「ほっ」と。キャンペーン

アラブの春3年 新たな政治体制へ模索が続く

The Yomiuri Shimbun February 12, 2014
Nations groping for new political systems 3 years after Arab Spring
アラブの春3年 新たな政治体制へ模索が続く(2月12日付・読売社説)

Three years have already passed since the Arab Spring democracy movements that saw people rising up in search of freedom.
 自由を求めて民衆が蜂起した「アラブの春」から3年が経過した。

In Middle Eastern countries where long-reigning dictatorial regimes were brought down, moves to seek new systems of governance have been ongoing.
 長期独裁政権を倒した中東の国々では、新たな統治体制を模索する動きが続いている。

Egypt and Tunisia have managed to establish new constitutions that stipulate democratic procedures. We can safely say these nations took a step forward toward enhanced freedom and the establishment of a rule of law.
 エジプトとチュニジアは、民主主義的な手続きを定めた憲法の制定にこぎつけた。自由の拡大と、法の支配確立への一歩を踏み出したと言えよう。

In Egypt, there was a prolonged state of confusion after the administration of Hosni Mubarak was brought down. Although Mohamed Morsi from the Islamist organization Muslim Brotherhood was elected as president, he was dismissed by the military as he lost the confidence of the people because he overzealously tried to expand the influence of Muslim Brotherhood.
 エジプトでは、ムバラク政権が打倒された後も、混乱状態が続いた。イスラム主義組織「ムスリム同胞団」のモルシ氏が大統領に選ばれたものの、もっぱら同胞団の勢力拡大を図ったため、国民の信頼を失い、軍に解任された。

Even under such circumstances, countries such as Japan and the United States, as well as European nations, have continued providing assistance to the provisional military-backed government. These actions were based on the common interest of avoiding a situation in which Egypt, a strategically important country in the Middle East region, will be destabilized again.
 こうした状況でも欧米や日本は、軍を後ろ盾とする暫定政府への支援を続けてきた。地域の要のエジプトが再び不安定化する事態は避けたいという認識がある。

The turning point for resolving the disorderly situation was the approval of the revised Constitution, drafted by a committee comprising representatives from various sectors, in a national referendum in January.
 混乱収拾の転機は、各界代表により起草された改正憲法が1月、国民投票で承認されたことだ。

Compared with the previous Constitution, which had strong Islamist elements, the current Constitution is distinguished by its consideration of an appropriate balance between the teachings of Islam and secularism. The new top law retained an article to respect Islamic laws, while it clearly stipulates new human rights protections including “gender equality.”
 イスラム色の強かったこれまでの憲法に比べ、世俗主義とのバランスに配慮したのが特徴である。イスラム法を尊重する規定は残す一方で、「男女平等」など、新たな人権保護規定を明記した。

Countries struggling

The revised Constitution also has an article that requires approval by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces in appointing the defense minister for eight years from now. This means veto power is given to the military when the government forms a cabinet. We believe the people of Egypt approved the revised Constitution as many of them thought it would be impossible to prevent confusion without dependence on the military.
 改正憲法には今後8年間、国防相人事に軍の同意を必要とする規定も盛り込まれた。軍に組閣の拒否権を与えたものだ。改正憲法が承認されたのは、軍に頼らなければ混乱は防げない、と多くの国民が考えた結果ではないか。

In the coming spring, a fresh presidential election will be held and a full-fledged administration will be launched. Still, we are afraid a situation in which part of Muslim Brotherhood, labeled by the provisional government as a “terror organization” and suppressed, will resort to radical action.
 今春には改めて大統領選が行われ、本格政権が誕生する。ただ、暫定政府に「テロ組織」と認定され、弾圧されている同胞団の一部が過激化しないか、心配だ。

In reactivating its economy, it may be indispensable for the country to improve public safety and get foreign tourists and investment back to the country.
 治安が改善し、外国からの観光客や投資が戻ることが、経済の立て直しには不可欠だろう。

In Tunisia, the first country where a dictatorial administration collapsed due to public demonstrations and protests, the National Constituent Assembly recently adopted a new Constitution. Including human rights protection articles such as freedom of religion, the content of the new charter is much more progressive than that of Egypt. The freedom sought by the country's general public was then realized in a form of the Constitution.
 民衆のデモで最初に独裁政権が崩壊したチュニジアでも、新憲法が制憲議会で採択された。信教の自由など人権保護条項が盛られ、エジプト以上に先進的な内容だ。民衆の求めた自由が、憲法の形で結実したと言える。

Yemen and Libya—where dictators were driven away from power—are still in the process of establishing a new top law, while the two countries must deal with tribal and regional hostility.
 独裁者が権力の座から追われたイエメン、リビアは、部族・地域間対立に悩みつつ、新憲法制定のプロセスが続いている。

The situation is most serious in Syria, where the civil uprising turned into a civil war. Dictator Bashar Assad still sits in the seat of president, holding on to power. Although an international peace conference was held, there appears to be no prospect for a ceasefire.
 最も状況が深刻なのは、民衆蜂起が内戦に転化したシリアだ。独裁者アサド大統領が権力の座に居座り、国際和平会議が開かれたが、停戦への道はまだ見えない。

The Arab Spring has brought about complicated changes in the Middle East. Japan, which depends on the Middle East for most of its imported crude oil, also needs to keep a close eye on the country.
 「アラブの春」は中東に複雑な変革を引き起こした。原油輸入を中東に依存する日本も、この地域から目を離せない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 12, 2014)
(2014年2月12日01時11分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-02-14 08:44 | 英字新聞

<< 診療報酬改定 「病院依存」から... タクシン、アピシット、インラッ... >>