Germany

However, there are a number of problems with a system in which power companies purchase electricity from renewable energy sources at prices higher than normal for a maximum of 20 years. If the system is only advantageous to companies able to purchase a large quantity of solar panels, technological innovation will suffer. Revision of Japan's system, based on Germany's situation, is an urgent task.
 しかし、最長20年間も通常より高い固定価格で買い取る仕組みには問題が多い。安価な太陽光パネルを大量に購入する企業が有利になるだけでは、技術革新も進みようがない。ドイツの現状を踏まえ、制度修正が急務である。

The German government allows nine nuclear reactors to continue operating after confirming their safety, even though public opinion supports the abolition of nuclear power plants in the wake of the crisis at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. Germany's stable power supply is supported by electricity imported from neighboring countries and by ensuring that nuclear reactors will operate for nearly 10 more years.
 独政府は、福島第一原発の事故で世論が「脱原発」に傾いた中でも、安全性を確認した上で、原発9基の稼働を続けている。近隣諸国から電力は輸入できるし、あと10年近く原発を動かすことで、電力の安定供給を支えている。

In Japan, only two nuclear reactors are operating. Stable power supplies may suffer a blow unless the government quickly reactivates safe reactors.
 日本では、稼働中の原発は2基だけだ。政府が安全な原発の再稼働を急がなければ、電力の安定供給体制が揺らぐ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 16, 2013)
(2013年1月16日00時15分 読売新聞)
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by kiyoshimat | 2013-01-18 06:18 | 英字新聞

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