集団的自衛権 憲法解釈の変更に問題はない

The Yomiuri Shimbun February 21, 2014
Constitutional reinterpretation of collective defense right not problematic
集団的自衛権 憲法解釈の変更に問題はない(2月21日付・読売社説)

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has expressed his willingness to review the government’s current constitutional interpretation to enable the country to exercise its right of collective self-defense.
 安倍首相が、集団的自衛権の行使を可能にするため政府の憲法解釈を見直すことに意欲を示している。

The envisaged reinterpretation is undoubtedly necessary to ensure peace and security for the nation, and we throw our support afresh behind the prime minister’s thinking.
日本の平和と安全の確保に必要であり、首相の考えを改めて支持したい。

In Thursday’s House of Representatives Budget Committee session, Abe indicated his intention to seek Cabinet approval of a new constitutional interpretation of the right of collective self-defense after holding discussions with the ruling camp. The discussions will follow a government feasibility study of the reinterpretation focusing on the Cabinet Legislation Bureau and releasing a report by a government-appointed expert panel in April, he said. Abe also told the committee that his administration will subsequently address such tasks as revising the Self-Defense Forces Law.
 首相は20日の衆院予算委員会で4月に予定される有識者会議の報告後、政府が内閣法制局を中心に解釈変更を検討し、与党との調整を経て、新たな解釈を閣議決定する意向を示した。その後、自衛隊法改正などに取り組むという。

Given such developments as advances in military technology and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the time has come when it is difficult for the country to fully ensure the integrity of its land and territorial waters single-handedly.
 軍事技術の進歩や大量破壊兵器の拡散などにより、日本が単独で領土・領海を守り抜くのは難しい時代を迎えている。

In light of such realities as China’s military buildup and maritime expansionism as well as the threat of North Korea’s nuclear weapons and missiles, it is urgent and essential that Japan beef up its alliance with the United States, as well as other aspects of international cooperation, through changes to the government’s interpretation of the Constitution.
 中国の軍備増強や海洋進出、北朝鮮の核ミサイルの脅威などを踏まえれば、解釈変更による日米同盟と国際連携の強化が急務だ。

In response to an interpellation in a Budget Committee session last week, Abe said: “I am the one who is ultimately responsible [for a Cabinet decision on constitutional reinterpretation]. I, not the head of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, am also the one who will be evaluated by the people [regarding the reinterpretation issue] in an election.” His remarks, however, elicited objections even from some members of his own Liberal Democratic Party.
 首相は先週、予算委で「(憲法解釈の)最高責任者は私だ。選挙で国民から審判を受けるのは法制局長官でなく、私だ」と答弁し、自民党内からも異論が出た。

Since the government’s interpretation of the supreme law is statutorily up to the judgment of the cabinet as a whole based on advice from the Legislation Bureau, the prime minister’s statement is not wrong. It is regrettable, however, that his remarks seem to have created the misunderstanding that the prime minister can change the constitutional interpretation on his own as long as he can win an electoral victory. The prime minister is urged to be more scrupulous about providing convincing explanations.
 憲法解釈は、法制局の助言を受けて、内閣全体で判断するもので、首相発言は間違っていない。ただ、選挙に勝てば首相が自由に解釈を変えられるかのような誤解を招いたのは残念である。首相には、より丁寧な説明が求められよう。

Examining constitutionality

On the other hand, some parties including the Democratic Party of Japan are far off the mark in lambasting Abe’s acknowledgement of the exercise of Japan’s right of collective self-defense through a constitutional reinterpretation as being tantamount to violating “constitutionalism.”
 一方で、民主党などが、解釈変更による集団的自衛権の行使の容認を「立憲主義」の否定だ、と批判しているのは、的外れだ。

Constitutionalism comprises two key elements: the guarantee of basic human rights and the separation of the three powers of state—executive, legislative and judicial. It places importance on governance in accordance with a constitution. Though a constitution places the government under constraints, it should not be considered the only thing that may be said about the top law.
 立憲主義の基本的指標は、人権の保障と三権分立にある。憲法に従った統治に主眼がある。憲法の役割は権力者を縛るものだ、という考え方がすべてではない。

The process through which the cabinet comes up with a new interpretation of the Constitution, the Diet approves legislation endorsing the reinterpretation and the judiciary adjudicates the legislation’s constitutionality explicitly conforms to constitutionalism.
 内閣が新たな解釈を示し、国会がそれを裏付ける法律を整備し、司法が違憲立法審査を行うのは、立憲主義にも沿っている。

What the government is now considering is a change of constitutional interpretation for the sake of maintaining the nation’s peace and prosperity in the face of a fast-changing security environment by ensuring a degree of logical consistency with the past government views on the matter.
 政府が検討しているのは、過去の政府見解とも一定の論理的な整合性を保ちつつ、安全保障環境の変化に対応して日本の平和と繁栄を維持するための解釈変更だ。

Yusuke Yokobatake, deputy director general of the Cabinet Legislation Bureau, who has been said to be wary of altering constitutional interpretation, has said, “If the conclusion is reached that a reinterpretation of the Constitution should be deemed just and proper, it can no longer be said that no changes of interpretation are ever permissible.”
 解釈変更に慎重とされた横畠裕介内閣法制次長も、「解釈変更が至当だとの結論が得られた場合、変更がおよそ許されないものではない」と指摘している。

Changes of constitutional interpretation, as a matter of course, must not be allowed without limits. Should there be a danger of crossing such bounds, it would be more appropriate to revise the Constitution itself rather than its interpretation.
 無論、解釈変更が無制限に許されるわけではない。限界を超える場合は、解釈変更でなく、憲法を改正するのが適切である。

New Komeito, which has so far been reluctant to acknowledge exercise of the right of collective self-defense, has recently begun to indicate readiness to engage in discussions on the reinterpretation of the top law. Komeito Secretary General Yoshihisa Inoue has said on the record that his party does not “entirely oppose” discussing the issue.
 集団的自衛権の行使容認に慎重な公明党も最近、解釈変更の議論に応じる意向を示し始めた。井上幹事長は「真正面から否定するわけではない」と語った。

To increase public understanding on the matter, the prime minister should advocate the Constitution’s reinterpretation as important and necessary with his head held high.
首相は、解釈変更の意義と必要性を堂々と論じ、理解を広げるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 21, 2014)
(2014年2月21日01時33分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-02-23 09:00 | 英字新聞

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