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TPP交渉 前途に影落とす米大統領欠席

The Yomiuri Shimbun October 7, 2013
Obama’s absence overshadows TPP summit meeting in Bali
TPP交渉 前途に影落とす米大統領欠席(10月6日付・読売社説)

It has become uncertain whether a clear road map can be drawn up at an upcoming Trans-Pacific Partnership meeting to conclude negotiations on the multilateral free trade pact by the end of this year. The absence of U.S. President Barack Obama at the TPP summit will certainly cast a shadow over the negotiations.
 年内妥結へ道筋を付けられるかどうか、不透明である。オバマ米大統領の欠席が交渉に影を落とすのは避けられまい。

Obama said he will skip the TPP summit to be held Tuesday in Indonesia with the participation of 12 countries including Japan, Australia, Canada and the United States.
 日米、豪州、カナダなど12か国が、インドネシアで8日開く環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)交渉の首脳会合に、オバマ大統領が欠席する。

Obama has been aiming to have the TPP-member countries reach a broad agreement at the summit in Indonesia and to put priority on concluding the free trade pact by the end of this year. However, he had to give up the trip to Asia because some functions of the U.S. government have been shut down due to a standoff between the ruling and opposition parties that has left the passage of the federal budget for the new fiscal year stalled in Congress.
 大統領は年内妥結を最優先課題に掲げ、インドネシアでの「大筋合意」を目指してきた。だが、議会の与野党対立で新年度予算が成立せず、政府機能の一部停止に追い込まれたため、外遊を断念せざるを得なくなった。

The absence of the U.S. president was apparently unexpected, as he was supposed to chair the summit meeting and lead the negotiations.
 首脳会合の議長を務め、交渉を主導するはずだった大統領の不在は、予想外の展開と言える。

Meanwhile, a split between the United States and emerging economies has become increasingly apparent at a TPP ministerial meeting in Indonesia that serves as a prelude to the summit talks.
 首脳会合の前哨戦としてインドネシアで開かれている閣僚会合では、米国と新興国の対立が改めて浮き彫りになってきた。

Regarding intellectual property rights, the United States is demanding enhanced protection of new drug patents, while emerging countries such as Malaysia oppose the move, since inexpensive generic medicine made after patents for genuine drugs expire is widely used in those countries.
 「知的財産権」について、米国が新薬特許の保護強化を求めているのに対し、特許切れ後の安価な後発薬が普及するマレーシアなど新興国は反発を続ける。

Negotiations on a competition policy have also been stalled, after the United States demanded the governments of emerging economies be prohibited from subsidizing state companies and to provide the same conditions as private companies.
 米国などが新興国による国営企業への補助金を禁止し、民間企業との対等の条件を求めた「競争政策」も膠着(こうちゃく)状態だ。

Still, in negotiations on the environment, the United States demanded the abolition of subsidies for the fishing industry, but Japan’s opposition to the move is likely to be approved, according to informed sources.
 一方、「環境」で米国が要求した漁業補助金の原則禁止については、これに反対していた日本の主張が容認される方向という。

This shows that any negotiations under the TPP cannot be concluded at a pace set by the United States alone, but requires the broader support of other participants, even if Washington takes a tough stance.
 米国が強硬姿勢で臨んでも、支持が広がらなければ、米国ペースで決着できないことを示す。

Abolition of tariffs

A tough road appears to be ahead for the TPP talks, with negotiations on the abolition of tariffs, the biggest issue, postponed at the upcoming meeting.
 今回、最大の焦点である関税撤廃交渉が先送りされるのも、前途多難を予感させる。

Even if participating countries can reach a “broad” agreement over simplifying customs clearance procedures and other issues they can agree on, it cannot be called a real agreement as long as points of contention and areas that are difficult to negotiate are left out.
 通関手続きの簡素化など、各国が一致できた点を中心に「大筋合意」にこぎつけたとしても、難航分野や争点を外した内容では、真の大筋合意とは言えない。

The ruling Liberal Democratic Party maintains that five agricultural items, such as rice and wheat, should be exempted as sacred cows from the abolition of tariffs. Eventually, however, the United States and other participating countries are expected to strongly pressure Japan to liberalize its agricultural industry.
 自民党はコメ、麦など農産品5項目を関税撤廃の聖域とするよう主張している。いずれ、日本の農業分野の市場開放を米国などから強く求められる見通しだ。

The government is trying to limit the liberalization rate to just over 90 percent, with under 10 percent of the items remaining subject to tariffs. But a final battle over it has yet to come.
 政府は関税をなくす品目の割合を示す自由化率を90%超とする方向で模索しているが、ギリギリの攻防はこれからだろう。

Certainly, playing defense is not the only way to contribute to Japan’s national interests. The government must work out a strategy to boost Japan’s growth by tapping into the vitality of emerging Asian economies. Japan must quickly choose domestic products to be subject to liberalization and take measures to strengthen the competitiveness of the domestic farm industry.
 無論、守勢に立つだけが日本の国益ではない。アジアの活力を取り込み、成長に弾みをつける戦略を練る必要がある。自由化する品目の国内調整や、農業の競争力強化策も急がねばならない。

The upcoming summit will offer the Japanese side a chance to establish itself as a tough negotiator by winning concessions from the United States, which is pushing to conclude the TPP talks as soon as possible, and by reconciling the split between the United States and emerging countries. We expect Japan will make its presence felt at the summit meeting.
 早期決着を焦る米国から日本が譲歩を引き出したり、米国と新興国の対立を仲裁したりして、したたかに交渉する好機でもある。日本は存在感を示したい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 6, 2013)
(2013年10月6日01時31分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2013-10-08 06:50 | 英字新聞

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