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高松塚壁画 現地復元より劣化防止優先だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun March 30, 2014
Takamatsuzuka ancient murals must be preserved at all costs
高松塚壁画 現地復元より劣化防止優先だ

A delicate issue has been brought to the fore again regarding how to ensure that a cultural property of immeasurable value is handed down to posterity while guaranteeing its integrity.
 かけがえのない文化遺産を損なわずに後世へ継承する。その難しい課題を改めて問いかけたと言えるだろう。

After studying preservation methods for such brightly colored murals as “Asuka beauties”—which depicts a group of female figures—at the Takamatsuzuka ancient burial mound in the village of Asuka, Nara Prefecture, an expert panel of the Cultural Affairs Agency has decided to take care of the wall paintings outside the mound for the time being, even after the current preservation work on them is complete.
 「飛鳥美人」に代表される高松塚古墳(奈良県明日香村)の極彩色壁画の保存法を検討してきた文化庁の有識者会議は、壁画修復後も当分の間、古墳外で管理する方針を決めた。

In 2007, the murals were dismantled along with the stone chamber housing them, and their restoration has been under way outside the mounded tomb. As the mural paintings were initially scheduled to be returned to the Takamatsuzuka burial mound once the preservation work is completed, which will be as early as fiscal 2017, the panel’s decision effectively marks a change in its basic preservation policy.
 壁画は、2007年に石室ごと解体され、外部で修復が続いている。17年度にも古墳に戻す予定だった。事実上の方針転換だ。

According to the panel, the reason for the policy change is that the murals, if returned to the stone chamber, “could not be prevented, without question, from being subject again to damage from microorganisms like mold due to a lack of established technology.” The panel has also said the strength of the Takamatsuzuka stonework and the condition of the wall plaster in the stone chamber would be unlikely to withstand a major earthquake in their current state.
 有識者会議は、その理由として、石室内に戻した場合に、「現在の技術では再びカビ等の生物被害が間違いなく生じる」ことを挙げている。石材の強度や漆喰しっくいの状態についても、大地震が発生した際に耐えられないと指摘した。

If it is technically impossible to safely restore the murals within the stone chamber, the change in preservation policy is unavoidable.
 石室内にきちんと復元できないというのであれば、方針を変えるのは、やむを得まい。

At the time of their discovery 42 years ago, the murals, which date back to the early eighth century, were deemed “one of the most important discoveries” in the history of the nation’s archaeological research, setting off an ancient history scholarship craze. They have been designated a national treasure.
 42年前、「考古学最大の発見」と言われ、古代史ブームを巻き起こした8世紀初めの壁画である。国宝にも指定されている。

To ensure the murals do not deteriorate further, finding a fail-safe preservation method must be made top priority.
 再び劣化せぬよう、確実に残すことを最優先すべきだ。

But how did the murals fall into such a state in the first place?
 そもそも、なぜこんな事態に至ったのか。

No mention of specifics

This is primarily because the way the Cultural Affairs Agency handled the task of the murals’ preservation was extremely sloppy.
壁画保存に関する文化庁の対応が、ずさんだったからにほかならない。

Following the murals’ discovery, the environment inside the stone chamber was drastically changed due to such factors as the use of chemical substances to repair the murals and a large volume of human traffic moving in and out of the stone chamber, which eventually led to the growth of a massive amount of fungi inside.
壁画発見後、修理に伴う薬剤や石室内への多数の人の出入りなどの影響で環境が変化し、大量のカビ発生を招いた。

Despite being aware of the growth of mold and fading of the wall paintings in an early stage, agency officials in charge of the conservation work continued to neglect the need to implement adequate countermeasures. It was even brought to light that they had covered up an accident in which the murals were damaged.
 現場は、早くからカビや退色に気づきながら、十分対策を講じなかった。壁画損傷事故を隠していたことまで明るみに出た。

The government must take this series of lessons to heart in the future administration of cultural properties.
 一連の教訓を、政府は文化財保護行政に生かさねばならない。

The report by the expert panel, however, does not make reference to specific steps that should be taken to preserve and maintain the wall paintings and stone chamber, as well as how and where they should be shown to the public.
 壁画・石室の保存管理・公開の方法、場所について、有識者会議は具体的に言及していない。

During the course of discussions, an argument was reportedly made that called for the murals and stone chamber to be preserved in a facility in the vicinity of the Takamatsuzuka burial mound.
 会議の中では、高松塚古墳の近くの施設に保存することが望ましいとの主張もあった。

Regarding archaeological finds in ruins, there is a notion that they should in principle be restored on site. It is easier to understand the historical background and significance of ruins by visiting the site where the discoveries were actually made. Opinions during the discussions of the expert panel may have stemmed from a perspective that gave this principle as much weight as possible.
 遺跡には、現地保存の原則がある。訪れる人は現地だからこそ、その存在する歴史的な背景や意義に思いをはせることができる。こうした考え方を、できるだけ大事にしたいからだろう。

Colorful wall paintings from the ancient Kitora tomb, about one kilometer south of the Takamatsuzuka tomb, which are also being repaired outside the tomb, are scheduled to be shown to the public at an exhibition facility to be built near the ancient tomb, starting from fiscal 2016. The murals will not be returned to the tomb.
 たとえば、高松塚古墳から約1キロ南のキトラ古墳の極彩色壁画も外部で補修されているが、当面、墳丘には戻さない代わりに、16年度から古墳付近に展示施設を設けて公開する方針だ。

It may be a good idea for the Takamatsuzuka wall paintings to likewise be made accessible to the public in a way that expands opportunities for exposure to our cultural heritage of historical importance.
 高松塚古墳の壁画についても、こうした形で、国民が歴史的な文化遺産に触れる機会を広げるのは一案である。

Due attention should also be paid to the custom of showing cultural properties to the public while specifying an end date, on the premise of taking solid measures to ensure their preservation.
しっかり保存することを前提に、期限を区切っての公開なども考えていい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 30, 2014)
2014年03月30日 01時32分 Copyright © The Yomiuri Shimbun
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by kiyoshimat | 2014-04-01 08:40 | 英字新聞

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