衆院選制度改革 自民党案で合意形成できるか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Can consensus be achieved through LDP’s lower house electoral reform plan?
衆院選制度改革 自民党案で合意形成できるか

The electoral system is the foundation of democracy. It is desirable that the system is reformed based on a broad consensus among the ruling and opposition parties. However, a draft plan proposed by the ruling Liberal Democratic Party looks unlikely to win the understanding of other parties.
 選挙制度は民主主義の土台だ。与野党の幅広い合意で見直すことが望ましい。自民党案では他党の理解は得られまい。

According to the draft plan on reforming the House of Representatives electoral system compiled by the LDP, only demarcation of single-seat constituencies would be reviewed based on simplified censuses conducted in 2015, while the number of seats allocated to prefectures would be maintained, to reduce vote-value disparities to less than 2 to 1.
 自民党が衆院選挙制度改革の原案をまとめた。小選挙区の「1票の格差」を2倍未満に抑えるため、2015年の簡易国勢調査に基づき、都道府県の定数配分は維持したまま、選挙区の区割りだけを見直す。

The LDP draft plan also says the reduction of lower house seats and the review of their allocation to prefectures would be postponed until after full censuses are conducted in 2020. The LDP proposes eliminating six seats in single-seat constituencies and four in proportional representation blocs, but details on how to allocate the number of seats to prefectures — which is the most important point — are still unclear.
 定数の削減と配分見直しは、20年の国勢調査後に先送りする。削減幅は小選挙区6、比例選4という。しかし、肝心の具体的な定数配分方式は曖昧なままだ。

The LDP claims its draft plan is based on a report submitted by a research panel of experts on lower house electoral system reform, but the party seems to lack sincerity.
 自民党は、有識者調査会の答申に沿っていると強弁するが、誠実さが欠けていないか。

The panel says in its report that the Adams’ method should be used to reallocate lower house seats to prefectures. According to the report, this would increase the number of seats allocated to Tokyo and four prefectures by seven in total, while 13 prefectures would lose one seat each. Even if population changes in the future are taken into consideration, the vote-value disparity is expected to be less than 2 to 1 for a while.
 答申は、「アダムズ方式」で都道府県定数の再配分を求めた。定数は東京都と4県で計7増え、13県で各1減る。将来の人口変動を加味しても、1票の格差は当面、2倍未満に収まる見通しだ。

Compared to other major allocation methods, the Adams’ method is said to be advantageous to less-populated prefectures. The LDP is critical of the panel’s report for being harsh on provincial regions. However, it certainly pays due consideration to them.
 アダムズ方式は、他の主な配分方式と比べて、人口の少ない県に有利とされる。自民党は「地方に冷たい」と批判するが、地方にも一定の配慮をしている。

In the report, redrawing electoral districts at the time of simplified censuses is considered merely a supplementary measure for the correction of the number of lower house seats to be done every 10 years.
 簡易国勢調査時の区割り見直しは、あくまで10年ごとの定数是正の補完措置との位置づけだ。

Respect panel’s report

The LDP’s draft plan, which would change demarcation of constituencies first, cannot help but give the impression that the party has employed only parts of the report for its own convenience. Doesn’t the LDP, in its heart of hearts, only want to avoid opposition from incumbent lawmakers whose constituencies are in prefectures where lower house seats might be reduced?
 区割り見直しを先行させる自民党案は、答申のうち、自らに都合の良い部分をつまみ食いした印象が拭えない。定数が減る県の現職議員らの反発を避けたいのが本音ではないか。

A major problem with the LDP’s draft plan is that electoral districts would have to be redrawn widely twice — this time, and five years from now.
 問題なのは、自民党案では、今回と5年後の2回、大幅な区割り変更を余儀なくされることだ。

If demarcation of constituencies is changed often, it could damage the stability of the electoral system. It would also weaken relations between voters and lawmakers or candidates.
 選挙区の境界が頻繁に変わるようでは、制度の安定性が損なわれかねない。有権者と議員・候補者の関係も希薄になろう。

Since the LDP failed to reach an agreement on an electoral reform plan in its negotiations with the other parties in the first place, didn’t the party decide to let experts discuss the issue and pledge to respect their report?
 そもそも、自民党は他党との協議で改革案に合意できなかったため、有識者に検討を委ね、その答申を「尊重する」と約束したはずではなかったのか。

Of course, as the report expresses doubt about the necessity to reduce the number of lower house seats, there is some room for discussion on that point. However, it is unreasonable not to accept the Adams’ method, a basic part of the report, and postpone fundamental reform for as long as five years.
 答申は、定数削減の必要性に疑問を示しており、その点は議論の余地はある。だが、答申の根幹部分と言えるアダムズ方式を受け入れず、抜本改革を5年も先延ばしするのは筋が通らない。

Some members of the main opposition Democratic Party of Japan have already voiced criticism about the LDP plan, calling it “out of the question.”
 民主党などからは早くも、自民党案について「論外」などと批判する声が出ている。

Transition to a new electoral system will require revision of the Public Offices Election Law and other relevant laws, and reviewing the demarcation of electoral districts.
 新制度への移行には、公職選挙法などを改正したうえ、区割りの見直し作業などが必要となる。

The LDP, which is far more powerful than any of the other parties in the lower house, bears the grave responsibility of leading discussions on electoral system reform. The party must refine its draft plan, rising above party interests and strategy.
 衆院で「1強」の自民党は、選挙制度改革論議を主導する重い責任がある。党利党略を排し、原案を練り直さねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Feb. 13, 2016)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2016-02-15 11:06 | 英字新聞

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