衆院選制度改革 格差の是正へ党利党略を排せ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Set aside party interests to narrow vote-value disparity in lower house
衆院選制度改革 格差の是正へ党利党略を排せ

Ruling and opposition parties should set aside party interests to narrow the vote-value disparity in the House of Representatives election and tackle the electoral system reform.
 衆院選の「1票の格差」の縮小へ、与野党は党利党略を排して、制度改革に取り組むべきだ。

A research panel of experts tasked with reform of the lower house electoral system has compiled a draft proposal for redistributing seats allocated to each prefecture by using the so-called Adams’ method to rectify the vote-value disparity in single-seat constituencies.
 衆院の選挙制度改革に関する有識者調査会が答申原案をまとめた。小選挙区の格差是正について、各都道府県の定数を「アダムズ方式」で配分し直すことを提案した。

According to the draft proposal, a total of seven constituency seats should be added in Tokyo and four other prefectures, while 13 other prefectures, including Aomori and Iwate, should lose one seat each. As a result, the maximum vote-value disparity at the prefectural level would be reduced to 1.621-to-1.
 定数は、東京都と4県で計7増加し、青森、岩手など13県で1ずつ減る。都道府県間の格差は最大1・621倍となる。

The vote-value disparity in single-seat constituencies would also likely be reduced to less than 2-to-1, as called for by the law concerning the establishment of the council on rezoning the electoral districts of the lower house.
 小選挙区間の格差も、衆院選挙区画定審議会設置法の定める2倍未満に収まる見通しである。

The Adams’ method would be used in place of the current seat distribution system [which allots one seat to each prefecture and then decides, in proportion to the population, how many additional seats each prefecture should be allocated in the single-seat constituencies of the election]. The Adams’ method is said to be comparatively favorable to less populous prefectures and able to reduce the increase and decrease in the seats allocated to each prefecture to a narrow range. It also will be able to cope with a population decrease in the future to a certain extent. With the method, even Tottori Prefecture, whose population is the smallest on the prefectural level, would be able to maintain the two-seat allocation for the present.
 アダムズ方式は、「1人別枠方式」に代わるものだ。人口の少ない県に比較的有利とされ、都道府県の定数の増減を小幅に抑えられる。将来の人口減にも一定程度対応が可能で、最少の鳥取県も当面、定数2を維持できる。

The Adams’ method is a realistic one in terms of rectifying the vote-value disparity in consideration of local areas.
 地方に配慮しつつ、1票の格差を是正する観点で、現実的な方式と言えよう。

The Supreme Court handed down a ruling in late November that the lower house election in December last year, which had a maximum vote-value disparity of 2.13-to-1 in single-seat constituencies, was in a state of unconstitutionality. As the legislative body, the Diet must respond swiftly to the request from the judicial branch of government.
 最高裁は先月下旬、1票の格差が最大2・13倍だった昨年12月の衆院選を「違憲状態」と判断した。立法府として、司法の要請に速やかに応えねばなるまい。

Not all will be pleased

What is questionable is that the draft proposed eliminating six seats in the single-seat constituencies and eliminating four in the proportional representation blocks. The proposed reduction would take the number of lower house seats to a postwar low of 465.
 疑問なのは、答申原案が定数を小選挙区で6、比例選で4削減したことだ。衆院定数は戦後最少の465となる。

If the number of lower house seats is reduced, even just slightly, it would be difficult to reflect the diversity of public opinions in the election. Diet functions, such as lawmaker-initiated legislation and holding administrations to account through deliberations on bills, could be weaker. Originally, the number of legislators in proportion to the population was smaller in Japan than in the United States and European countries.
 小幅とはいえ、定数を減らせば、選挙で多様な民意を反映しにくくなる。議員立法や、法案審議を通じた行政監視など、立法府の能力が低下しかねない。そもそも日本の国会議員は人口比でみれば、欧米諸国より多くない。

Furthermore, the fewer seats there are, the more difficult the correction of the vote-value disparity becomes.
 さらに、定数を減らすほど、1票の格差是正が困難になる。

Even within the panel, there were voices pointing out the negative effects of reducing the number of seats. It is regrettable that the panel finally had no choice but to incorporate the assertions of main political parties that seek a drastic reduction in the seats.
 調査会内でも、定数削減の弊害を指摘する意見が少なくなかった。最終的に、定数の大幅削減を唱える主要政党の主張を取り入れざるを得なかったのは残念だ。

The panel is scheduled to submit its proposal to lower house Speaker Tadamori Oshima in early January. In June last year, each main party confirmed that they would “respect” the conclusion of the panel. However, some members of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party who were elected from less populated electoral districts have already expressed their opposition to the draft proposal.
 調査会は年明けに、大島議長に答申する。主要各党は昨年6月、調査会の結論を「尊重する」ことを確認している。だが、自民党内では早くも、地方選出議員らから答申原案への反発が出ている。

Electoral systems directly lead to the rise and fall of political parties. No plan can avoid every objection. The LDP should not cling to its own interests, but should play a leading role in drawing together the various opinions of each political party to reach a consensus.
 選挙制度は各党の消長に直結する。どんな案でも、異論は避けられない。自民党は、自らの利害に拘泥せず、各党の意見集約に主導的な役割を果たすべきだ。

Shifting to a new system requires revision of the Public Offices Election Law so that the content of the proposal can be reflected in the law. It also requires studying a new rezoning process. It will likely take more than a year to do so.
 新制度への移行には、答申内容を反映した公職選挙法の改正や区割りの見直し作業などが必要で、最低1年以上かかる見通しだ。

Ruling and opposition parties are urged to realize the electoral system reform with such a time schedule in mind.
 与野党は、こうした日程も踏まえて、選挙制度改革を実現することが求められよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 19, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-20 10:40 | 英字新聞

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