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インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Prevent flu by washing hands frequently, avoiding crowded places
インフル猛威 こまめな手洗いで感染予防を

Influenza is raging through the nation.
 インフルエンザが猛威を振るっている。

The average number of flu patients at regularly surveyed medical institutions rose to 33.28 in the reporting week from Jan. 5 to Jan. 11, topping the alert level of 30 per institute. The average number exceeded the alert level three weeks earlier than last winter.
 今月5~11日の患者数は、1医療機関当たりの平均で33・28人に上り、警報レベルの30人を超えた。昨季より3週間早い。

The epidemic may spread further and the number of flu patients may exceed that of a regular year. We should take thorough preventive measures.
 流行はさらに拡大し、患者数が例年より多くなる可能性がある。予防を徹底したい。

A flu virus is transmitted from person to person by droplets from coughing or sneezing. It multiplies in the throat and the lungs, and flu symptoms appear following a latency period of about two days. Unlike a common cold, a flu patient may abruptly run a high fever of over 38 C and suffer such symptoms as a headache and overall muscle pain.
 インフルエンザは、咳せきやくしゃみなどの飛沫ひまつを介して感染する。喉や肺でウイルスが増え、2日程度の潜伏期間の後に発症する。一般の風邪と異なり、急に38度以上の高熱を発し、頭痛、全身の筋肉痛といった症状が表れる。

Day-to-day precautions are most important in warding off infection.
 感染予防には、日頃の心がけが何より重要だ。

These steps include avoiding crowded places and frequent hand-washing. We can also build up our resistance by getting enough sleep and paying attention to what we eat. A humidifier will also help us keep the mucus in our respiratory tract moist, which helps maintain our defenses.
 人混みを避け、こまめに手を洗う。睡眠や食事に気を付けて、抵抗力を高める。加湿器も、気道の粘膜の湿気を保ち、防御機能を維持するのに役立つ。

Immunization will prevent the flu from becoming severe, the effect lasting about half a year. However, it cannot completely prevent a person from becoming infected and developing flu symptoms. We must not be overconfident.
 予防接種は重症化を防ぎ、効果が半年程度続くが、感染や発症を完全に抑えることはできない。過信は禁物である。

Of the viruses detected in the patients this season, most were the type-A Hong Kong strain (H3N2). So far no virus has been found in this strain that would be resistant to an anti-influenza drug.
 今季検出されたウイルスのほとんどが、A香港型(H3N2型)だ。この型では、抗インフルエンザ薬が効かない耐性ウイルスは、今のところ見つかっていない。

It is best to see a doctor immediately after experiencing such symptoms as chills. By taking prescribed drugs and getting a lot of rest, flu patients usually get well within a few days.
 悪寒などの症状が出たら、早めの受診が望ましい。薬を服用し、休養に努めれば、多くの場合、数日で回復する。

Elderly people and those with chronic diseases particularly need to take precautions against the flu.
 特に用心せねばならないのは、高齢者や持病のある人だ。

Kids need special attention

The type-A Hong Kong strain has a relatively high probability of causing patients to also develop pneumonia through a bacterial infection. Special attention is also needed so that children do not develop brain disorders from this type of flu.
H3N2型は、細菌感染による肺炎を併発するリスクが比較的高い。子どもの脳症にも要注意である。

If a child shows signs of gasping or convulsions, it is vital to take them to the hospital immediately.
 呼吸が苦しそうになったり、痙攣けいれんが起きたりしたら、すぐに病院に連れて行くことが大切だ。

Pneumococcal vaccine is said to be effective in preventing pneumonia. Since last year, the government has been subsidizing part of the vaccination expenses for those aged 65 or older.
 肺炎予防には、肺炎球菌ワクチンが有効とされる。政府は、65歳以上を対象に、昨年から接種費用の一部を助成している。

As many of the people who died as a result of the flu were found to have also developed pneumonia, elderly people should be encouraged to get vaccinated.
インフルエンザが引き金となった死亡例の多くは、肺炎を併発しているだけに、高齢者の接種を促したい。

Group infections at such places as nursing care facilities have occurred this season, too, resulting in the deaths of some elderly people. They are believed to have been infected with the flu by visitors or employees at the facilities. These facilities may need to take such measures as limiting the number of visitors during an epidemic period.
 今季も介護施設などで集団感染が発生し、高齢者が死亡している。来訪者や職員からの感染が考えられる。施設側には、流行期に見舞客を制限するといった対応が求められるだろう。

Since early this year, there has been a marked increase in the number of those flu patients in their 20s to 40s, people in the prime of their working life. In the case of adult patients, they are believed to emit the virus for about five days after their symptoms appear, making it highly advisable for them to refrain from going out during this period.
 年明けから、働き盛りの20~40歳代の患者の増加が目立つ。大人の場合、発症から5日間程度はウイルスを排出しているため、外出を控える必要がある。

Even if people may have to go out to work, they must not force themselves to do so. Such actions are likely to spread the infection.
 仕事があるからといって、無理に出勤してはいけない。感染を広げてしまう恐れがある。

For flu patients to get a good rest at home, it is vital for workplaces to show their understanding of employees’ physical conditions.
 患者が十分に休むためには、職場の理解が欠かせない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Jan. 19, 2015)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-01-20 11:54 | 英字新聞

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