集団的自衛権 憲法改正前に解釈を変更せよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun May 3, 2013
Govt should change interpretation of right to collective self-defense
集団的自衛権 憲法改正前に解釈を変更せよ(5月2日付・読売社説)

In light of the deteriorating national security environment, changing the government's interpretation of the Constitution to allow Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense is becoming increasingly vital.
 日本の安全保障環境が悪化している今、集団的自衛権を行使できるように改める必要性は一段と増している。

The government has reinstated the Advisory Panel on Reconstruction of the Legal Basis for Security, which was established under the first cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. The panel is tasked with compiling a new proposal on legislation concerning national security.
 政府は2月、第1次安倍内閣で設置した「安全保障の法的基盤の再構築に関する懇談会」を再始動させた。秋に安全保障法制の新提言をまとめる予定だ。

In June 2008, it proposed the government's interpretation of the Constitution be altered to enable Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense. The proposal assumed four categories of contingencies, including an attack on U.S. military vessels on the high seas and the launch of a ballistic missile aimed at the United States.
 懇談会は既に2008年6月、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にするため政府の憲法解釈の変更を提言している。公海上で米軍艦船が攻撃されたり、米国へ弾道ミサイルが発射されたりした場合など、4類型の事態を想定したものだ。

If this country cannot stage a counterattack or intercept a missile in such circumstances, the Japan-U.S. alliance will be futile and it will be impossible to assure the safety of Japan.
 こうした事態に直面しても、日本が反撃・迎撃できないようでは日米同盟は成り立たないし、日本の安全を守ることはできない。

Last month Abe revealed his goal to make a decision on the right to collective self-defense before the government compiles the new National Defense Program Guidelines at year-end. It is the duty of politicians to allow the nation to exercise this right.
 安倍首相は先月、年末の新防衛大綱策定までに集団的自衛権の問題に結論を出す考えを示した。政治の責任で、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にしなければならない。

A recent spell of events have threatened Japan's peace, including North Korea's nuclear test and launch of a ballistic missile, and China's strengthening of its navy and air force and escalating provocative actions around the Senkaku Islands in Okinawa Prefecture. The Japan-U.S. alliance must be urgently reinforced to steel its deterrence capability.
 北朝鮮の核実験や弾道ミサイル発射、中国海空軍の装備増強や尖閣諸島周辺での活動活発化――。最近、日本の平和を脅かす事態が相次いでいる。日米同盟を強化し、抑止力を高めることが急務だ。

Ripe political environment

The Liberal Democratic Party argues that Japan should be allowed to exercise the right to collective self-defense, and Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) and Your Party are also receptive to the idea. Even Democratic Party of Japan Secretary General Goshi Hosono made some comments Tuesday that indicate the party would back allowing Japan to exercise the right.
 自民党は集団的自衛権の行使を容認すべきだと主張し、日本維新の会、みんなの党も前向きだ。民主党の細野幹事長も先月30日、容認する考えを示した。

Thus the political environment is becoming ripe for reviewing the awkward official interpretation of the Constitution on the right to collective self-defense. The official view now is that Japan has the right but cannot exercise it.
 集団的自衛権を「保有するが、行使できない」とする奇妙な政府の憲法解釈を見直すための政治的環境は整いつつある。

Abe has said he wants to make constitutional revision a major issue in the House of Councillors election in July. Specifically, he wants to relax the rules on amending the Constitution by revising Article 96 of the top law.
 首相は、憲法改正を7月の参院選の争点とし、まず96条の改正発議要件を緩和したい考えを示している。

If constitutional revision is promptly realized, it would make sense to recognize the nation's ability to exercise the right to collective self-defense at the same time.
憲法改正が早期に実現するなら、同時に集団的自衛権を容認するのが望ましいのは確かだ。

National security can't wait

Still, waiting to amend Article 9, which concerns the right, until after conditions are relaxed by amending Article 96 could take too long. Does Japan really have time to wait for two separate revisions of the Constitution?
 だが、96条の改正発議要件を緩和した後、自衛権に関する9条を改正するまでには相当な時間を要しよう。2回の憲法改正を待つ余裕が今の日本にあるだろうか。

It would of course be more practical to review the interpretation of the Constitution on the right before revising the top law.
 やはり憲法改正に先立ち、憲法解釈を見直すことが現実的だ。

However, any revision to the current interpretation could be reversed if Abe is replaced as prime minister. To stabilize the legal basis for national security, legislation must be improved to secure the interpretational change, such as the establishment of a basic law on national security.
 ただ、解釈変更の場合、首相が交代すれば、再び解釈を元に戻す可能性もある。安全保障の法的基盤を安定させるには、安全保障基本法の制定など、解釈変更を担保する法整備が欠かせない。

Further study is also required on the occasions that would justify exercising the right to collective self-defense and the permissible forms of this type of defense. Opinions may be split over whether Japan would have to join in an assault on an enemy country if the U.S. mainland was attacked, as in the case of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on U.S. soil.
 どんな場合に、どんな形で集団的自衛権を行使するかについても検討が必要だ。米同時テロのように、米本土が攻撃され、相手国を攻撃する際に日本が参加するかどうかは賛否が分かれよう。

Both the ruling and opposition parties should move the debate on the right to collective self-defense into high gear.
 与野党は、集団的自衛権の議論を本格化させる時である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 2, 2013)
(2013年5月2日01時04分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2013-05-04 07:47 | 英字新聞

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