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COP21開幕 新興国も責任果たす枠組みに

The Yomiuri Shimbun
New framework for emissions cuts must involve emerging economies
COP21開幕 新興国も責任果たす枠組みに

Can a new framework to replace the Kyoto Protocol be put in place on emissions control? The international climate conference is important as it influences the future course of measures to fight global warming.
 京都議定書に代わる新たな枠組みに合意できるのか。今後の地球温暖化対策を左右する重要な会議である。

The 21st Session of the Conference of the Parties to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) opened amid tight security in Paris, not long after deadly terrorist attacks in and around the city.
 同時テロから日が浅いパリで、厳戒態勢の中、国連気候変動枠組み条約の第21回締約国会議(COP21)が開幕した。

In an extraordinary move, a summit meeting was held at the outset of the conference. It is significant that leaders from about 150 countries committed to tackling a subject of common interest to all of humankind without yielding to terrorism.
 会議冒頭に首脳会合が行われる異例の日程となった。約150か国の首脳が、テロに屈せず、人類共通の課題に立ち向かうことを確認する意義は大きい。

But it remains to be seen how the conference will turn out. There is a wide gap between the positions of developed and developing countries.
 ただ、会議の行方は予断を許さない。先進国と途上国の主張に大きな隔たりがあるためだ。

Measures to combat global warming have been based on the idea that developed nations have a greater responsibility than developing ones as they have emitted a great amount of greenhouse gases in the course of their economic development. Under the Kyoto Protocol adopted in 1997, only developed nations were obliged to cut back on emissions.
 温暖化対策は、経済発展に伴って多量の温室効果ガスを排出してきた先進国には、途上国より重い責任がある、という考え方に基づいている。1997年に採択された京都議定書では、先進国のみが削減義務を負った。

The situation has changed greatly from what it was at the time. Emissions by emerging economies including China and India with no reduction obligations have increased significantly. China is now the world’s largest producer of gas emissions, surpassing the United States.
 当時とは状況が大きく変化している。削減義務のない中国やインドなど、新興国からの排出量が大幅に増えた。中国は今や、米国を上回る最大の排出国だ。

The greatest focus of the conference will be on whether a new framework, which will take effect in 2020, can be made into a system in which all major greenhouse gas emitters fulfill their shares of responsibility.
 2020年に発効する新たな枠組みを、全ての主要排出国が応分の責任を果たす仕組みにできるか否かが、会議の最大の焦点だ。

Reduction targets not enough

Countries have announced their own reduction targets ahead of the COP21. China’s target is to cut its emissions by 60 percent to 65 percent from 2005 levels by 2030 — as measured per unit of gross domestic product.
 COP21に向け、各国は独自の削減目標を掲げた。中国は、国内総生産(GDP)当たりの排出量を、30年までに05年比で60~65%削減するという内容だ。

This can be translated into an increase of emissions if the economy grows greatly. We have to say that it is not an adequately set goal.
 これでは、経済が大きく成長すれば、排出量は増加する。不十分な目標と言わざるを得ない。

On the other hand, if a demanding goal is pushed on it, China may leave the new framework. This is a dilemma.
 一方で、中国に厳しい目標を求めれば、新たな枠組みから離脱しかねないジレンマがある。

The U.S. target is to curtail emissions by 26 percent to 28 percent from 2005 levels in 2025. Japan has set a goal of a 26 percent cut in fiscal 2030 compared with fiscal 2013 levels. Developed nations’ proactive approaches to emissions cuts are considered effective in prompting China and other emerging economies to also tackle the global issue positively.
 米国の目標は、25年に05年比で26~28%減だ。日本も、30年度に13年度比で26%減を掲げている。先進国が削減に積極姿勢を示すことは、中国など新興国にも前向きな取り組みを促す上で有効だ。

Even if emissions targets by all the parties to the convention are added up, it will not be possible to achieve an international goal of reining in the rise in the average temperature at the end of this century by less than 2 C compared with the period before the Industrial Revolution.
 各国が示した削減量を積み上げても、今世紀末の平均気温の上昇を、産業革命以前に比べて2度未満に抑えるという国際的な目標は達成できない。

A matter to be studied is establishment of a system under which countries are obliged to report the status of emissions cuts periodically for verification and work toward raising reduction targets as much as possible.
 各国が定期的に削減状況を報告して検証を受け、可能な限り目標を引き上げる。こうした仕組みを構築することも課題である。

Emerging and developing countries strongly call on developed nations to expand financial assistance and to transfer technology.
 新興国・途上国は、先進国からの資金援助の拡充や技術移転を強く求めている。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will announce a plan to raise Japan’s annual assistance from ¥1 trillion to ¥1.3 trillion and provide renewable energy technologies, among others. Japan must contribute to reducing emissions as a whole in the world.
 安倍首相は、日本としての支援額を年1兆円から1・3兆円に引き上げ、再生可能エネルギー技術などを提供することを表明する。世界全体の排出削減に向けて、役割を果たしたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 1, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-02 09:19 | 英字新聞

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