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クール・ジャパン 海外の人気を成長に生かせ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 31, 2010)
Time to capitalize on 'Cool Japan' boom
クール・ジャパン 海外の人気を成長に生かせ(8月30日付・読売社説)

Japanese pop culture--widely referred to as "Cool Japan"--has taken off overseas. The government should take advantage of this boom in all things Japanese to push domestic businesses' advance into foreign markets.
 海外での日本ブームは「クール(かっこいい)・ジャパン」と呼ばれている。これを企業の海外進出につなげることに、もっと知恵を絞りたい。

Japanese anime and manga have become immensely popular among young people overseas. Japanese fashion grabs plenty of headlines, and foods such as sushi are a hit with health-conscious diners.
 日本のアニメや漫画は海外の若者から絶大な人気を得ている。ファッションの注目度も高い。すしなどの和食は「健康にいい」と好評だ。

But this popularity has not necessarily led to overseas expansion by domestic companies involved in these industries. The domestic animation industry remains dominated by small and midsize companies, and exports of textiles have slackened. Japanese restaurants have been mushrooming the world over, but many are operated by non-Japanese.
 しかし、その人気が、必ずしも日本の関連産業の海外展開に結びついていない。アニメ産業は中小零細企業が圧倒的で、繊維産業の輸出も伸びていない。世界で急増する和食レストランも、その多くが日本人以外の経営だ。

While Japan fails to transform its overseas popularity into economic growth, South Korea has been increasing its presence in other Asian countries.
 日本がせっかくの人気を経済成長に生かせないのとは対照的に、アジア各地で存在感を増しているのが韓国である。

According to a report by the Economy, Trade and Industry Ministry, CD and DVD stores in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Singapore brim with South Korean dramas and K-pop albums by South Korean singers. In China, the sales of a South Korean apparel maker often compared with Japan's Uniqlo brand operator are going through the roof.
 経済産業省の報告書によると、香港、バンコク、シンガポールなどのCD・DVD売り場は、韓国ドラマや韓国人歌手らのKポップがあふれている。中国では「韓国のユニクロ」と言われるファッション企業が売り上げを急速に伸ばしている。

Public-private sales model

As Korean dramas gain popularity, South Korean makers follow up by promoting fashion brands worn by actors and actresses starring in the programs. The South Korean private and public sectors seem to be jointly building a business model that uses Korean brands to expand sales in targeted countries.
 韓国ドラマが人気を得ると、韓流スターの着こなすファッションを売り込み、「韓国ブランド」の向上をテコに、韓国製品の売り上げにつなげる――というビジネススタイルを、官民挙げて築きつつあるようだ。

The government seems content for Japan to just be extolled overseas as "cool." However, we think the government has not tried hard enough, or been imaginative enough, in taking advantage of this popularity for the benefit of business expansion.
 日本は、海外で「クール」ともてはやされることに満足して、ビジネスに生かす発想と努力を欠いていたのではないか。

In June, the trade ministry released its "strategy to promote a culture-oriented industry." This plan to harness "Cool Japan" to revitalize the national economy seemingly reflects an awareness that more must be done to tap this industry.
 経産省が6月、クール・ジャパンを日本経済活性化の起爆剤の一つと位置づける「文化産業立国戦略」を策定したのも、そうした反省に立ったものだろう。

The strategy calls for an integrated support system--from product development to the signing of overseas sales contracts--for small and midsize companies that lack the expertise and funds needed to develop their business abroad. We hope the ministry's strategy will be steadily implemented.
 戦略では、海外展開に必要なノウハウも資金も不足している中小企業を対象に、商品開発から海外での販売契約まで一貫して支援する仕組みを整えることを盛り込んだ。着実に実施してほしい。

Get on same page

The government's administration of overseas activities has been divided among its ministries--the trade ministry fosters "Cool Japan" industries, the Foreign Ministry looks after cultural exchanges and the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Ministry promotes Japanese foods.
 政府は従来、クール・ジャパンの関連産業の育成は経産省、文化交流は外務省、和食の海外PRは農林水産省という具合に、各省庁が縦割りで対応してきた。

South Korean products could dominate rapidly growing Asian markets, but they are less likely to do so in European and U.S. markets, where Japanese brands' reputation for high quality is well entrenched.
 これでは、「日本製イコール高品質」というブランドイメージが確立する欧米市場はまだしも、成長著しいアジア市場は韓国勢に席巻されかねない。

Japan should emulate the Korean formula of ensuring cooperation transcends fields such as fashion, movies, food and manga, instead of promoting business through separate government ministries and agencies. If the "fences" between these government offices remain too high, the Cabinet minister and other politicians who head each ministry must step up and exercise leadership to make this cooperation a reality.
 韓国に倣い、省庁別でなく、ファッションと映画、食文化と漫画といった分野横断型の連携を強化すべきだ。省庁の“垣根”が依然高いなら、閣僚など政務三役が政治主導で進める必要があろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 30, 2010)
(2010年8月30日01時26分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-31 04:21 | 英字新聞

日韓併合100年 協調と競争の未来へ向けて

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 30, 2010)
Japan, ROK must partner, compete for future
日韓併合100年 協調と競争の未来へ向けて(8月29日付・読売社説)

People of the Korean Peninsula, who were ruled by a different people, must regret the fact that their country was taken away and their pride was trampled upon. These feelings apparently are a source of the Korean people's strong sense of rivalry with and resentment against Japan.
 異民族に支配された朝鮮半島の人々には、国を奪われ、誇りを踏みにじられた無念の思いがあるだろう。それが日本への強烈な対抗心や反発をうむ源泉となっている。

Without Japan truly understanding these sentiments, its good-neighbor diplomacy will never come to fruition.
 その気持ちを理解せずして、日本の善隣外交は成り立つまい。

The Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty became effective 100 years ago, on Aug. 29, 1910. The world was in an age of imperialism at the time and Japan, like other imperialist countries, kept up with the tide of the times and colonized the peninsula.
 日韓併合条約が発効したのは、今から100年前の1910年8月29日である。当時は帝国主義の時代であり、日本もその流れに乗って朝鮮半島を植民地にした。

It is an undeniable fact that Japan's 35-year colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula, until Japan's World War II defeat, still casts a shadow over the present-day Japan-South Korea relationship.
 敗戦まで35年間の植民地統治が今日の日韓関係に影を落としているのは、否定しえない事実だ。

Earlier this month, ahead of the Aug. 29 centenary, Prime Minister Naoto Kan issued a statement expressing "deep remorse and heartfelt apology." This is because he places importance on the Japan-Korea relationship.
 菅首相が日韓併合100年の談話で、「痛切な反省と心からのおわびの気持ち」を表明したのも日韓関係を重視してのことだ。

Japan must build a relationship with South Korea in which the two countries cooperate and compete each other.
韓国とは、協調し競争しあう関係を築いていかなければならない。

===

Impressive postwar growth

When Japan and South Korea normalized diplomatic ties in 1965, the two countries confirmed the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty to be "already null and void" and thereby entered a new relationship.
 1965年の日韓国交正常化の際、日韓併合条約を「もはや無効である」としたことによって、両国は新たな関係に入った。

Using funds provided by Japan, South Korea built dams, ironworks and expressways, and threw its energy into exports.
 韓国は、日本からの資金を使ってダムや製鉄所、高速道路を建設し、輸出に力を注いだ。

South Korea has transformed into an economically advanced country, achieving political democratization and affluence. Its society has diversified, and the now wealthy nation has changed from being a recipient of assistance to a country that provides it to others.
いまや経済先進国に変貌(へんぼう)し、政治の民主化も果たした。社会も多様化し、豊かになった韓国は援助される国から援助する国になっている。

Japan and South Korea are trade partners, and each maintains an alliance with the United States as its main axis of national security. The two countries also share values such as the market economy and democracy.
 日韓両国は、それぞれが米国との同盟を安全保障の軸に、互いを主要な貿易相手国とする、また市場経済や民主主義などの価値観を共有する関係にある。

===

International leadership

In November, South Korea will host a Group of 20 summit meeting while Japan will host a summit gathering of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
 11月には、韓国が世界20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議を、日本がアジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議を主宰する。

Tokyo and Seoul play increasingly greater roles and have larger responsibilities when it comes to ensuring the world's stability and prosperity.
 世界の安定と繁栄のために、日韓が担う役割と責任は大きくなっている。

The two countries should never miss mutual opportunities and should strengthen their cooperation.
この機を逃さず、日韓協力を強化すべきだ。

How to establish a stable relationship with economic and military superpower China is a heavy task for both Japan and South Korea.
 経済・軍事大国となった中国とどう向き合い、安定した関係を作っていくかということも日韓共通の重い課題である。

The two countries also must appropriately respond to North Korea--a destabilizing factor in the region.
地域の不安定要因である北朝鮮には適切に対処していかなければならない。

It appears increasingly necessary that Japan and South Korea build a future-oriented bilateral relationship that is not mired in the past.
 過去にとらわれない「未来志向の日韓関係」を構築していく必然性は高まっている。

However, difficulties remain. Japan and South Korea, because they are neighbors, have deep relations rooted in history, and their sentiment toward each other tends to be complex. Japanese people feel increasingly more kinship with South Korea every year, but South Koreans still have a deep-seated distrust of Japan.
 だが、難題もある。日韓は隣り合うだけに歴史的なかかわりは深く、感情ももつれがちだ。日本国民の韓国への親近感は年々強まっているが、韓国にはまだ日本への根強い不信感がある。

In fact, pending issues between Japan and South Korea such as the territorial dispute over the Takeshima islets remain unresolved and a source of repeated diplomatic tension between the two countries.
 事実、竹島問題などの2国間の懸案は、解決しないまま衝突が繰り返されてきた。

Overcoming those difficulties is an assignment for both Japan and South Korea as they head into the next 100 years of their relationship.
 その難しさを克服していくことが、新たな100年に向けての日韓両国の宿題だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 29, 2010)
(2010年8月29日01時19分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-30 04:20 | 英字新聞

死刑刑場公開 まだ開示すべき情報は多い

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 29, 2010)
More death penalty info should be disclosed
死刑刑場公開 まだ開示すべき情報は多い(8月28日付・読売社説)

The execution chamber at the Tokyo Detention House was shown to the media for the first time Friday.
 死刑が執行される東京拘置所の刑場が報道機関に初めて公開された。

With the introduction of the lay judge system, ordinary citizens now have a chance of being called to participate in the process of sentencing someone to death. The Justice Ministry, which had been reluctant to disclose information related to executions, has likely realized the need to change its earlier stance.
 裁判員制度が始まり、国民が死刑判決にかかわる可能性がある時代になった。これまで情報公開に消極的だった法務省も、姿勢を転換する必要性を認めたのだろう。

The ministry should make further efforts to disclose information on the death penalty.
 今後も死刑に関する情報の開示に努めるべきだ。

Media organizations were allowed to film or photograph certain areas, such as the room in which hangings take place, and the button control room, where prison officers push buttons to activate the trapdoor.
 報道機関には撮影も許可され、密室の様子が初めて外部に知らされた。絞首刑が行われる執行室や刑務官が執行ボタンを押す部屋などが公開された。

Debate requires data

Justice Minister Keiko Chiba this month set up a study panel within the ministry to discuss the death penalty system. Chiba, who had been calling for the abolition of capital punishment, expressed her intention to start discussions on whether the system should be maintained and stressed the need for national debate on the issue.
 千葉法相は今月、死刑制度のあり方を議論する勉強会を省内に作った。もともと死刑廃止論者だった法相は、制度の存廃論議を始める方針も示し、国民的な議論の必要性を強調している。

But the public in fact has been given little information that would help people think about the death penalty.
 しかし、国民には死刑制度を考える材料が、ほとんど明らかにされていないのが現状だ。

An execution must be carried out within six months after a death sentence is finalized, according to the Criminal Procedure Code. But this rule has not been followed. Over the past decade, the period from the finalization of a sentence to actual execution stood at five years and 11 months on average. Some death row inmates have been detained for more than two decades since their sentences were finalized. What has caused this situation?
 刑事訴訟法で定められている、死刑確定から6か月以内の刑の執行は守られていない。過去10年の執行までの期間は平均で5年11か月だ。確定から20年以上拘置されている死刑囚もいる。なぜこうした事態が生じるのか。

In 1998, the Justice Ministry began to publicly announce when it had carried out executions and how many inmates were executed on each occasion. In 2007, it also began disclosing the names of the inmates who were executed. But it has not provided information on how decisions are made about which inmates are to be executed.
 1998年以降、執行の事実と人数のみを公表していた法務省は、07年から死刑囚の氏名も公表するようになった。だが、執行順の決定過程は説明していない。

It also is hard to know anything about how death row inmates live in their cells and whether they regret what they have done.
 死刑囚が独房でどのような生活を送り、反省しているかどうかを知ることも難しい。

The Penal Code stipulates that executions are to be carried out by hanging. But we wonder whether arguments on this point have ever been raised.
 執行方法は刑法で絞首と定められているが、これに対する議論は一度もなかったのだろうか。

In the United Sates, where the death penalty exists in 35 of the 50 states, members of the media and relatives of crime victims can be present to watch executions. They also can be briefed by authorities about developments before actual executions.
 7割の州に死刑制度がある米国では、被害者遺族やメディアが執行に立ち会える。当局から執行までの経緯の説明も受けられる。

We think the Justice Ministry should provide as much information as possible while giving consideration to the privacy of death row inmates and the wishes of victims.
 法務省は死刑囚のプライバシーに配慮しつつ、被害者側の意向も踏まえた上で、可能な限り説明を尽くすべきではないか。

Some in the ministry were cautious about releasing detailed information on the final moments death row inmates face, being concerned that discussions of how executions are carried out and how inmates are treated would eventually lead to arguments supporting the abolition of the death penalty.
 法務省の内部には、死刑囚の最後の局面に関する詳細な情報を公開すると、執行方法や処遇などを巡る議論が、いずれ死刑廃止論議に結びついてしまうという警戒感があった。

It is necessary for the ministry to provide the public with information about the actual situation regarding the death penalty and to allow discussions as to whether practical details of the death penalty system, including the execution method, should be reviewed.
 死刑の現状を国民に知らせ、執行方法や制度の運用に見直すべき点がないのかどうか、問題提起する姿勢も必要だろう。

Seek the best system

An opinion survey conducted by the Cabinet Office showed that more than 80 percent of respondents were in favor of the death penalty. Many victims' relatives demand capital punishment as a penalty matching the seriousness of the crimes committed.
 内閣府の世論調査では、死刑制度容認派が8割を超えている。罪に見合う処罰として極刑を求める被害者遺族は多い。

We do not advocate rushing discussions on whether the death penalty should be maintained or abolished. Rather, we hope that discussions are held from the viewpoint of improving the existing system's operation.
 「存続か廃止か」の議論を急ぐのではなく、現行制度の運用を改善する視点の議論が望まれる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 28, 2010)
(2010年8月28日01時13分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-29 04:39 | 英字新聞

小沢氏出馬表明 日本の針路を競う代表選に

to fend off a barrage of questions from the opposition camp
=野党側の厳しい追及を乗り切っていく
英語はほとんど大丈夫、理解できる。
理解不能の日本語発見。
右顧左眄(うこさべん) =右を見たり左を見たりして迷うこと。左顧右眄。
Kokugo Dai Jiten Dictionary. Shinsou-ban (Revised edition) ゥ Shogakukan 1988/国語大辞典(新装版)ゥ小学館 1988
(スラチャイ)

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 28, 2010)
DPJ election should be battle over policy
小沢氏出馬表明 日本の針路を競う代表選に(8月27日付・読売社説)

The Democratic Party of Japan's upcoming presidential election is almost certain to be a two-man race between Prime Minister Naoto Kan, who is seeking reelection as DPJ chief, and former party Secretary General Ichiro Ozawa.
 民主党代表選は、再選をめざす菅首相と小沢一郎前幹事長との、事実上の一騎打ちになることが固まった。

Selecting the leader of the largest ruling party is effectively synonymous with choosing the next prime minister.  与党第1党の党首選は首相選びに直結する。

We hope the DPJ will choose the winner of the race through a serious battle of words concerning the course this country should take.
The election should not be reduced to a race in which its two opposing camps struggle to win party members over to their respective sides, thus determining which can seize power: the bloc that wants Ozawa removed from the center of the party and the government, or the side that supports him.
「脱小沢」か「親小沢」かという権力争奪の多数派工作に堕することなく、あるべき日本の針路を論じ合って雌雄を決してほしい。

 ◆分裂、政界再編の芽も◆
Ozawa has expressed his intention to run in the Sept. 14 election, campaigning for which will start Wednesday.  小沢氏は、9月1日告示、14日投開票の党代表選に出馬する意向を表明した。

His move comes after he secured the support of former Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama; Ozawa had been considering entering the race if he could receive support from a wide range of DPJ lawmakers.
 党内の幅広い支持を得られることを前提に出馬を検討していた小沢氏は、鳩山前首相の支持をとりつけた上で立候補に踏み切った。

However, this does not mean Ozawa has been guaranteed support from most DPJ members.
だが、支持の大勢が固まっているわけではない。

Attempt at truce failed

A key factor behind the Kan-Ozawa showdown is the bitter discord between the former DPJ secretary general and senior party leaders seeking to eliminating his influence within the party, including the prime minister, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshito Sengoku and party Secretary General Yukio Edano.
 今回の対決の背景には、小沢氏と、「脱小沢」を掲げる菅首相や仙谷官房長官、枝野幹事長らとの強い軋轢(あつれき)がある。

Ozawa's announcement of his decision to run was preceded by Hatoyama's attempt to broker a compromise between Kan and Ozawa, in the hope of averting a deepening schism among intraparty groups.
 鳩山氏は、党の亀裂が深まる事態を避けるため、菅首相と小沢氏との仲介に動いた。

However, Kan was reluctant to accept Hatoyama's request to ensure key figures from each intraparty group, including Ozawa, were represented in the party's leadership and the Cabinet, in what could be called a whole-party approach.
だが、鳩山氏が小沢氏の要職起用を含む挙党態勢の構築を求めたのに対して、菅首相は難色を示した。

This bitterly antagonized Ozawa.
A decision by Ozawa not to run would have enabled Kan to win unopposed, a development that would cost the veteran DPJ kingpin support among a number of party members. Ozawa's decision to run can be seen as a last-resort measure to avoid this.
 小沢氏は反発し、菅首相の無投票再選を容認すれば、党内で孤立しかねず、窮余の決断になったものとみられる。

Kan's rejection of Hatoyama's request caused the former prime minister to shift his support from Kan to Ozawa. Hatoyama earlier said he would back Kan's bid to be reelected as DPJ president, provided he adopts a whole-party approach.
 挙党態勢を条件に「菅氏支持」を表明していた鳩山氏は、一転して「小沢氏支持」に変わった。

Hatoyama's obvious change of heart must be criticized as unacceptable. It is disconcerting that he has endorsed Ozawa's bid to become DPJ leader--we should remember that Hatoyama stepped down as party head and prime minister before the House of Councillors election in July to take the blame for the turmoil arising from his poorly thought-out approach to politically divisive issues, at the same time urging Ozawa to resign as party secretary general.
参院選前、政局混迷の責任をとってともに辞任した小沢氏を代表に推すのは、納得し難い行動だ。

Ozawa's decision to run in the wake of Hatoyama's failed peacemaking means he has concluded that taking the DPJ's top post will be the best way for him to escape the damned-if-he-does-and-damned-if-he-doesn't situation he is in. All this likely will turn the upcoming election into a battle that will divide the ruling party. The DPJ could be broken up into different groups and this could eventually result in a new round of political realignment--that is, new splits and mergers among both ruling and opposition parties.
 鳩山氏の調停失敗を受け、小沢氏が正面突破を図ったことで、代表選は党を二分する争いになる見込みだ。党分裂含みの展開も予想され、今後、野党を巻き込んだ政界再編の動きも出てこよう。

Back to basics
 ◆「政治とカネ」説明を◆

Some groups of pro-Ozawa DPJ legislators have insisted their party "return to square one" in policy administration, saying the party's defeat in the upper house election was the result of its failure to honor its manifesto for last year's general election. These groups also have criticized Kan for stating his administration would explore the possibility of raising the consumption tax rate during campaigning for the upper house election.
 小沢支持グループは、参院選の敗北が衆院選の政権公約(マニフェスト)から逸脱した結果だとして、「原点回帰」を唱えている。菅首相の消費税率引き上げ検討発言も批判してきた。

However, it is easy to see that lavish handout policies such as child-rearing allowances cannot be carried out as initially pledged, given the extremely optimistic estimate drawn up by the DPJ regarding the necessary financial resources.
 しかし、子ども手当などのバラマキ政策は、当初の極めて甘い財源見通しにより、公約通りに実行できないのは明らかだ。

If Ozawa truly believes in a back-to-square-one approach, he must show what kind of realistic measures would be implemented to raise the funds necessary for promised policies, while also presenting a timetable for each policy as soon as possible.
 小沢氏が原点回帰路線に立つなら、公約実施に向けた現実的な財源と、工程表を早急に提示することが肝要だ。

This is not the only thing on Ozawa's must-do list; he must also fulfill his duty to answer questions about the political funding scandal surrounding him.
 小沢氏がなすべきことは、それだけではない。「政治とカネ」の問題について、きちんと説明責任を果たすことが欠かせない。

Ozawa's politics-and-money scandal includes alleged violations of the Political Funds Control Law in connection with a shady land purchase by his funds management organization. During the last ordinary Diet session, Ozawa refused to attend the House of Representatives' Deliberative Council on Political Ethics and state his position on the issue. He also escaped being forced to testify under oath in the Diet.
 自らの資金管理団体の土地購入をめぐる政治資金規正法違反事件について、小沢氏は先の通常国会では、衆院政治倫理審査会で弁明せず、証人喚問からも逃れた。

However, it will be extremely difficult for Ozawa to fend off a barrage of questions from the opposition camp in the divided Diet. The upper house is at the mercy of the opposition bloc due to the ruling coalition's loss of its majority in the July election, while the ruling parties have an overwhelming majority in the lower house.
 しかし、参院選の結果、与党が過半数を失ったことによる「衆参ねじれ国会」の下で、野党側の厳しい追及を乗り切っていくことは極めて難しい。

Ozawa seeking escape?

Ozawa will be automatically indicted in connection with his alleged funding irregularities if a Tokyo independent inquest-of-prosecution panel decides in autumn that his case merits indictment, after reconsidering prosecutors' earlier decision not to do so.
 今秋、検察審査会が再び、「起訴すべき」と議決すれば、本来なら小沢氏の強制起訴は免れない。

The Constitution contains an article that stipulates ministers of the state "shall not be subject to legal action without the consent of the Prime Minister" during their time in office.
ただ、憲法には「国務大臣は在任中、総理大臣の同意がなければ訴追されない」との規定がある。

Some DPJ members who support Kan have said Ozawa may be seeking to become prime minister in the hope of taking advantage of this constitutional provision to escape indictment.
 菅支持派からは「小沢氏は起訴を逃れるため、首相をめざすのではないか」との声も聞かれる。

What will Ozawa actually do, if and when the judiciary panel concludes he should be indicted? Well before the committee reaches its eventual decision on the case in question, Ozawa should tell the public how he will deal with such a situation.
 実際、「起訴議決」の場合、小沢氏はどう対処するのか。事前に明らかにする責任もあろう。

Meanwhile, Kan must take seriously Ozawa's candidacy for their party's leadership.
 一方、菅首相は、小沢氏の出馬が確定したことを、重く受け止めなければならない。

The DPJ's top echelon, including the prime minister, has done little to settle the dispute over their responsibility for the party's electoral setback. Neither have they fully analyzed why the ruling party was defeated in the upper house race. This failure has done much to foster discontent among many DPJ members.
 菅首相以下、民主党執行部は、参院選敗北について明確な責任をとらず、敗因についても十分な総括をしてこなかった。これらが党内に不満を醸成した。

 ◆政治空白の余裕はない◆
There is no denying that many DPJ lawmakers feel uneasy about Kan's ability--or lack thereof--to manage his own party and make decisions about government policies.
 党運営や政策遂行をめぐる首相の指導力や判断力に、民主党の多くの議員が不安を抱いていることも否定できない。

Take this nation's current economic crisis--including the recent surge in the value of the yen and falling stock prices. The Kan administration has been slow to address these problems. Despite having to campaign for his reelection as DPJ chief, Kan must fulfill his duties to run the country as prime minister.
 最近の円高や株安など、経済危機への対応一つとっても、菅内閣の動きは鈍い。代表選の最中にあっても、首相は国政を預かる責任を果たさなければならない。

Kan must speak clearly

If he hopes to amend the manifesto, the prime minister should reexamine the policies the DPJ-led government has implemented since the party took power, while also clearly showing the public which policies will be changed and which will be kept in place.
 首相は、政権公約の修正を図ろうとするなら、政権交代以降の政策を再点検し、今後、何を変え、何を継続するのかを明確にすることが大事だ。

This also applies to Kan's approach to the consumption tax issue. He should be resolute in stating his opinions about the matter.
 消費税率の引き上げ問題も、右顧左眄(うこさべん)せず、所信を正面から訴えるべきである。

The current DPJ came into being in 2003, when Kan and Ozawa agreed to merge their respective parties, with the aim of toppling the then Liberal Democratic Party-led ruling coalition from power and establishing a DPJ-led administration. In those days, the DPJ was headed by Kan and the defunct Liberal Party by Ozawa.
 現在の民主党は2003年、当時の菅民主党代表と小沢自由党党首が、政権交代を旗印に、両党を合併して生まれた。

Even since its inauguration, the current DPJ has been described as a "mutual aid society" aimed at ensuring its two constituent parties help each other in elections. The DPJ-LP integration also has been dismissed as a merger that lacks political goals and principles.
 当初から「選挙互助会」とか、「理念なき合併」との指摘があった。

In fact, the DPJ has yet to lay out guiding principles for such fundamental policies as constitutional amendment, national security and reform of the consumption tax.
憲法改正や安保政策、消費税問題など党の基本政策は、今もって確立していない。

The ruling party's inadequacy in this has hindered progress in implementing such key policies.
これが、政権担当政党として政策を進める上の障害になっている。

Kan and Ozawa should lock horns in a debate over their party's basic policies, instead of fearing that their battle in the DPJ leadership race could lead to a rupture in the party or renewed alignment of political parties and groups.
 この際、両氏は、党分裂や政界再編に至る可能性に臆することなく、党の基本政策について徹底した議論を展開すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 27, 2010)
(2010年8月27日01時23分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-28 08:52 | 英字新聞

円高加速 政府・日銀は具体策を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 27, 2010)
Govt, BOJ should move on yen--now
円高加速 政府・日銀は具体策を急げ(8月26日付・読売社説)

There seem to be no brakes on the rise of the yen as speculators apparently take advantage of the sluggish response of the government and the Bank of Japan to the yen's appreciation.
 政府・日銀の対応の鈍さに投機筋が付け込み、円高に歯止めがかからなくなっている。

The yen is surging, hitting a 15-year high in the 83 yen range against the U.S. dollar on foreign markets Tuesday. There are whispers in the markets that the yen could soon even reach a record high in the 79 yen range versus the dollar.
 24日の海外市場で、15年ぶりに1ドル=83円台をつけるなど、急ピッチで円が上昇している。市場には、やがて史上最高値の79円台が視野に入るとの見方もある。

With the yen's surge set to batter the Japanese economy, the 225-issue Nikkei Stock Average dropped below the 9,000 mark Wednesday to close at the year's low of 8,845.39.
 日本経済への打撃を見越して、東京市場の平均株価は9000円を割り、25日の終値は今年最安値の8845円となった。

Unless the sharp appreciation of the yen is checked, business sentiment and the willingness of households to spend may cool, stalling the economy.
 円の急騰を止めないと、企業や家計の心理が冷え込み、景気が腰折れしかねない。

The government and the central bank should resolutely act to deal with this worrying situation, and consider intervening in the market to stem the yen's rise.
 政府・日銀は、円高阻止に向け市場介入も選択肢に、断固たる姿勢で臨むべきである。

The recent responses of the government and the Bank of Japan have been missing the mark.
 このところ、政府と日銀の対応は、誤算が続いている。

On Aug. 10, the central bank held off adding measures to expand liquidity. Soon after, the U.S. Federal Reserve Board took additional money-easing steps, triggering the latest rise in the yen.
 今月10日、日銀は追加の金融緩和を見送ったが、その直後に米連邦準備制度理事会(FRB)が追加の緩和策を実施した。それが今回の円急騰につながった。

Talks fall flat

A discussion over the telephone between Prime Minister Naoto Kan and Bank of Japan Gov. Masaaki Shirakawa on Monday, which set tongues wagging that steps would be taken to deal with the yen's rise, ended in just 15 minutes.
 円高対策で注目された菅首相と白川方明日銀総裁の23日の会談は、15分間の電話会談に終わった。

Contrary to what policymakers had intended, the talks ended with little substance and led to a further advance of the yen and offloading of stocks as disappointment spread among market players.
内容も乏しかったため、政策当局の狙いに反し、一層の円高と株の失望売りを誘った。

There have been striking inconsistencies in messages sent by Cabinet members to the market.
 閣僚らによる「市場との対話」も、ちぐはぐさが目立つ。

At a hastily arranged press conference Tuesday evening, Finance Minister Yoshihiko Noda indicated he would closely watch the market. He failed to offer any concrete response to the situation, which only fueled the yen's rise.
 野田財務相が24日夕に開いた緊急記者会見は、市場を注視する考えを示しただけで具体策がなく、むしろ円高に拍車をかけた。

On Wednesday, Noda finally hinted the government might intervene in the market, saying, "When necessary, we will take appropriate measures."
 財務相は25日、「必要な時は適切な対応を取る」と、やっと市場介入の可能性を示唆した。

During meetings with Democratic Party of Japan members of the House of Representatives the same day, Kan said, "We'll respond properly in the not-so-distant future."
菅首相もこの日、民主党衆院議員らとの会合で、「そう遠くない時期にちゃんと対応する」と述べた。

None of this changed the tide in the financial markets.
 だが、いずれも流れを変える材料にならなかった。

The halfhearted response by policymakers probably has speculators believing the government will not take any specific action to stem the yen's rise for the time being.
 これまでの及び腰の姿勢から、「日本政府はまだ動かない」と、投機筋は踏んでいるのだろう。

No time to waste

The government could be keeping an ace up its sleeve, which it will play when the yen stands on the brink of rising above 80 yen to the dollar. But this is no time for the government to be sitting on its hands. We think the government should discuss in earnest the possibility of going it alone in intervening in the currency market.
 政府は、円がさらに上昇し、1ドル=80円突破をうかがうまで「奥の手」を温存したい気持ちもあろうが、そろそろ潮時ではないか。日本単独での市場介入を、真剣に検討すべき段階と言えよう。

The United States and European countries embrace the depreciation of their currencies against the yen. But it is difficult to put a finger on why only the yen is rising against other major currencies, despite the fact that Japan is plagued by deflation and sluggish growth.
 米欧は自国通貨安を容認しているが、デフレと成長鈍化に悩む日本の円が独歩高なのは説明がつかない。

Japan will probably not be strongly criticized by other nations even if it moves to correct the yen's excessive appreciation.
日本が円高修正に動いても海外から強い批判は受けまい。

The Bank of Japan is reportedly considering taking additional money easing measures ahead of the next Monetary Policy Meeting set for early September. We hope the central bank will both check the yen's rise and stimulate the economy.
 日銀も、9月上旬の金融政策決定会合に向け、追加金融緩和の検討に入ったという。円高阻止、景気浮揚の両面で期待したい。

Depending on market developments, the central bank should promptly ease the money supply by holding an extraordinary meeting, rather than wait until the regular policy meeting.
 市場動向によっては、定例会合を待たずに臨時会合を開き、金融緩和を急ぐべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 26, 2010)
(2010年8月26日01時03分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-27 04:27 | 英字新聞

企業の国際化 英語が社内公用語となる時代

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 26, 2010)
English necessary to cope with globalization
企業の国際化 英語が社内公用語となる時代(8月25日付・読売社説)

The United Nations has six specified official languages: English, French, Russian, Chinese, Spanish and Arabic; but in the world of business, English has effectively established itself as the common language.
 国連では英語、仏語、ロシア語、中国語、スペイン語、アラビア語の6言語が公用語として定められている。

 しかし、ビジネスの世界に限って言えば、英語が事実上の共通語としての地位を既に確立している。


Recently, some Japanese firms have decided to make English their official language.
 日本では、英語を社内共通言語とする企業が相次いでいる。

Internet company Rakuten Inc. announced it will adopt English as its official language by the end of 2012.
 インターネットサービス大手の楽天は、2012年中に、英語を「社内公用語」にするという。

Fast Retailing Co., operator of Uniqlo, the nation's largest clothing chain, and with several outlets around the world, also announced a policy of using English at meetings where non-Japanese staff are present.
 世界各地にユニクロの店舗を展開しているファーストリテイリングも、外国人社員を交えた会議は原則英語で統一する計画だ。

Both companies are aggressively expanding their global operations by increasing overseas bases and taking other steps. They are also reportedly planning to drastically increase their number of non-Japanese employees.
 両社とも、海外拠点を増やすなど、国際事業を積極的に展開している。外国人社員の採用も大幅に増やしていくという。

Such moves are vital to make best use of a workforce with diverse mother tongues and enable smooth communication.
 様々な言語を母語とする社員の能力を引き出し、コミュニケーションを円滑にするためにも、そのような措置は避けて通れまい。

English ability will be an important attribute for employees of global firms so they can share the latest information instantly through e-mail and efficiently take part in negotiations with clients.
 電子メールで取得した世界の最新情報を社員が瞬時に共有し、商談をスピーディーに進めていく上でも、社員の英語力は重要だ。

===

Adapt to a changing world

As society becomes more globalized, Japanese companies must respond to the changing world by using English as their official language. Such efforts are needed to meet the needs of the times.
 グローバル化が進む中で、日本企業が必要に応じて英語を社内の共通言語とするのは、時代の要請と受け止めるべきだ。

Rakuten said it will ask Japanese employees to use English when communicating about work-related matters.
 楽天の場合は、日本人社員同士のビジネス上のやりとりも、すべて英語にするという。

At a press conference earlier this month to release its midterm financial report, Rakuten President Hiroshi Mikitani spoke in English to reporters and analysts from around the globe. Simultaneous interpretation was provided.
 今月開かれた楽天の決算会見でも、国内外の記者やアナリストに対し英語で説明が行われ、同時通訳が付けられた。

The company is making a thorough effort to promote the use of English inside the company, with even its cafeteria menu written in English.
さらに、社員食堂のメニューまでが、英語で表示されるほどの徹底ぶりである。

===

A wake-up call

However, some people have criticized the language policies as going too far, saying, "It's absurd to force people working in Japan to use English."
 「日本国内で英語使用を強いるなんて」と、“行き過ぎ”を批判する声も上がっている。

It is, of course, necessary to treasure the Japanese language, which represents our sensibility as a people and is the basis of our culture.
 無論、日本人の感性を表し、文化の基本でもある日本語は、大切にしなければならない。

Attempts to make English the official language of a company may seem like an extremely radical idea. But it can be looked at as a kind of "shock therapy," to completely change employees' state of mind.
 ただ、ある意味で極端とも言える「英語公用語化」は、社員の意識改革を徹底させる“ショック療法”と見ることも出来る。

How much English needs to be used at each firm is debatable, but individual companies should be left to make this decision in consideration of their specific circumstances.
 果たしてどこまで英語を社内言語として導入すべきかは、それぞれの企業が、状況に応じて判断していくべき事柄だろう。

Apart from Rakuten and Fast Retailing, more than a few companies use English at board meetings and other occasions to cope with the growing diversity of their board members.
 楽天やユニクロ以外でも、役員の国籍の多様化に伴い、役員会などで英語を使用する日本企業は少なくない。

Companies trying to access the global market likely have no choice but to introduce English, or some other foreign tongue, as an official language.
 国際展開する企業は、今後ますます、英語などの外国語を企業の共通言語として導入していかざるを得なくなるのではないか。

Rakuten's moves to make English its official language is symbolic of the changing environment Japanese companies face.
 楽天の英語公用語化は、日本企業を取り巻く環境の変化を示す象徴的な出来事だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 25, 2010)
(2010年8月25日01時31分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-26 04:31 | 英字新聞

菅・白川会談 政策協調で景気の失速防げ

日本はもうそろそろ米国主導の経済市場原理主義の呪縛より解き放たれたほうが良い。
現在日本が置かれている経済状態を素直に認めることから出発したい。
団塊の世代がどんどん退職して行き、日本の労働人口にかげりが見え始めてしまっている。
景気の減速は当り前のことだ。円高に一方的に罪をなすりつけようとする理論にも無理がある。
為替の変動は国の経済にプラス・マイナスの両面をもたらす。
新聞の報道は円高にすこしでも振れると大騒ぎ、政府・日銀の為替介入をうながす記事を書く。
これは間違っていると思う。円高で不利益を被る人(企業)がいれば、逆に円高で利益を受ける人(庶民)もいる。
ガソリンや電気代さらに輸入品の価格が下がることは庶民にとってはありがたいことだ。
いつまでもアメリカンドリームにすがっている場合ではない。
本家のアメリカでも最近アメリカンドリームの発想に批判的な投稿が増えてきている。
(スラチャイ記)

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 25, 2010)
Coordinate policy to ward off slowdown
菅・白川会談 政策協調で景気の失速防げ(8月24日付・読売社説)

What policy measures will the government and the Bank of Japan take to deal with the sharp slowdown in the economy and the overvaluation of the yen? Their capabilities are being put to the test.
 景気の急激な減速や、経済の実力以上に進んだ円高にどう手を打つか。政府・日銀の政策が問われている。

Prime Minister Naoto Kan and Bank of Japan Gov. Masaaki Shirakawa spoke on the phone Monday morning. They reportedly exchanged views on the recent economic situation, including currency exchange rates, for 15 minutes and agreed that it was important to maintain close communications with each other.
 菅首相と白川日銀総裁が23日午前、電話で会談した。為替を含め、経済情勢について15分間ほど意見交換し、「緊密なコミュニケーションが重要」との認識で一致したという。

The government is planning to compile additional economic measures soon. To boost their effectiveness, the government apparently tried to trumpet its coordination with the central bank by arranging the talks between Kan and Shirakawa.
 政府は近く追加経済対策をまとめる方針で、その効果を高めるため、日銀との連携をアピールする狙いがあるのだろう。

Unfortunately, however, exchange rates and stock prices hardly reacted to their dialogue. The markets apparently decided it lacked substance.
 だが、為替も株価もほとんど反応しなかった。実質的な内容が乏しいと市場は判断したようだ。

Rethink unhelpful policies

The strong yen and deflation are depriving the Japanese economy of its vitality. The government and the central bank must pursue policy coordination in a flexible manner to prevent the economy from slowing down further.
 円高とデフレが日本経済の体力を奪っている。政府・日銀は機動的に政策協調し、景気の失速を防がねばならない。

The real economic growth rate in the April-June quarter was almost flat and the nominal rate, which is closer to the public mood, went into the negative. More and more economists believe the Japanese economy has entered a temporary stagnant period.
 4~6月の経済成長率は実質でほぼ横ばい、実感に近い名目ではマイナスとなり、景気が足踏みする「踊り場」入りしたとの見方が強まっている。

To deal with the situation, the government has decided to use reserve funds and other spare money in this fiscal year's budget to continue its eco-point program for housing and to help jobless people find new jobs.
 このため政府は、今年度予算の予備費などを活用し、住宅版エコポイント制度の延長や失業者の就職支援などを行うことにした。

We think that stimulation of consumption and job placement assistance are appropriate measures to prevent the economy from losing its momentum. However, the scale of these measures is likely to be a little less than 2 trillion yen.
 消費喚起や雇用対策は、景気の腰折れを防ぐ妥当な政策だろう。だが、対策の規模は2兆円足らずにとどまると見られる。

Though some members of the ruling coalition parties have called for larger economic measures, the government should avoid issuing additional government bonds for that purpose, given the nation's tough fiscal condition. It is also not realistic to suddenly raise tax rates.
 与党内に対策の規模拡大を望む声はあるが、厳しい財政事情に照らせば国債増発は避けるべきだ。急な増税も現実的ではない。

Under such circumstances, the only possible course for the government is to eke out the necessary funds by scaling down low-priority policy projects. The government and the ruling coalition parties should screen policy measures with dubious economic effects, including child-rearing allowances, based strictly on their impact on the economy, and make a zero-based review of how to use the budget more wisely.
 ならば、優先度の低い政策を縮小し、財源をひねり出すほかあるまい。子ども手当をはじめ、経済効果に疑問のある政策を「景気優先」の物差しで仕分けし、もっと賢い予算の使い方はないか、ゼロベースで見直すべきである。

No talk of intervention?

An even more pressing issue is the yen's appreciation, which will not only reduce the volume of exports but also harm a wide variety of other areas. It will accelerate the drain of domestic companies from Japan to other countries and further worsen deflation.
 さらに緊急の課題が、円高だ。弊害は輸出の減少にとどまらず、企業の海外流出やデフレの悪化など広範に及ぶ。

During their recent telephone conversation, Kan and Shirakawa did not discuss a currency intervention to stem the yen's rise against other major currencies, according to Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshito Sengoku. But we are not sure if this is true.
 今回の電話会談で、為替介入に関する話題は「全く出なかった」(仙谷官房長官)というが、真偽のほどはわからない。

If Japan is viewed as acting weak in currency intervention, speculators will try to capitalize on that. If the yen rises further in the near future, the prime minister should meet the central bank governor in person to discuss countermeasures.
 日本が為替介入に弱腰と見られれば、投機筋につけ込まれかねない。今後、さらに円高が進むようなら、首相は日銀総裁と直接会談し、対策を協議すべきだろう。

A key factor in dealing with the rising yen is what action the Bank of Japan will take. The central bank should introduce further quantitative monetary easing because monetary relaxation not only helps alleviate the upward pressure on interest rates caused by increased public spending, it also promotes the depreciation of the yen.
 カギを握るのが日銀の対応である。金融緩和は、財政出動による金利上昇圧力を抑え、円安を促す効果もある。日銀は一段の量的金融緩和に踏み切るべきだ。

The Bank of Japan should consider a method that has worked well in the past--heightening the effects of monetary easing by not absorbing funds the government funnels into the market as yen-selling intervention.
 政府が円売り介入で市場に放出した資金を日銀が吸い上げず、緩和効果を高める手法も、過去に実績がある。検討に値しよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 24, 2010)
(2010年8月24日01時00分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-25 05:34 | 英字新聞

米軍のイラク撤兵―重い教訓に向き合うとき

2010/08/24
--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 23
EDITORIAL: U.S. pullout from Iraq.
米軍のイラク撤兵―重い教訓に向き合うとき

U.S. President Barack Obama has set the end of 2011 as the deadline for the withdrawal of all U.S. forces from Iraq. The midterm goal of the plan is to end combat operations in the country by Aug. 31. In line with the schedule, the last U.S. combat unit left Iraq to move into neighboring Kuwait last week.
 米国のオバマ大統領は2011年末までに、イラク駐留米軍の完全撤退をめざす。中間目標は、今月末までの戦闘任務終了だ。この方針に沿い、戦闘部隊が隣国クウェートに撤兵した。

The number of U.S. troops remaining in Iraq will be reduced to 50,000, about one-third of the peak level, at the end of this month. Their main mission will be training Iraqi security forces that will take over the role of the U.S. troops.
 米軍は今月末、ピーク時の約3分の1の5万人に減り、後を引き継ぐイラク治安部隊の訓練が主な任務となる。

The death toll of American troops in Iraq has surpassed 4,400, while estimates put the number of Iraqi civilians killed at more than 100,000.
 すでに、イラクでの米軍の死者は4400人を超え、イラクの民間人の死者は10万人以上とも言われる。

Answering to an embedded foreign journalist, a U.S. soldier who has left Iraq said the best thing would be for no one to get hurt anymore. The U.S. forces have just done their duties, but many of them probably have mixed feelings, wondering if they fought a just war.
 イラクを離れた兵士が外国の従軍記者に答えた。「何がいいかって? 第一に、もう誰も傷つかないこと」。この戦争は正しかったのか。任務とはいえ、兵士たちにも複雑な思いが去来したのではないだろうか。

Immediately after the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks in the United States, many countries and people around the world supported U.S. plans for a war against terrorism. But the U.S. government's push to topple the regime of Saddam Hussein bitterly divided the world and provoked deep anger within the Islamic world. As a result, terrorism has spread widely both within and outside Iraq.
 同時多発テロが起きた時、多くの国々、人々がテロに立ち向かう米国を後押しした。だが、強引にサダム・フセイン政権打倒に突き進む米国のやり方は世界を分裂させ、イスラム世界の反発も強めることになり、むしろテロはイラク内外に拡散した。

What was the meaning of the Iraq war? It is time for both the United States, which started the war, and Japan, which supported the U.S. action, to ask themselves some serious questions about what they did.
 この戦争は何だったのか。開戦した米国も、戦争を支持した日本も、深く自問自答すべきときだ。

A 'preventive war'
■「予防戦争」の深い傷

Let us look back.
 少し振り返ってみよう。

Suspicions arose that Iraq had a secret cache of weapons of mass destruction. If these weapons found their way into the hands of terrorists, the U.S. administration of President George W. Bush argued, they would pose a serious security threat.
The Bush administration used these concerns as justification for starting the war against Iraq despite a lack of definite evidence to support these claims.
 イラクが大量破壊兵器を隠し持っている疑いがある。テロ組織に渡ると大きな脅威になる。それが、時のブッシュ米大統領が戦端を開く「大義」だったが、決定的な証拠を欠いていた。

The U.S.-led invasion of Iraq started with willing allies, such as Britain and Italy, flying in the face of opposition from Germany, France and other countries. The U.N. Security Council did not issue a resolution that clearly sanctioned the use of armed forces against Iraq.
それでも、独仏などの反対を押し切り、英伊などとの有志連合で攻撃を始めた。武力行使を明確に容認する国連安保理決議はないままだった。

A "preventive war" to nip a potential threat in the bud by a country solely on its own judgment violates the U.N. Charter, which permits a country's use of force only for self-defense against an imminent security threat to the country or when the Security Council has passed a resolution to approve military action.
 脅威の芽を独断的に先に摘みとる「予防戦争」は、差し迫った脅威への自衛と国連安保理決議に基づく武力行使しか認めない国連憲章に反する。

The international community struggled to persuade the United States to restrain itself from heading into a preventive war. Before the Iraq war began, a French diplomat said it was a U.S. problem, not an Iraq problem.
 「予防戦争」へと進む米国にどう自制を促すか。国際社会は腐心した。仏外交官は開戦前に語っていた。「これはイラク問題ではなく米国問題だ」

The U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell warned the president that invading Iraq would be very costly for both the United States and the world. He pointed out that occupying Iraq would mean the United States would have to own the hopes, aspirations and problems of all Iraqi people. Still, Bush decided to start the attack, true to his pledge to combat terrorism by all possible measures.
 米国務長官だったパウエル氏は大統領に、イラク侵攻は米国にも世界にも「高くつく」と直言したという。占領すればイラク国民の希望も問題も、すべて引き受けなければならない、と。それでも大統領は開戦に動いた。「あらゆる手段でテロを根絶する」というブッシュ流を持ち込んだ戦争、それがイラク戦争であった。

Lack of support

The U.S. administration was apparently driven by the shock of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. It was, however, difficult for Washington to win support from people in Iraq or the international community for a fight against terrorism when it was actually an attempt to use force to upset an anti-U.S. regime without offering any clear rationale.
 同時多発テロの衝撃に突き動かされたのだろう。だが、いくら米国の意に沿わない国でも、あいまいな根拠に基づいて武力行使で政権転覆するやり方では、イラクの人心も国際世論も「対テロ」での結束は困難だ。

But the Bush administration couldn't understand this obvious truth.
そんな自明のことにさえ理解が及ばなかった。

The search after the collapse of the Saddam regime found no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq, making the war even more questionable.
 侵攻後に調べてみると大量破壊兵器などなく、戦争への疑問はさらに拡大した。

The U.S. billed the overthrow of Saddam as part of its fight against terrorism and continued operations to eliminate the remnants and supporters of the regime. This provoked strong anti-American sentiment and a wave of terrorist attacks in Iraq. The U.S. invasion gave extremist groups like al-Qaida a justification for jihad in Iraq, setting off an endless chain of violence.
米国が政権打倒を「対テロ戦争」と同一視し、旧政権の残党や支持勢力の根絶作戦を続けたことはイラク内で強い反米意識とテロを誘発した。アルカイダなど過激派にイラクでの聖戦実施という「大義」を与え、暴力の連鎖をまねく事態ともなった。

■軍事力過信への戒め
Iraq remains deeply mired in political turmoil. Parliamentary elections in March have triggered a political standoff between religious groups, failing to establish a new government and leaving the country in a political vacuum.
 イラクは今も混乱の中にある。3月の国民議会選挙後も宗派対立などで新政権ができず、政治空白が続く。

Meanwhile, the United States under President Obama, who harshly criticized Bush over the Iraq war, has dramatically changed its policy. Now, Washington is trying to rebuild war-devastated Iraq through efforts supported by the United Nations and the international community.
 ブッシュ路線を批判してきたオバマ氏が大統領となった米国は大きく方針を転換した。今は、国連や国際社会を説得してイラク再建を目指している。

As the country that destroyed Iraq and created chaos in the country through its preventive war, the United States has a grave responsibility.
それは、「予防戦争」でイラクを壊し乱した米国の、国家としての重い責任でもある。

President Obama, however, has called the conflict in Afghanistan a "necessary war" and has tripled the number of U.S. troops deployed in the country since he took office.
 そのオバマ大統領が、アフガニスタンについては「必要な戦争」と呼び、就任後、駐留米軍を3倍に増やした。

But the United States has failed to win the hearts of the people in Afghanistan even though it has overthrown a regime linked to al-Qaida.
The current situation in Afghanistan, where the United States is struggling badly in its efforts to help rebuild the nation and eliminate terrorism, is reminiscent of Washington's plight in Iraq.
だが、アルカイダとつながった政権を打倒しても人心をつかめず、国の復興・再建やテロ対策が難航している現状は、イラクでの苦悩を想起させる。

David Miliband, a former British foreign secretary, has cited overconfidence in military power as one of the mistakes made in the war against terrorism. Expanding the war front, which inevitably leads to a larger number of war victims, doesn't help increase allies for efforts to prevent terrorism. The United States should keep this lesson in mind for its operations in Afghanistan as well.
 英国のミリバンド前外相は、「対テロ戦争」の過ちのひとつに軍事力への過信をあげる。戦火と犠牲者の拡大は、テロを防ぐ味方を必ずしも増やせない。この教訓を米国はアフガニスタンでも強く認識しておいて欲しい。

Japan supported the U.S.-led war against Iraq and dispatched Self-Defense Forces troops to what the government described as a "noncombat zone" in the country. It was a move to demonstrate its solid commitment to its alliance with the United States. But how should we judge the Japanese government's decision to back a war that was started on the basis of inaccurate information?
 日本はイラク戦争を支持し、イラクの「非戦闘地域」に自衛隊を派遣した。同盟国・米国に寄り添う動きだった。不確かな情報に基づく戦争を支持したことをどう総括するのか。

"There is obviously no way for me to know at this moment which parts (of Iraq) are combat areas and which are noncombat zones," then Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi said during a Diet session. Didn't the government make a wrong choice when it decided to send SDF troops to Iraq when it had no accurate information, as Koizumi's remarks indicated?
「どこが戦闘地域で、どこが非戦闘地域か、いまこの私に聞かれたって、わかるわけない」(小泉純一郎首相の国会答弁)といった状態での自衛隊派遣は、誤った選択ではなかったのか。

Review decision-making process
■日本の意思決定検証を

The North Korea problem influenced the policy decisions of the ruling party and the government concerning Iraq.
 与党・政府内では、イラク問題の背後で北朝鮮問題が見え隠れした。

A senior lawmaker of then ruling Liberal Democratic Party said, "Can we afford to allow Japan's alliance with the United States to be damaged by walking away (from the Iraq war) when Japan is facing a threat from North Korea?"
「北朝鮮問題があるのに、(イラクから)いち抜けたと言って日米同盟が悪くなっていいのか」(自民党幹部)との声も聞こえた。

But how was the Iraq war actually linked to the North Korea problem in policy debate within the Koizumi administration?
実際のところ、政権の中でイラクと北朝鮮の問題をどのように関連づけていたのか。

At that time, as chief of the opposition Democratic Party of Japan, Naoto Kan, the current prime minister, argued that sending SDF troops to Iraq, most parts of which were combat areas, was unconstitutional. The current DPJ-led government must now make clear what it has learned from the episode.
 菅直人首相は、民主党代表として、大半が戦闘地域のイラクへの自衛隊派遣は違憲状態だと指摘していた。民主党政権はこの歴史から何を学びとるのか、今こそ明確に示す必要がある。

Government decisions about war must be rigorously scrutinized. Otherwise, the experience will leave no useful lesson for the governance of the nation, especially for its diplomatic and national security policies.
 戦争に関する国家の意思、判断は、厳しい検証を受けなければならない。さもなくば、今後の国家運営、とりわけ外交と安全保障政策に何の教訓も残さないことになる。

The time has come for the Diet to take a fresh and hard look at the process in which Japan made its decisions concerning the Iraq war through such efforts as intensive debate at an Upper House fact-finding committee.
 参議院の調査会で集中的に審議するなど、国会でイラク戦争をめぐる意思決定の検証作業をすべきである。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-25 04:30 | 英字新聞

取り調べ可視化 海外調査を論議の出発点に

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 24, 2010)
Open discussion needed on taping interrogations
取り調べ可視化 海外調査を論議の出発点に(8月23日付・読売社説)

The Justice Ministry will send prosecutors overseas to study the feasibility of introducing a system to make audio and video recordings of investigators' interrogations of suspects. The prosecutors will conduct research for a year on how recording systems function in the countries they visit.
 捜査官が容疑者を取り調べる過程を録音・録画する可視化について研究するため、法務省が今後1年かけて欧米を中心に検事を派遣し、実情を調査することになった。

The mission represents this nation's first comprehensive overseas research of such systems. Prosecutors will visit countries including the United States, Britain and France, as well as Germany, which has yet to adopt a recording system, and South Korea, which just introduced one.
 国による初の本格的な海外調査だ。対象は米国、英国、フランスなどのほか、可視化を取り入れていないドイツ、開始まもない韓国も含まれる。

The ministry should widely publicize the results of the research and consider what would be the most desirable form of recording system for this country.
 調査結果を広く国民に公表し、可視化の望ましいあり方などを考えていく必要がある。

Police and prosecutors have begun making partial audio and video recordings of interrogations conducted in connection with criminal cases tried jointly by lay and professional judges. Such records are meant to prove that confessions are not forced but voluntary.
 警察・検察は、裁判員裁判の対象事件で、部分的な録音・録画を始めている。自白が強制されたものではないことを裁判員に立証する目的からだ。

As of June, DVD recordings of interrogations had been shown in six cases tried under the lay judge system.
6月までに6件の裁判員裁判の法廷で実際に録画したDVDが再生されている。

The Japan Federation of Bar Associations is calling for the entire interrogation process to be recorded, to prevent false charges from being brought. The Democratic Party of Japan called for the adoption of a full recording system in its campaign platform for the general election last August, and since the launch in September of the DPJ-led government, it has urged the ministry and the National Police Agency to look further into the feasibility of adopting such a system.
 これに対し、日本弁護士連合会は冤罪(えんざい)を防止するには取り調べの一部ではなく、全過程の可視化が必要だと主張している。全面可視化を公約とした民主党政権の誕生で、法務省と警察庁はさらなる検討を迫られているのが現状だ。

===

Different situation overseas

But the situation in Japan is different from that of the countries where recording systems are in place.
 ただ、可視化が定着している諸外国の事情は、日本と異なる。

In Britain, suspects are usually interrogated once after being arrested and the questioning is said to finish within 30 minutes in many cases. Defendants also have a good chance of being acquitted in jury trials.
 英国では逮捕後の取り調べ回数は1回程度で、30分以内で終わることが多いという。陪審裁判で無罪になる確率も高い。

Furthermore, there is a plea bargain system under which suspects can receive lighter sentences if they admit crimes at early stages of investigations. Wiretapping and undercover operations are also permitted.
一方、早い時期に罪を認めると刑を軽減する司法取引があり、通信傍受やおとり捜査も認められている。

Plea bargains are common in the United States, where about one-third of the states record interrogations.
 約3分の1の州が可視化を取り入れている米国でも、司法取引は活発に行われている。

In Japan, investigators face suspects for long hours in investigation rooms, to conduct detailed questioning that spans from suspects' childhoods to the motives for their alleged crimes. In cases involving organized crime syndicates, investigators try to win over suspects and obtain statements implicating gang leaders.
 日本では捜査官が取調室で長時間にわたり容疑者と向き合いながら、生い立ちから犯行の動機に至るまで詳細に調べる。暴力団などがかかわる組織犯罪では、容疑者を説得して上層部の関与の供述を引き出すこともする。

===

Give investigators more tools

Many investigators have expressed concern about making audio and video recordings of the entire interrogation process.
 取り調べの全過程を録音・録画することに対する懸念は、捜査関係者に多い。

It is important to prevent false charges. But at the same time, public safety should not be threatened because criminal cases are left unsettled with authorities unable to indict the real culprits. It is essential to reconcile these two goals when considering the introduction of a recording system.
 冤罪を防ぐことは大切だ。同時に、真犯人を起訴できず事件が未解決に終わるなどして、治安が揺らぐことがあってはならない。可視化を考える上で、その両立をどう図るかが重要になる。

Before the full-scale adoption of such a system, it may be necessary to consider the introduction of a new investigative process that facilitates such methods as court-approved wiretapping and sting operations, so police and investigators can collect material evidence in addition to statements from suspects.
 可視化を本格導入する場合、例えば裁判所の許可に基づき、通信傍受やおとり捜査などを用いやすくして、警察・検察が供述以外の物的証拠を集められるようにするなど、新たな捜査手法を検討する必要もあるだろう。

As the lay judge system is now in its second year of operation, public interest in the judiciary has been increasing. Discussions about the introduction of an interrogation recording system should be conducted in the public eye.
 裁判員裁判が2年目を迎え、司法に対する国民の関心は高まっている。国民の目に見える形で、可視化論議を重ねてほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 23, 2010)
(2010年8月23日01時18分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-24 05:40 | 英字新聞

海保ヘリ墜落 原因究明を阻む悪質な隠蔽だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Aug. 23, 2010)
JCG's cover-up obstructs investigation
海保ヘリ墜落 原因究明を阻む悪質な隠蔽だ(8月22日付・読売社説)

The outrageous cover-up by the Japan Coast Guard over a recent fatal helicopter accident is nothing but an attempt to obstruct the investigation.
 海上保安庁の言語道断の隠蔽(いんぺい)行為が明るみに出た。原因調査の妨害行為にほかならない。

The 6th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters' helicopter Akizuru hit power lines and crashed in the Seto Inland Sea off Kagawa Prefecture on Wednesday afternoon, killing all five aboard.
 第6管区海上保安本部のヘリコプターが瀬戸内海上空で送電線に触れて墜落、乗員5人が死亡する事故が起きたのは、18日午後のことだった。

For more than a day after the accident, the coast guard concealed the fact that one of the purposes of the helicopter's flight was a demonstration for a group of legal trainees who were aboard a JCG patrol boat to experience coast guard missions at sea.
 それからまる1日以上も、飛行目的の一つが、海保の巡視艇に体験乗船している司法修習生向けのデモンストレーション飛行だったことを隠していたのだ。

The JCG initially said the helicopter was on a patrol flight and only changed its story when the media brought up the demonstration flights.
 それまではパトロールのためとだけ説明し、報道機関からの指摘を受けてデモ飛行を公表した。

It is not surprising that Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Minister Seiji Maehara strongly criticized the JCG, saying, "The coast guard's concealment is serious, and it should reflect deeply on its conduct."
 前原国土交通相が「隠していたことは問題だ。厳しく反省してもらわないといけない」と強く批判したのも当然である。

There is nothing wrong with carrying out demonstration flights. It is meaningful to give legal trainees an opportunity to observe the JCG's activities to help them understand the coast guard's mission.
 デモ飛行そのものが悪いのではない。海保の業務を理解してもらうために、司法修習生などに見学してもらうことは意味がある。

However, the coast guard even concealed the demonstration flights from an official of the ministry's Japan Transport Safety Board who visited the crash site. In a broad sense, the JCG's conduct appears to be an attempt to destroy evidence related to the crash.
 しかし、デモ飛行は事故の原因調査のため現地に出向いた国交省運輸安全委員会の調査官にも伏せられていた。広い意味で証拠の隠滅のようなものだろう。

Systematic deception

What makes the latest case heinous is that senior JCG officials, including the chief of the 6th Regional Coast Guard Headquarters, systematically decided not to disclose the demonstration flights.
 さらに今回のケースが悪質なのは、6管の本部長ら幹部が集まって、デモ飛行は公表しないと組織ぐるみで決めていたことだ。

In addition, when the JCG first acknowledged conducting the demonstration flights, the chief of the headquarters' general affairs division said, "I intentionally decided it was better not to disclose [the demonstration flights]," indicating that it was his decision. The coast guard covered up another fact by saying the head of the headquarters and other senior JCG officials were not involved in the decision.
 しかも、最初にデモ飛行を認めた際には、総務課長が「自分が意図的に判断して発表しない方がいいと考えた」と、個人の判断であることを強調していた。これでは本部長らは無関係だったとする二重の隠蔽である。

The coast guard would never have acted in this manner if it had considered those who lost their lives in the line of duty and their bereaved families. The ministry should closely question the headquarters' chief and other senior JCG officials to lay the blame at the right door.
 任務遂行中に殉職した職員や遺族のことを考えれば、決してできない行為である。国交省としても6管の本部長以下の責任を厳しく問うべきだろう。

Commenting on the cover-up, the headquarters explained it did not mention the demonstration flights "because the site of the accident and the [area of the] demonstration flights were 17 kilometers apart and, therefore, they were unrelated."
 隠蔽について6管は「デモ飛行の場所と事故現場は17キロ離れており、事故と関係なかったため」と釈明している。

Problem with flight plan?

However, the accident occurred between two demonstration flights when the helicopter was investigating an abandoned ship. Was there some problem with the helicopter's flight plan? A thorough investigation must be carried out before deciding on the relationship between the demonstration flights and the accident.
 しかし、事故はデモ飛行の合間の廃船調査中に起きた。飛行計画に無理はなかったのか。デモ飛行と事故との関係も、調査を尽くしたうえで結論づけることだ。

The transport safety board needs to look into the case thoroughly to determine the real reason behind the cover-up and the cause of the accident.
 運輸安全委は、隠蔽の理由や事故の真相を徹底的に解明する必要がある。

In investigating the 2005 JR Fukuchiyama Line derailment accident, a member of the then Aircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation Commission, a predecessor of the board, leaked information related to its investigation to West Japan Railway Co. before the commission compiled a report on the accident--a monstrous mistake that investigative authorities should have prevented.
JR西日本の脱線事故の調査では、調査情報をJR西に事前に漏らすという、調査機関にあるまじき失態があった。

The transport safety board will lose public trust if it treats the coast guard with kid gloves during its investigation simply because the board and the JCG are organizations under the same ministry.
 海保と同じ国交省内の組織だからといって、少しでも手加減するようでは信頼は地に落ちる。

Merely keeping an eye on the piloting of aircraft is not enough to prevent such an accident from recurring. The board must investigate the JCG and the headquarters from all possible angles, including flight safety.
 再発防止のためには乗務員の操縦にだけ目を向けず、飛行の安全体制など、海保や6管に対する調査も厳正に行うべきである。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 22, 2010)
(2010年8月22日01時20分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2010-08-23 06:10 | 英字新聞