ハーグ条約 子供の利益守る制度を築け

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Mar. 1, 2013)
Establish systems to protect children under Hague treaty
ハーグ条約 子供の利益守る制度を築け(2月28日付・読売社説)

The government must establish proper legal and support systems to protect the interests of children involved in custody battles as a result of failed international marriages.
 子供の利益が損なわれないよう、政府は適切な法制度と支援体制の整備に努める必要がある。

When Prime Minister Shinzo Abe met with U.S. President Barack Obama during his recent visit to the United States, Abe promised that Japan would soon join the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which establishes rules regarding international child custody disputes.
 安倍首相は、国際結婚の破綻に伴う子供の連れ去りに対応する「ハーグ条約」への早期加盟を、日米首脳会談でオバマ大統領に約束した。

The convention is now regarded as international law with 89 signatories, including the United States and many European countries. Japan, the only Group of Eight nation that has not joined the convention, should step up its efforts to sign onto it.
 この条約には、欧米を中心に89か国が参加しており、国際ルールとして定着しつつある。主要8か国(G8)で唯一未加盟の日本も締結を急がねばならない。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner, New Komeito, have agreed to submit a bill seeking Diet approval for Japan to join the treaty and a related bill. The main opposition Democratic Party of Japan advocated joining the convention while it was in power. We hope the ruling and opposition camps will work hard to achieve Diet approval and pass the related bill by the end of the current ordinary Diet session.
 自民、公明両党は、条約の承認案と関連する国内法案の国会提出を了承した。民主党も与党時代、加盟を推進する立場だった。与野党は今国会中の承認・成立に努力してもらいたい。

The convention stipulates, in principle, that if one parent takes a child under 16 years old out of the child's country of habitual residence without the other parent's permission, the child should be returned to the country upon the latter parent's request.
 条約は、16歳未満の子供が片方の親に連れ去られた場合、もう一方の親が返還を求めれば元の国に戻すことを原則としている。

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Bill addresses threat of violence

The related bill covers matters from domestic judiciary proceedings for issuing orders to return children in custody disputes to the country of their habitual residence, to the role of the Foreign Ministry, which will be in charge of the convention.
 関連法案は、子供の返還を命令するための国内の裁判手続きや、条約を所管する外務省の役割などについて定めるものだ。

A main point in Diet deliberations will be the conditions under which a parent can refuse to return a child.
 国会審議の焦点は、子供の返還を拒否できる条件である。

The bill proposes that a child should not be returned if the petitioner might commit violence against his or her former spouse, the child or people close to them. This condition has been included in consideration for those who are cautious regarding participation in the Hague Convention out of concern that a Japanese parent and their child could be exposed to domestic violence by the other parent when they return to the country of the child's habitual residence.
 法案は、返還の申立人が子供や元配偶者らに暴力を振るう恐れがある場合などと明記する。元の国に戻った親や子供が家庭内暴力(DV)にさらされるとして加盟慎重論があることに配慮した。

However, it is not easy for Japanese parents to prove they have been abused by their spouses or former spouses while living in the country of original residence. We hope Diet members will hold extensive discussions on whether this is an adequate precaution.
 だが、元の国でのDV被害を立証するのは容易ではない。この条件で十分なのかどうか、審議を尽くしてもらいたい。

In the United States and European countries, a parent can be prosecuted as a kidnapper for taking a child out of the country of the child's habitual residence without the other parent's permission. The parent could be arrested when he or she returns to the country with the child. How lawmakers will take these facts into consideration also will be a key matter for Diet deliberations.
 欧米では、子供を連れ去った親を「誘拐犯」として訴追する場合がある。子供を連れて戻れば逮捕されかねない。こうした事情をどう判断するかも重要である。

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Authorities have limited experience

The bill puts the Tokyo and Osaka family courts in charge of petitions for the return of children in international custody disputes--a measure apparently aimed to make it easier for judicial authorities to accumulate expertise by limiting the number of courts handling such cases because only dozens are expected to be filed a year.
 法案は、担当裁判所を東京と大阪の両家庭裁判所に限定する。返還の申し立ては年数十件程度と見られており、裁判所を絞ることで審理のノウハウが集積しやすくなると判断したのだろう。

Even if parents live outside Tokyo or Osaka, the bill allows them to attend hearings via telephone calls or videoconference from courts near where they live. It is noteworthy that the bill tries to reduce the burden on those living far from the urban areas.
 東京、大阪でなくても近くの裁判所から電話やテレビ会議での審理参加も認めるという。遠隔地に住む人の負担を抑えようという方針は評価したい。

When Japan joins the Hague Convention, some Japanese parents and their children will be involved in trials over custody in the children's country of habitual residence. Diplomatic missions abroad should help these Japanese nationals, for example, by introducing them to local lawyers or support groups.
 日本が条約に加盟すれば、返還命令を受けた日本人の親子が、元の国に戻って親権を巡る裁判に臨むケースも出てくる。在外公館は邦人支援の一環として、現地の弁護士や支援団体を紹介するなどの措置を取ることが望ましい。

The treaty will also be applied to children taken away by non-Japanese spouses. The Foreign Ministry should establish a system to support Japanese who seek the return of their children from other countries.
 一方、日本から海外に連れ去られる子供についても、条約は適用される。外務省は、子供の返還を求める日本人に対する支援体制を整えるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 28, 2013)
(2013年2月28日01時45分 読売新聞)
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by kiyoshimat | 2013-03-02 07:55 | 英字新聞

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