「ほっ」と。キャンペーン

衆院選違憲状態 国会の裁量に配慮した最高裁

>まず各都道府県に1議席を割り振るとした「1人別枠方式」が事実上残っている

この方式だと格差是正は出来ません。
少数意見の尊重?
やはり「1人別枠方式」は廃止すべきでしょう。

ところで、円ドルが100円台を回復したという表現はいかがなものでしょうか?
自国の通貨の価値が下がって喜んでいるのは、日本だけくらいのものなのです。
これも行き過ぎたリフレ政策の影響だと思います。
困ったものです。

(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun November 22, 2013
Top court respects Diet’s discretionary power over vote-value disparity
衆院選違憲状態 国会の裁量に配慮した最高裁(11月21日付・読売社説)

 ◆与野党は選挙制度改革を急げ◆
It was a judgment by the nation’s top court that respected the Diet’s discretionary power over the election system to the maximum extent possible.
 選挙制度を巡る国会の裁量権を最大限に尊重した司法判断である。

The Supreme Court on Wednesday ruled that the House of Representatives election in December last year, in which the maximum disparity between the value of votes was 2.43-to-1, was in “a state of unconstitutionality.” The Diet must take the ruling seriously and swiftly tackle election system reform.
 「1票の格差」が最大2・43倍だった昨年12月の衆院選について、最高裁は「違憲状態」にあったとの判決を言い渡した。国会は判決を重く受け止め、選挙制度改革に取り組まねばならない。

“Equality in the value of voting rights is not the absolute standard to determine the framework of an election system,” the top court said.  最高裁は「投票価値の平等は選挙制度の仕組みを決定する絶対の基準ではない」と指摘した。

When deciding the zoning of single-seat constituencies, such factors as local demographics, transportation conditions and geographical circumstances must be taken into account and balanced with equality in the value of voting rights, it said.
 小選挙区の区割りを決める際には、「住民構成、交通事情、地理的状況なども考慮し、投票価値の平等との調和を図ることが求められる」との見解も示した。

‘Plus 0, minus 5’ praised
 ◆「0増5減」評価される◆

It was a practical and quite reasonable judgment in which the Supreme Court did not think improvement in the disparity of vote values in single-seat constituencies was an absolute necessity, but it recognized the need to take regional circumstances into consideration.
 「1票の格差」の是正を絶対視せず、地域事情に配慮する必要性を認めたのは、現実的かつ極めて妥当な判断である。

The Supreme Court previously judged that the 2009 lower house election was in “an unconstitutional state” when the maximum disparity in the value of votes between the least populous constituency and the most heavily populated district was 2.30-to-1. As the disparity was further expanded in the lower house poll in December last year, some experts predicted the top court would judge it was “unconstitutional.”
 最高裁は、最大2・30倍だった2009年の衆院選を「違憲状態」と判断していた。昨年の衆院選は格差が拡大していたことから、さらに踏み込み、「違憲」判断を示すとの見方もあった。

But was the disparity left untouched for an excessive period of time that could not be overlooked?
 見過ごせないほど長期にわたり格差が放置されていると見るのかどうか。

That was the deciding factor in its decision whether the 2012 poll was unconstitutional or in a state of unconstitutionality.
 それが、「違憲」か「違憲状態」かの司法判断を分けるポイントだった。

In addition to how long the disparity was left untouched, the Supreme Court said that factors such as the content of measures to remedy the disparity and the necessary procedures for such measures should also be taken into consideration from a comprehensive viewpoint. This judgment will be an important index for making court decisions on similar cases in the future.
 最高裁は今回、期間の長短だけでなく、是正措置の内容や、必要な手続きなどの事情を総合的に考慮すべきだとの判断も示した。今後の重要な指標となろう。

The latest top court decision praised the remedy of “increasing no seats, but decreasing five seats” in single-seat constituencies under the revised Public Offices Election Law that was passed by the Diet in June as “a step forward.” The disparity shrank to less than 2-to-1 through the measure.
 判決は、国会が今年6月に成立させた改正公職選挙法による「0増5減」の是正策について、「一定の前進」と評価した。これにより、格差が2倍未満に縮小されたからである。

To change the zoning of constituencies, it was necessary to go through such procedures as having the lower house electoral district council recommend a reform plan to the prime minister and revise the Public Offices Election Law based on that plan.
 区割りを変更するには、衆院選挙区画定審議会(区割り審)による改定案の首相への勧告と、それに基づく公選法改正などの手順を踏む必要があった。

It is therefore understandable that the top court realized that remedying the situation requires a certain amount of time.
 最高裁が、格差是正に一定の時間を要すると理解を示したのもうなずける。

Need to reflect regional voices
 ◆地方の声反映が必要◆

However, there are also questionable elements to the decision. In the distribution of the quota of seats for single-seat constituencies in each prefecture, the method of distributing one seat first to each prefecture is still effectively in practice. Touching upon this point, the Supreme Court said, “It is hard to say that the structural problems were definitively resolved.”
 判決には、疑問点もある。小選挙区の定数配分で、まず各都道府県に1議席を割り振るとした「1人別枠方式」が事実上残っていることについて、「構造的な問題が最終的に解決されているとはいえない」と言及した。

However, we feel that an attempt to transform the electoral system into one that does not reflect the rationale behind this formula could mean the opinions of voters in areas with a declining population are not properly represented in the results of lower house elections.
 しかし、この方式の考え方を完全に排除すると、人口減が進む地方の有権者の声は反映されにくくなるのではないだろうか。

Legislators must step up their electoral reform drive in response to the top court’s ruling.
 最高裁判決を踏まえ、問われるのは国会の一層の取り組みだ。

Instead of finding the vote-value disparities to be unconstitutional, the latest ruling found the gaps to be in a state of unconstitutionality, meaning these differences border on a violation of the vote-value equality guaranteed in the Constitution. However, lawmakers should not be allowed to become blase about debating how to reform the election system, citing the ruling as a reason for their neglect. The need to fundamentally reform the system remains unchanged, though the vote-value disparities fall only within a state of unconstitutionality.
 違憲ではなく、違憲状態と判断されたことを理由に、選挙制度改革論議を鈍らせてはならない。違憲状態でも抜本的改革が必要な状況に変わりはない。

The ruling and opposition parties should actively promote discussions on electoral reform. In debating reform plans, they must take to heart their responsibility to ensure that any changes in the system will help create a stable political environment in a manner that represents the will of the people.
 与野党は、精力的に議論を進めるべきである。その際、民意を集約し、安定した政治を実現する視点が欠かせない。

In early November, the ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party and New Komeito and the leading opposition party the Democratic Party of Japan held talks over lower house electoral reform. The parties agreed to reduce the number of lower house members while maintaining the current electoral system—known as the heiritsu formula, which combines single-seat constituencies with the proportional representation system—for the time being.
 自民、公明の与党と民主党は今月上旬、衆院選挙制度改革について、現行の小選挙区比例代表並立制を当面維持しつつ、定数を削減することで合意した。

 ◆定数削減を絡めるな◆
The ruling parties have said they will seek a 30-member reduction in lower house members to be chosen under the proportional representation system, while maintaining the current number of lawmakers in that chamber who are to be elected from single-seat constituencies.
This is in contrast to the proposal advanced by the DPJ, which has insisted on cuts in the number of lower house members in both categories. The ruling parties and the DPJ are no closer to reaching a compromise on the issue.
 だが、与党が、小選挙区の定数は維持して比例定数を30削減する方針を掲げているのに対して、民主党は小選挙区、比例定数の両方の削減を主張している。折り合いはついていない。

The LDP, Komeito and the DPJ have said they intend to start discussions with other parties soon. However, Nippon Ishin no Kai (Japan Restoration Party) insists on reducing the number of lower house members by a sizable 144.
 自公民3党は近く他の政党と協議を開始する方針だというが、日本維新の会は全体で144もの大幅な定数減を唱えている。

If Ishin no Kai sticks to its guns, it will be difficult to see an agreement emerge from among these parties. However, the total number of legislators in this country cannot be deemed too large if compared with those in other nations. Given this, there is no need to be too obsessed with reducing the number of Diet members.
 これでは合意は困難だ。そもそも日本の国会の定数は他国と比べても多すぎることはない。定数削減にこだわる必要はない。

Political parties should separate a proposed cut in lower house members from the overall issue. Instead, they should reconsider how the system should be operated and reformed.
 定数削減は切り離して、制度のあり方を考え直すべきだ。

Consensus difficult

It is difficult for political parties to reach a consensus about how to reform the election system, an issue bound to provoke conflicts of interest among them. We believe the ruling and opposition parties should first hurry to determine what kind of broad course should be adopted in the pursuit of fundamental electoral reform, a task that should be followed by a plan to commission an independent panel of experts to draw up specific reform proposals, as suggested by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe.
 各党の利害がぶつかる選挙制度について、政党間で合意することは難しい。与野党は抜本改革の大きな方向性を早急にまとめた上で、安倍首相が提案するような、有識者による第三者機関に具体案づくりを委ねるべきだろう。

Incumbent members of the lower chamber have a bit more than three years to serve in their positions if they complete their terms. They do not have enough time to take on electoral reform, considering the amount of time necessary for amending the legislation and making any changes in the system known to the public.
 衆院議員の残り任期が3年余りとなる中、法改正作業や新制度の周知期間を考慮すると、残された時間は十分と言えない。

We believe it will be a viable idea to basically maintain the current system, but work to correct the vote-value disparities, as proposed by the LDP, Komeito and the DPJ.
 自公民3党が主張しているように、現行制度を基本的に維持しながら、1票の格差の是正を図るのも一案だろう。

Electoral reform is not limited to the lower house. The House of Councillors is seeking to adopt a new election system, beginning with an election in 2016. In fact, lawsuits have been filed in several locations in the country over disparities in the value of votes cast in July’s upper house race. Two high courts and a branch of another high court are set to rule on these suits starting late this month. Their rulings are expected to affect the dispute over electoral reform related to vote-value disparities.
 参院も2016年の次期参院選から新制度に移行することを目指している。今年7月の参院選でも1票の格差を巡る訴訟が全国で提起され、各高裁・支部が今月末から順次判断を示す。それが改革論議にも影響を与えよう。

The ruling and opposition parties should think about what kind of role the lower and upper houses should play, while at the same time striving to make progress in promoting electoral reform.
 与野党は、衆参の役割分担を考慮し、同時に選挙制度改革を図るのが望ましい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2013)
(2013年11月21日01時36分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2013-11-23 07:19 | 英字新聞

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