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国の権限移譲 地方の意志と能力も試される

The Yomiuri Shimbun December 24, 2013
Local governments’ will, capabilities tested in transfer of state authority
国の権限移譲 地方の意志と能力も試される(12月24日付・読売社説)

It is essential to revitalize regional areas by eliminating the waste caused by dual administration of central and local governments and work out innovative measures to utilize the individuality and characteristics of each region.
 国と地方の二重行政によるムダの排除と、地域の個性や特色を生かした創意工夫を通じて、地方の活性化につなげることが肝要である。

The government has decided to transfer 48 types of clerical work and authority, including the expansion and management of national roads and first-class rivers under its direct control, to prefectures. It also plans to reexamine 18 clerical items, including provision of HelloWork’s job information.
 政府が、国直轄の国道・1級河川の整備・管理など48の事務・権限を政府から都道府県に移譲する方針を決定した。ハローワークの求人情報の自治体への提供など18項目の事務見直しも決めた。

It will submit related bills to the ordinary Diet session convening early next year to realize these goals.
 いずれも来年の通常国会に関連法案を提出し、実現を図る。

The transfer of authority on national roads and rivers has been left pending since the Council for Decentralization Reform, an advisory panel of the Cabinet Office, recommended this action in 2008. However, the Democratic Party of Japan-led government then came up with a wild scheme of “abolishing in principle” local agencies of the central government, thereby adding a serpentine dimension to discussions on decentralization. But the issue was eventually resolved with realistic measures worked out by the Liberal Democratic Party-led administration.
 国道・河川の権限移譲は、2008年の地方分権改革推進委員会の勧告以来の懸案だ。その後、民主党政権が国の出先機関の「原則廃止」といった乱暴な手法を掲げ、分権論議は迷走したが、ようやく現実的な内容で決着した。

Administration of some sections of national roads and first-class rivers has already been transferred to prefectures. It is unreasonable to assert that administration can only be carried out by the central government. Coherent town building may be possible by integrated expansion and administration of national roads and connected local roads.
 国道や1級河川の一部区間の管理は既に、都道府県に委ねられている。政府しか管理できないとの理屈は成り立たない。国道に接続する地方道との一体的な整備・管理により、整合性の取れた町づくりも可能になるのではないか。

It was appropriate for the government to work out measures to secure fiscal resources, including one allocating local tax grants to finance maintenance and management costs incurred by prefectural governments. Decentralization will not make much headway without securing such fiscal resources.
 権限移譲に伴い、都道府県が負担する維持管理費を地方交付税で賄うなどの財源確保策をまとめたのは適切だ。財源の手当てなしには地方分権は進まない。

2-way shift possible

It also will be possible depending on the situation to transfer authority over roads and rivers under the control of local governments to the central government.
 一方で、地方が管理する道路や河川について、実情に応じて国直轄に移すことも可能にした。

Recent years have seen flood damage caused by heavy rain in various parts of the country. In some of these disasters, small municipalities found it difficult to take adequate crisis-management measures for rivers. The central government’s role in times of disaster was recognized anew following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accompanying huge task of reconstruction.
 近年、各地で大雨による水害が発生し、小規模自治体では河川の管理や危機対応の難しい例が見受けられる。東日本大震災の復旧・復興では、災害時における政府の役割の重要性が再認識された。

Transferring authority in this manner is reasonable, rather than calling for the uniform transfer of authority to local governments.
 地方移譲という画一的な施策にはせず、国への移譲も認める柔軟な制度にしたのは妥当だ。

Noteworthy is a system for handling registration and clerical work to audit nonprofit organizations that will provide paid-for transport services to replace taxis and buses in underpopulated areas.
 注目されるのは、過疎地でタクシー・バスの代わりに有償旅客輸送を行う非営利組織(NPO)などの登録・監査事務の扱いだ。

Clerical work will be transferred to municipalities that apply for the system. If they are reluctant to do this, such work will be transferred to prefectures willing to do so.
 基本は、希望する市町村に国の事務を移すが、市町村が希望しない場合、希望する都道府県に移譲できる仕組みにした。

Thus, municipalities will be asked whether they want to undertake new clerical work or are capable of doing so and to make decisions on their own initiative. This formula can be applied to the transfer of other kinds of clerical work and authority to local governments.
 新たな事務を引き受ける意志と能力があるか、自治体自身に判断を求める制度で、「手挙げ方式」と呼ばれる。他の事務・権限の地方移譲にも応用できるだろう。

It also has been decided to move 29 types of clerical work and authority, including a decision on standards for the composition of primary and middle school classes, to government-designated major cities. These cities will be required to bear the financial burden of paying schoolteachers and administrative personnel, but they will be able to exercise a wider range of discretionary powers, including whether to form small classes.
 小中学校の学級編制基準の決定など、29の都道府県の事務・権限を政令市に移すことも決まった。政令市が教職員給与を負担する一方、独自の判断で少人数学級を編成できるなど裁量権が広がる。

It is indispensable for the government, prefectures and municipalities to continue studying how to divide the various roles to promote practical decentralization.
 政府と都道府県、市町村はどう役割分担すべきか、引き続き検討し、地に足のついた分権改革を進めることが重要である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 24, 2013)
(2013年12月24日01時42分 読売新聞)
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by kiyoshimat | 2013-12-26 06:55 | 英字新聞

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