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社説:食品の放射能 説明と測定を徹底せよ

(Mainichi Japan) October 29, 2011
Gov't should thoroughly explain health risks from internal radiation exposure through food
社説:食品の放射能 説明と測定を徹底せよ

The Japanese government is required to thoroughly explain health risks from overall radiation exposure to the public and ensure that food products are measured for radiation now that the Food Safety Commission (FSC) has shown its safety standards on internal radiation exposure through foods.
 食品から受ける内部被ばくの影響を検討してきた食品安全委員会が、評価書をまとめ厚生労働省に答申した。

In a report it submitted to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry on Oct. 28, the FSC explained that if lifetime cumulative exposure to radiation exceeds roughly 100 millisieverts, excluding natural radiation, it will adversely affect human health.
「自然放射線などを除いた生涯の累積線量が、おおよそ100ミリシーベルトを超えると健康に影響がある」という内容だ。

Based on that report, the ministry will set upper limits on radiation for each type of food product.
 この評価を基に厚労省が食品ごとの新たな規制値を決めるが、

The problem is the interpretation of the 100 millisievert upper limit.
わかりにくいのはこの100ミリシーベルトの位置づけだ。

When it released an initial draft of the report in July, the FSC explained that 100 millisieverts refers to the upper limit on the total amount of overall radiation exposure, both internal and external.
 7月に評価案が示された時には、「外部被ばくと内部被ばくを合わせた線量」と説明された。

However, the report submitted to the ministry limits it to internal exposure through food.
ところが、答申では「食品から受ける内部被ばく」に限定された。

The report has raised questions as to whether the upper limit on internal radiation exposure through food should remain at 100 millisieverts or should be lowered if the amount of external radiation exposure is high.
 では、外部被ばくが高くても食品の基準は100ミリシーベルトなのか、それともその分低いのか。

The FSC has declined to answer this question on the grounds that the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry or other government organizations in charge should decide on the matter.
食品安全委は「厚労省などしかるべき管理機関が考えること」として判断を避けた。

The FSC apparently believes that it should stick to its mission of evaluating risks involving food.
 食品安全委の使命は食品のリスク評価をすることだという理屈だが、

However, the government should stop such sectionalism and evaluate risks of overall radiation exposure as what members of the public want to know is how their health is affected by both internal and external radiation exposure.
1人の人は内部被ばくと外部被ばくの影響をあわせて受ける。知りたいのは全体の影響だ。政府は、こうした縦割りをやめ、被ばく全体のリスク評価をすべきではないか。

The current regulations on food safety set the upper limit on exposure to radioactive cesium at 5 millisieverts per year.
 現在の食品の規制値は放射性セシウムによる被ばく線量の上限を年5ミリシーベルトとしている。

However, since this is a provisional limit set following the accident at the tsunami-hit Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant, it is an urgent task for the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry to set stricter standards.
これはあくまで事故直後の暫定値であり、厚労省はより厳しい新基準を早急に決める必要がある。

In doing so, the ministry should thoroughly explain the basis for the new standards, including health risks involving external radiation exposure and internal exposure to less than 100 millisieverts, in an effort to convince the public.
その際には、国民が納得できるよう、外部被ばくや100ミリシーベルト以下の影響まで含めた基準値の根拠についてよく説明してもらいたい。

The FSC report suggests that children are more vulnerable to radiation than adults.
 答申は、子どもの方が放射線に対する感受性が大人より高い可能性があることも指摘した。

However, as it is unrealistic to set separate upper limits for children and adults, it is necessary to set a figure that can protect the health of children as the upper limit on all citizens.
食品の規制値を大人と子どもで分けることは現実的ではなく、子どもに合わせた規制が必要になる。

But even if a stricter upper limit is set, it alone cannot eliminate consumers' anxieties as long as they do not know how much radiation they have been exposed to through food.
 ただ、規制値が新たに決まっても、実際に食品からどれだけ被ばくしているかがわからなければ、消費者の不安は解消されない。

Sample surveys on food that national and local governments are currently conducting are far from sufficient.
国や自治体が実施しているサンプル調査だけでは不十分だ。

In order to protect the health of citizens and relieve their concerns and mental stress, central and local governments should conduct more thorough and detailed measurements of radiation contained in food.
 健康を守り、不安やストレスを減らすために、もっときめ細かい測定を進めてほしい。

Such measurements should cover a wider diversity of food products, as fish and other marine products could later turn out to be contaminated with radiation as a result of bioaccumulation.
今後、生物濃縮によって魚介類などの汚染が新たにわかってくる可能性もあり、幅広く実施すべきだ。

University of Tokyo professor Ryugo Hayano has proposed that the amount of radioactive cesium contained in school lunches should be measured and that the results be released on a daily basis.
 東大の早野龍五教授は実際に子どもたちが食べる給食1食分の放射性セシウムの量を測り数値を毎日公表することを提案している。

Tatsuhiko Kodama, professor at the same university, has suggested that all food products should be measured for radiation using belt-conveyer-style measurement devices.
同大の児玉龍彦教授は米袋などをそのまま測るベルトコンベヤー式の計測機器による全品検査を提案している。

A growing number of retailers and citizens are voluntarily measuring food products for radiation.
流通業界や市民が食品を独自に計測する動きも出てきている。

The national and local government should actively support these moves.
 政府や自治体にはこうした動きも後押ししてもらいたい。

If the current situation continues, consumers' concerns about food safety cannot be eliminated even if the actual radiation levels remain low.
このままでは、たとえ現実の線量が低くても、消費者の不安は収まらない。

毎日新聞 2011年10月29日 2時30分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-31 07:11 | 英字新聞

新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その3)◇作業員の線量管理に疑問

(Mainichi Japan) October 22, 2011
Journalists keep close eye on Fukushima nuclear worker radiation exposure (Part 3)
新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その3)◇作業員の線量管理に疑問

The wide perception gap that has surfaced between Tokyo Electric Power Co., the operator of the tsunami-hit Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant, the government and other parties has raised serious questions about the management of plant workers' radiation exposure.
(この部分の英訳なし^^)
記者たちは避難所や、拠点となっていた福島県いわき市の旅館を回り、作業員の声に耳を傾けた。

Shortly after the plant was stricken with meltdowns and hydrogen explosions in March, Mainichi reporters, mainly those with the Tokyo City News Department, began interviewing workers struggling to bring the crippled facility under control.
 東京電力福島第1原発の事故から間もなく、収束作業の実態を探る取材が始まった。中心となったのは東京社会部。

Most of the workers are from Fukushima Prefecture, and many of them commute to the plant from shelters or dorms where they were taking refuge after their homes were badly damaged in March 11's natural disasters.
収束作業に当たる人たちの多くは地元出身者で、避難先から現場に通う人も少なくなかった。

A 30-year-old worker for a sub-subcontractor said he had been told by an employee of the subcontractor, "We won't write down the amount of radiation you were exposed to during the latest work on your radiation management record. You don't have to worry about it."
 「今回の作業で受けた被ばく線量は放射線管理手帳に載らない。安心していいから」。ある2次下請けの作業員(30)は、1次下請けの社員にそう告げられたことを明らかにした。

Radiation exposure amounts and the results of regular medical exams are supposed to be stated clearly on each worker's radiation management record.
 放射線管理手帳は作業員一人一人の被ばく線量や健康診断結果を記載する。

If workers suffer from cancer in the future, there will be no proof of the causal relationship between their radiation exposure and the disease unless such data is included in their radiation management records, making them ineligible for workers' accident compensation benefits.
「そこに載せないとなると、将来本人ががんになっても証拠がなく、労災認定(補償)されなくなってしまう。本当か」

Further interviews with the utility, the government organizations concerned including the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, and other parties have revealed there was a wide perception gap among them over maximum exposure limits for workers.
 そんな疑問から取材を進めると、背景に線量を巡る混乱があることが分かった。

Health ministry regulations stipulate that nuclear power station workers can be exposed to a maximum of 100 millisieverts over five years, and 50 millisieverts in a single year.
 厚生労働省は法令や規則で、作業員の被ばく線量を5年間で100ミリシーベルト、1年間では50ミリシーベルトに抑えるよう定めている(通常規則)。

However, in the case of an emergency such as a nuclear accident, they can be exposed to up to 100 millisieverts during work to bring the plant under control.
ただし原発事故など緊急時には一連の作業で上限100ミリシーベルトまで受けることができ、

In the Fukushima nuclear crisis, the ministry raised the upper limit to 250 millisieverts.
今回の原発事故に限ってはこの上限を250ミリシーベルトに引き上げていた。

The ministry concluded that workers who are exposed to 100 to 250 millisieverts during efforts to tame the Fukushima nuclear crisis must be withdrawn from further work for five years on the grounds that the conventional regulations apply to the Fukushima crisis.
 ところが、この250ミリシーベルトと通常規則との兼ね合いを巡り、厚労省と東電などとの間で見解が違っていた。厚労省は第1原発の作業でも通常規則が適用されるとして、100~250ミリシーベルトを浴びた場合は今後5年間、作業に従事できないとの見解だった。

However, TEPCO was of the view that the conventional regulations do not apply to the work at the Fukushima plant, arguing that workers should not be deprived of employment for long periods.
 一方、「それでは就労の機会を相当年数奪うことになる」として、東電などは「通常規則とは別枠」と考えていた。

Because of this, the subcontractor omitted the levels of radiation workers were exposed to from their radiation management records.
これが「線量を手帳に載せない」という運用につながっていた。

"In the end, we are the ones who are going to be left holding the bag," a 28-year-old worker lamented in an interview with the Mainichi.
 「最後にババを引くのは自分たち」と別の作業員(28)は訴えた。

The Mainichi published an article about the omission of exposure data from the 30-year-old worker's radiation management record on the front page of its April 21 morning edition.
「原発作業員 被ばく線量 管理手帳記載せず」との記事は4月21日朝刊の1面トップに掲載された。

It was subsequently learned that at least one TEPCO employee had been exposed to more than 250 millisieverts, prompting the ministry to step up its radiation management instructions to the utility.
 その後、250ミリシーベルトを超える東電社員の存在も判明し、厚労省は指導を強化した。

There have been some cases of plant workers being exposed to excessive levels of radiation during their work because of sloppy management.
 ずさんな管理のために作業員が被ばくするケースが目立つ。

We are determined to continue to shed light on how workers' radiation exposure is being handled in an effort to improve their working environment.
最前線の労働環境が少しでも改善されるよう、光を当て続けたい。

(By Satoshi Kusakabe, Takayuki Hakamada and Akiyo Ichikawa, Mainichi Shimbun)
<東京社会部・日下部聡、東京社会部・袴田貴行、三陸支援支局・市川明代(前東京社会部)>

毎日新聞 2011年10月18日 東京朝刊
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-30 09:13 | 英字新聞

発電のコスト―やはり原発は高くつく

October 27, 2011
--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 27
EDITORIAL: New cost estimates argue for changing nuclear power policy
発電のコスト―やはり原発は高くつく

New government estimates that factor in the cost of the disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant show that nuclear power generation is actually a relatively expensive way to produce electricity.
 原子力発電にかかる費用は、高かった。

The damage from the accident is so vast and wide-ranging that a final figure is not yet available.
 福島第一原発事故による損害はあまりに大きく、まだ全体を計算できない。

However, the Cabinet Office’s Japan Atomic Energy Commission has come up with a broad idea of how much the disaster will raise the cost of nuclear power generation.
だが、今わかっている範囲で、内閣府の原子力委員会が発電費用への上乗せがどうなるか試算した。

The additional cost due to the accident could be as high as 1.2 yen per kilowatt-hour of electricity, according to the commission’s estimate.
事故のコストは電気1キロワット時あたり最大で1.2円になった。

A core meltdown occurred at three of the six reactors at the disabled plant.
 今回、原子炉3基で炉心溶融が起きた。

Based on the total number of years that Japan's 50-odd nuclear power plants have been in operation, divided by the number of crippled reactors, it can be estimated that an accident of this scale occurs once every 500 years per reactor.
日本にある約50基の原発の運転年数を足し、福島の事故炉の数で割ると、この規模の事故は平均して「原発1基あたりで、ほぼ500年に1度発生する」確率になる。

This estimation was used to calculate the cost increase.
その計算から割り出した。

If the cost of the accident is factored in, the overall tab of nuclear power generation comes to 6.8 yen per kilowatt-hour, compared with 5.7 yen for thermal power generation using coal as fuel or 6.2 yen for generating electricity by burning liquefied natural gas.
 この事故コストを加えると、原子力発電のコストは1キロワット時あたり6.8円になる。石炭火力の5.7円や、液化天然ガス火力の6.2円を上回る。

The new cost estimates are ball park figures and don’t take account the money needed for the massive-scale decontamination that has yet to be undertaken.
 いずれも大ざっぱな計算であり、今後は膨大な除染もある。

Another important cost factor concerns the unsolved issue of the final disposal of radioactive waste being produced by nuclear power plants across the nation.
また、全国の原発から出る放射性廃棄物の最終処分も残り、

Clearly, the cost of atomic power generation will be much higher than traditional estimates.
さらに割高になるのは確実だ。

Nuclear power generation has long been touted as “a cheap and safe way to produce a large amount of electricity.”
 これまで「安く、安全に大量の発電をする」と宣伝されてきた原発だが、

But the Fukushima disaster has disproved not only the claim of its safety but also that of its economic advantage.
事故の危なさに加え経済面の優位も崩れた。

The Atomic Energy Commission has produced another important cost estimate.
 原子力委はもう一つの計算もした。

Japan has adopted the nuclear fuel reprocessing approach, which involves extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel for recycling as fuel.
日本は、使用済み燃料を再処理してプルトニウムを取りだし、それを燃やす「再処理路線」をとる。

This process costs 2 yen per kilowatt-hour.
これは1キロワット時あたり2円かかる。

In contrast, the direct disposal approach, which involves burning uranium just once and disposing of the radioactive waste produced in the process, costs 1 yen, half of the cost of reprocessing, according to the commission.
 一方、ウラン燃料を1回だけ燃やして、廃棄物は捨てる「直接処分」の費用は半分の1円で済むことがわかった。

This is a big difference.
 この差は大きい。

The total cost of nuclear power generation would be 5.8 yen if the current reprocessing approach is replaced by the direct disposal method.
もし、直接処分に変えれば、発電コストは1円安い5.8円になる。

The Atomic Energy Commission made the same cost comparison seven years ago, and the results were roughly the same.
 原子力委は7年前にもこの比較をした。結果は今回とほぼ同じだったが、

But it decided against proposing to drop the policy of fuel reprocessing, citing the huge costs that would result from such a major policy shift.
再処理の路線を変えなかった。理由は「政策変更コスト」だった。

There is the argument that changing the policy would negate past investment and require new research while straining the central government’s relations with the local governments of the areas where nuclear power plants are located.
「過去の投資が無駄になり、新たな研究も必要だ。立地自治体との関係も悪くなる」という論法だ。

This argument doesn’t hold water any more.
 もう同じ手は使えない。

In the wake of the catastrophic accident, there is strong public distrust toward nuclear power.
事故を経験した今は、国民の原発への不信が大きい。

It is almost impossible to win public support for the reprocessing approach, which can only make a small saving of uranium at a high cost.
高い費用をかけて「ウラン燃料を少し節約する」再処理に説得力はない。

The two cost estimates are hard numbers that throw into sharp relief the grim reality of nuclear power generation in Japan.
 二つのコスト計算は、数字で日本の原子力の現状を浮かび上がらせた。

It is clearly time for the govrnment to change its nuclear power policy, which has been in place since the end of World War II.
 戦後一度も大きく変えることのなかった原子力政策を変更するときだ。

The government’s Energy and Environment Council should lead debate on the issue.
政府のエネルギー・環境会議の責任は大きい。

As such, it bears a heavy responsibility.
Japan must face up to the fact it needs to pursue a future without nuclear power.
 原発をなくす道に向き合うしかない。

At the same time, we feel debate is also needed on scrapping nuclear fuel reprocessing, the necessity of which has been called into question.
同時に、必要性が疑問になった核燃料再処理から撤退する議論も始めよう。

The time has come for the government to grapple with the cost of changing its nuclear power policy.
政府は今度こそ、政策変更コストに取り組まなくてはいけない。
 その準備を始めるときだ。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-29 07:01 | 英字新聞

原発と自治体―次の道を考えるときだ

October 26, 2011
--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 26
EDITORIAL: Spending review needed for nuclear-related subsidies
原発と自治体―次の道を考えるときだ

If the Yoshihiko Noda administration is serious about weaning the nation off nuclear power generation, one of the biggest issues it must address is its relationship with local governments with jurisdiction over the nuclear power plants.
 野田政権が「脱・原発依存」を進めていくうえで、向き合わなければいけない大きな課題のひとつが、原発を抱える自治体との関係だ。

The oil shocks of the 1970s propelled Japan toward greater dependence on nuclear energy.
 70年代、石油危機をへて、日本は原発の増強へとかじを切った。

Many of the municipalities that agreed to host nuclear plants were experiencing population drains and had no local industry to speak of.
建設地の多くは、これといった産業がなく、過疎に悩む市町村だった。

For taking in what nobody else wanted in their backyards, the municipalities were "rewarded" with huge amounts of government subsidies, even while the plants were still in the planning stages.
 迷惑施設を受け入れてもらう見返りに、計画の段階から巨額の交付金が地元に落ちる仕掛けが設けられた。

Roads and public gymnasiums sprang up, funded by the subsidies and property tax revenues.
道路や体育館といった箱モノが、交付金や固定資産税などをもとに次々に整備された。

And from 2003, the municipalities became able to spend their incomes in "soft" fields, such as supporting community activities and footing hospital personnel expenses.
03年からは町内活動や病院の人件費といったソフト面にも使えるようになった。

As their finances grew stronger, so did their dependence on the nuclear industry.
 財政が潤う一方、原発依存度は高まった。

In some municipalities, nuclear-related revenues make up more than 60 percent of the general account.
一般会計に占める原発関連収入の割合が6割を超える自治体もある。

But the March disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 plant has changed things.
 だが、福島第一原発の事故をへて、変化が起きている。

The town of Namie and the city of Minami-Soma in Fukushima Prefecture, where Tohoku Electric Power Co. has plans to build nuclear plants, have decided to decline government subsidies for the current fiscal year.
 東北電力の原発計画がある福島県の浪江町と南相馬市は、今年度の交付金を辞退すると表明した。

And in Ibaraki Prefecture, the head of Tokaimura village--the site of Japan's first nuclear power plant--has recommended to the government that the Tokai No. 2 plant be decommissioned.
原発発祥の地、茨城県東海村の村長は東海第二原発の廃炉を政府に提案した。

This is the first case of a local administrative body voluntarily seeking to end its financial dependence on the nuclear industry.
立地自治体がみずから廃炉を求めたのは初めてだ。

Other municipalities are beginning to expect eventual cuts in government subsidies and are making plans accordingly.
将来的な交付金の減額を想定し、対策を考え始めた自治体もある。

In switching its energy policy, the government needs to be fully receptive to these changing attitudes of local governments.
 政府は、エネルギー政策を転換するうえで、こうした自治体の問題意識をきちんと受け止める必要がある。

Specifically, the government needs to take a good, hard look at its subsidy system and ask itself this question: The subsidies were initially meant to promote regional development, but hasn't the system devolved into a means of "buying off" struggling communities, which is actually counterproductive to self-government in the true sense of the term?
 交付金の仕組みが、地域振興の名目で、ただのバラマキと化し、本当の意味での自治を壊していないか。

If this is the case, the system must be overhauled.
きちんと検証し、資金の使い方を見直さなければならない。

Some local governments are still pushing nuclear power generation,
 引き続き原発の推進を掲げる自治体もある。

but their neighboring municipalities are becoming increasingly cautious.
ただ、周りの市町村は慎重な姿勢を強めている。

Now that conventional disaster control zones are being considered for expansion, keeping or scrapping a nuclear power plant is no longer a decision that can be left only to the community where the plant is situated.
防災区域の拡大が検討されるなか、原発の存廃は立地自治体だけでは決められない。

We believe the time has come to include all communities in the vicinity in the decision-making process.
周辺市町村と一緒になって、次の道を考えるときではないか。

We are fully aware, of course, that any abrupt nuclear plant closure and withdrawal of government subsidies would be devastating to the regional economy.
 もちろん、脱原発で交付金などを突然打ち切られては地域経済も立ちゆくまい。

How should the transition take place?
どのような移行措置をとるべきか。

What role can the region play in the nation's shift to greater energy diversity?
分散型のエネルギー社会への転換に地域が果たせる役割とは何か。

In order for the region to think these things through and come up with practicable solutions, the government must provide occasions for thorough debate.
自治体自身が考え、アイデアを実現していくためにも、政府は話し合いの場を用意すべきだ。

And this is not something people in the big cities can shrug aside as none of their business.
 都市部の住民も「知らぬ話」で済まされない。

After all, the government subsidies for municipalities that host nuclear power plants are financed by the so-called power resources development promotion tax, which is collected from all taxpayers as part of their electricity bills.
交付金の原資は電源開発促進税として、電気料金に上乗せされて徴収されている税金だからだ。

To review how money is being spent for nuclear power generation is to explore a new rule for the redistribution of our tax money,
 原発マネーのあり方を見直すことは、税金をどう使うかという「再分配」の新しいルールを模索する作業でもある。

and this is something all citizens need to think about.
 国民みんなで考えたい。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-28 01:51 | 英字新聞

欧州首脳会議 危機対策に市場の目は厳しい

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Oct. 26, 2011)
Investors not fully reassured by moves to settle Greek crisis
欧州首脳会議 危機対策に市場の目は厳しい(10月25日付・読売社説)

Leaders of eurozone nations have moved a step closer to settling the region's financial crisis after reaching a broad agreement on a set of measures to prevent the crisis from spreading further--although their actions were slow and taken reluctantly.
 欧州が重い腰を上げ、金融危機の拡大を封じ込める包括策で大筋合意したのは一歩前進だ。

However, the leaders still face a long, winding road to conquer the crisis and dispel the market's anxiety.
 しかし、危機を克服し、市場の不安を払拭する道のりは険しい。

It is necessary for them to work on the details of issues left unresolved and act promptly in dealing with the crisis.
欧州は積み残した課題を詰め、迅速に行動することが求められよう。

At the recent summit meeting, leaders of the European Union and 17 eurozone countries discussed measures to settle the debt crisis of Greece, the nation where the trouble first broke out before spilling over to other European nations, as well as measures to prevent the crisis from spreading to still more countries.
 欧州連合(EU)とユーロ圏17か国の首脳会議は、発端となったギリシャ危機の収束と、波及防止策を協議し、

After difficult negotiations, the countries have drawn up some remedies.
難航した末、ひとまず処方箋をまとめた。

===

'Managed default'

The measures have three pillars: bank recapitalization, significant reduction of Greece's debt burden and reinforcement of the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF).
 大筋合意した包括策は、銀行の資本増強、ギリシャ債務の大幅削減、欧州金融安定基金(EFSF)の強化が3本柱である。

The eurozone leaders have decided to ask banks that own Greek government bonds for a recapitalization of more than 100 billion euros (about 10.5 trillion yen), which seems to be appropriate for the time being.
 ギリシャ国債を保有する銀行に総額1000億ユーロ(約10兆5000億円)超の資本増強を要請することになった。当面の措置としては妥当だろう。

At the same time, the leaders will ask banks to bear further burdens to relieve Greece's debt problems, such as giving up 50 percent to 60 percent of the Greek government bond principal they have.
 その一方、ギリシャの債務削減では、国債元本の50~60%カットを軸に、銀行に追加負担を求める。

This measure is a de facto approval of Greece making a virtual default on its debts to some degree, as it is now apparent that the country lacks the ability to repay.
返済能力を欠くギリシャの事実上のデフォルト(債務不履行)を容認するものと言える。

In July, eurozone monetary authorities announced results of stress tests on major eurozone banks, but the assessment was too lenient.
 欧州当局が7月に公表した銀行のストレステスト(特別検査)は甘く、

One particular problem is that the tests failed to check deterioration of bank assets caused by the rapid price fall of Greek government bonds.
急落するギリシャ国債による資産劣化を十分にチェックしなかったのは問題だった。

This time, bank recapitalization will be conducted to prepare for debt relief for the Greek government and the expected further price fall of the country's bonds--a process that seems like a "managed default."
 これに対し、あらかじめ銀行資本を強化し、ギリシャの債務カットや国債下落に対応できるようにする今回の措置は、「管理されたデフォルト」に相当する。

We hope the measures will contribute to preventing markets from panicking and to stabilizing the financial system.
市場の混乱を防ぎ、金融システム安定に役立つことを期待したい。

===

Investors still skeptical

It will be an encouraging message to the investment market that eurozone leaders have agreed to strengthen the EFSF, an institution that supports eurozone nations marred by fiscal deficits, and to move forward the launch of the European Stability Mechanism, envisaged as a European version of the International Monetary Fund.
 欧州各首脳が、域内の財政赤字国を支援するEFSFをさらに強化すると合意した点や、欧州版の国際通貨基金(IMF)である「欧州安定メカニズム(ESM)」の設立前倒しも、市場へのメッセージとなろう。

However, as the Greek crisis has already triggered credit uncertainty regarding Italian and Spanish bonds, it is unclear whether the measures agreed by eurozone leaders will be enough to deal with the financial crisis.
 だが、ギリシャ危機がイタリアやスペインなどの信用不安に広がる中、こうした包括策で十分に対応できるかは予断を許さない。

Market players still worry that the amount of bank recapitalization is too small.
 銀行の資本増強規模が少額すぎるとの懸念が市場でくすぶり、

The process of recapitalization also remains unclear, and it is uncertain whether the banks would agree to the significant reduction of Greece's debt burden.
増強策の手順もあいまいだ。ギリシャ債務の大幅カットに銀行が応じるかどうかも不透明である。

If eurozone leaders decide to ask for the financial help of the IMF to strengthen the EFSF, it will provoke angry responses from Japan, the United States and emerging economies that want the eurozone nations to step up their self-help efforts to deal with the financial crisis.
 欧州がEFSFを強化する方策として、IMFの支援を求めた場合、欧州の一層の自助努力を求める日米や新興国などからの反発が予想されよう。

Market players are looking with icy disapproval at the eurozone nations, whose measures against the financial crisis have always been one step behind.
 危機対応が後手に回ってきた欧州に対し、市場の見方は厳しい。

Eurozone leaders need to specify the details of the agreed measures against the crisis at the next summit meeting Wednesday and present the details at the Group of 20 summit meeting of major economies scheduled early next month.
欧州は26日に改めて開く首脳会議で、包括策をより具体化させ、来月上旬の主要20か国・地域(G20)首脳会議に示すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 25, 2011)
(2011年10月25日01時05分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-27 06:55 | 英字新聞

日仏共同宣言 原発の安全向上へ連携深めよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Oct. 25, 2011)
Japan, France must heighten cooperation on nuclear safety
日仏共同宣言 原発の安全向上へ連携深めよ(10月24日付・読売社説)

To make nuclear power generation as safe as it can possibly be, it is important to examine ways to enhance the development of nuclear engineers and establish a system to promptly respond to nuclear accidents.
 原子力発電の安全性を最高水準に高めるため、技術者の育成強化や事故時の即応体制を検討することの意義は大きい。

Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda and visiting French Prime Minister Francois Fillon issued a joint statement on nuclear and energy policies following their meeting Sunday.
 野田首相と来日したフィヨン仏首相が会談し、原子力とエネルギー政策に関する日仏首脳共同宣言を発表した。

The focal point of the joint statement is a set of specific principles aimed at bolstering nuclear power safety through cooperation between Japan and France, a leading country in the field of nuclear power, based on lessons learned from the crisis at Tokyo Electric Power Co.'s Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant.
 宣言は、東京電力福島第一原発事故を教訓に、日本と原発大国であるフランスが連携し、原発の安全強化を図る具体的な方針を盛り込んだのがポイントだ。

Following the outbreak of the crisis, France offered a variety of assistance to Japan, sending experts and providing equipment.
 事故後、フランスは専門家派遣や機材提供などで日本を支援した。

The joint statement stipulates further cooperation between the two countries to decontaminate areas around the Fukushima power plant tainted by radioactive substances.
宣言は、原発周辺地域に放出された放射性物質の除染についても、一層の協力を明記した。

===

Calming health fears

As for radiation's impact on human health, the two leaders agreed it will be important to continue investigations, based on objective scientific data.
 放射能による人体への影響については、客観的な科学的データに基づき、調査していくことが重要であるとの認識で一致した。

High levels of radioactive substances have been detected not only in Fukushima Prefecture but also in the Tokyo metropolitan area and elsewhere.
 福島県だけでなく、首都圏などでも、高濃度の放射性物質が検出されている。

We hope the necessary decontamination work will be furthered by making use of the knowledge of the two countries.
日仏両国の知見を生かし、必要な除染作業が進展することが期待される。

To prevent needless worry from spreading among the public, the government must properly ensure safety with the help of French experts and provide the public with careful explanations.
 いたずらに不安が広がらないよう、政府はフランスの協力も得て安全性をしっかり確認し、国民に丁寧に説明すべきだ。

To improve nuclear safety, the two leaders also agreed to establish a committee on nuclear energy.
 原発の安全性に関して、両国は原子力エネルギーに関する委員会を創設することになった。

It will be vital for the two countries to deepen relationships in a wide range of fields, putting together experts from academia, industry and government in both countries.
互いに産官学の専門家らを集め、幅広い分野で関係を深化させることが肝要である。

The joint statement also called for considering the establishment of an international force that could mobilize rapidly in response to nuclear accidents around the globe and an international center for developing human resources for nuclear crisis management.
 世界各地での原発事故に備え、「国際緊急対応チーム」の設置や、原子力の危機管理に関する人材育成を目的とした国際的なセンター創設も検討するという。

With these agreements, the two leaders acknowledged the importance of the action plan on nuclear safety endorsed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September.
 国際原子力機関(IAEA)が9月に決めた行動計画の重要性を確認したものだ。

===

Looking to the future

We find it quite appropriate for the two leaders to share the view that the current crisis management system must be improved.
 両首相が、現行の危機管理体制を改善すべきだとの見解を共有したのは妥当である。

Emerging economies, such as China and India, are promoting construction of nuclear power plants.
 中国やインドなど新興国は、原発建設を進めている。

For its part, Japan must bolster nuclear safety and step up efforts to cultivate experts who can be dispatched overseas in case of emergencies at other nuclear plants around the world.
日本は原発の安全性を高め、事故が起きた場合の緊急事態に対応するため、海外に派遣する専門家の養成に力を入れねばならない。

Exports of nuclear power plants and other infrastructure are an important part of Japan's growth strategy.  日本の成長戦略を推進するうえで、原発などインフラの輸出は重要だ。

However, Diet approval of nuclear cooperation agreements with Vietnam and other countries has been delayed.
だが、ベトナムなどとの原子力協定の承認が遅れている。

The nuclear cooperation accords, which stipulate peaceful use of nuclear materials and acceptance of IAEA inspections, are a prerequisite to exporting nuclear technologies.
 原子力協定は、核物質の平和利用やIAEAの査察受け入れなどを定めており、原発輸出の前提となる。

The government and ruling parties will need to make efforts to get the accords approved during the current extraordinary Diet session.
政府・与党は、今臨時国会で承認を得られるよう努力する必要がある。

This further underlines the importance of urgently boosting nuclear safety and restoring trust in Japan's technology.
 そのためにも、原発の安全性を高め、日本の技術への信頼回復を図ることが急務だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 24, 2011)
(2011年10月24日01時33分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-26 06:48 | 英字新聞

金言:「タイ洪水」の伝え方=西川恵

(Mainichi Japan) October 24, 2011
Questioning the way Japanese media report on the Thai flooding
金言:「タイ洪水」の伝え方=西川恵
 <kin-gon>

I feel there is something wrong with the way Japanese newspapers and TV networks have been reporting on the flooding in Thailand.
 タイの洪水についての日本の新聞、テレビの報道に違和感がある。

As Japan suffered from its own major disasters only seven months ago, I believe the Japanese media have a lot to report on, such as our interest in the extent of the damage, our concern for the people, how our government is helping Thailand and whether or not it is sufficient.
7カ月前に3・11を体験したばかりの日本であればこそ、タイの被害の状況への関心と配慮、我々の政府はタイに何をしているか、それは十分なのかなど、もっと伝えるべき事柄があるのではないだろうか。

It's true that there are some Japanese media which have been reporting properly on conditions in Thailand.
 現地の状況をきちんと伝えているメディアもあることを認めた上で、

But I feel like asking the majority, "Is your self-centered reporting really OK?" and, "Does Japan want to become an economic animal again?" as I see reports focusing only on damage to Japanese companies and its effects on the Japanese economy.
「そんな自己中心的な報道でいいのですか」「日本はエコノミック・アニマルに逆戻りしたのですか」と問いたくなるような、日本企業の被害や、日本経済への影響だけに焦点をあてた報道が目につく。

I come across such reports despite the fact that Thailand has suffered serious damage.
タイに深刻な被害が出ているのにである。

According to the Thai government, flooding has left 315 people dead and three missing as of Oct. 18.
 タイ政府によると、18日時点で洪水の死者は315人、行方不明3人。

The number of people affected has reached 2.5 million.
被災者は250万人に上る。

Twenty-seven provinces have suffered damage and water in the rivers that run from the north to the south is rising, spreading the damage south.
被災した県は27県に及び、北から南に流れる河川は水量を増加させながら被害を南部へ広げている。

The Gulf of Thailand is bracing for a spring tide at the end of October and caution is still in order.
タイ湾では今月末、大潮を迎えるため、まだ要警戒だ。

So what has Japan done?
 この間、日本政府は何をしたのだろう。

Emperor Akihito has sent a message of condolences to Thai King Bhumibol Adulyadej, and Japan supplied 55 million yen in emergency supplies such as outboard motors for boats, tents and water filters through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
天皇陛下がプミポン国王にお見舞いのメッセージを出され、国際協力機構(JICA)を通じ計5500万円相当の緊急援助物資(ボート用の船外機、仮設トイレ、テント、浄水器など)を供与。

Japan also dispatched experts on Oct. 19 to the flood assessment team of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in response to a request from ASEAN Secretary-General Surin Pitsuwan.
また東南アジア諸国連合(ASEAN)事務総長からの要請で19日、ASEANの洪水アセスメントチームに専門家を派遣した。

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and JICA have sent investigative missions to Thailand to gauge the effects to the Japanese economy and the extent of flood damage, respectively.
 経済産業省は日本経済への影響を、JICAは洪水被害状況を調査するため、調査団を現地に出している。

It is essential for the Japanese media to report damage to Japanese firms and its effects on the Japanese economy, as well as whether Japanese nationals are among the flood victims.
 日本企業への被害や、それが及ぼす日本経済の打撃、また日本人に犠牲者はいるのかは、日本のメディアとして欠かせない視点だろう。

But they are likely to act in a highly Japan-centric manner unless they make efforts to cover news from a big picture perspective.
しかし一方で、大きな構図の中でニュースを相対化、普遍化する努力をしないと独善に陥る。

If there had been any country that reported only on the March 11 disasters' effects on its companies and economy, how would Japanese nationals in that country have reacted?
もし東日本大震災の時、「自国企業と経済への影響」といった視点からのみの報道であふれた国があったとしたら、その国にいる日本人たちはどう受け取っただろう。

In light of massive outpourings of support and assistance from around the world in the aftermath of the March disasters, we should expect calls for support for Thailand.
 大震災で世界からあれほどの温かい支援と援助が寄せられたことを思えば、「タイに支援の手を」の声が起こってもいいし、

The Japanese media can stimulate Japanese people's goodwill by reporting on Thailand's dire situation in minute detail.
タイの困難な実情をより細かに伝えることでメディアは日本の人々の善意を掘り起こすこともできる。

Thailand is not the only country which has suffered hardship.
 これはタイだけのことではなく、

Famine triggered by serious drought is spreading in East Africa.
いま東アフリカでは深刻な干ばつによる飢饉(ききん)が広がっている。

Africa is connected with Japan in various spheres in this era of globalization.
グローバル化した世界にあって、アフリカもさまざまな面で日本とつながっている。

It is necessary for the Japanese media to deliver news of Japan-related issues, but they also have an important role to play to connect Japan with the rest of the world on a more human level.
日本に絡む事柄を伝えることも必要だが、日本のメディアは日本と世界を結ぶ大切な役割ももっているはずだ。

(By Megumi Nishikawa, Expert Senior Writer)
(専門編集委員)

毎日新聞 2011年10月21日 東京朝刊
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-25 06:38 | 英字新聞

カダフィ氏殺害 国民和解を優先し民主化を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Oct. 23, 2011)
Libya must pursue national reconciliation for democracy
カダフィ氏殺害 国民和解を優先し民主化を(10月22日付・読売社説)

Moammar Gaddafi, who reigned as supreme leader in Libya for 42 years, has been killed.
 北アフリカのリビアで42年にわたり最高権力者として君臨してきたカダフィ氏が殺害された。

The Arab Spring wave of protests and revolutionary change across North Africa and the Middle East has at last brought an end to the age of Gaddafi, eight months after the outbreak of civil war in Libya.
 内戦勃発から8か月、「アラブの春」と呼ばれる中東・北アフリカの変革の波は、ついにカダフィ時代の終わりをもたらした。

Libya's National Transitional Council (NTC), an organization of anti-Gaddafi forces, has announced Gaddafi was killed in a gunfight after being captured by anti-Gaddafi fighters in his hometown of Sirte, where he had been hiding.
 反カダフィ派組織の国民評議会は、出身地シルテに潜伏していたカダフィ氏が反カダフィ派兵士に拘束された後、銃撃戦で死亡したと説明している。

Although an arrest warrant had been issued by the International Criminal Court against Gaddafi on charges of crimes against humanity as he cracked down relentlessly on his opponents, he died without being brought to justice in a courtroom.
 反対派を容赦なく弾圧してきたカダフィ氏に対しては、国際刑事裁判所から「人道に対する罪」で逮捕状が出ていたが、結局、法廷に立つことはなかった。

Gaddafi's demise will likely influence the situations in such countries as Syria and Yemen, where iron-fisted presidents have been clinging to power in a bid to keep their dictatorial regimes alive in the face of popular opposition.
 その死は、強権をふるう大統領が権力を手放さないでいるシリアやイエメンにも、何らかの影響を及ぼすだろう。

===

Start from scratch

Having achieved control over almost all of the country, the NTC is expected to release a declaration of the entire nation's liberation as early as Saturday.
 ほぼ全土を掌握したのを受け、リビアの国民評議会は22日にも全土解放を宣言する。

Libya's top priority from now on will be swiftly building a post-Gaddafi political system.
カダフィ後の政治体制を速やかに構築することが最優先課題である。

Since the country lacks such fundamental political elements as a constitution and an elected parliament, Libya must start almost from scratch.
 憲法や選挙による議会制度を持たないリビアは、いわばゼロからの出発だ。

The NTC itself, a group cobbled together from a variety of forces, is far from cementing the unity of its participants.
 国民評議会自体、寄り合い所帯でまとまりがない。

Although the NTC attempted to launch a provisional government in September, the effort failed because of differing views about how to form a cabinet lineup.
9月には暫定政権発足を目指したが、閣僚人事の調整ができず、失敗した。

Conflicts have already been seen between secular forces that favor Europe and the United States, and Islamist forces, along with power struggles stemming from deep-rooted rifts between regions and tribes.
 親欧米の世俗勢力とイスラム勢力の軋轢(あつれき)や、根強い地域・部族対立に起因する権力争いがすでに始まったとの指摘もある。

If those who were involved in Gaddafi's rule are too strictly excluded from the process of forming a new Libyan political system, the country's confusion could deepen all the more.
カダフィ政権関係者を過度に排除すれば、混乱が広がる恐れもある。

National reconciliation is now of the utmost importance for the sake of establishing a provisional government as quickly as possible in the runup to setting democratic time schedules, including dates for elections.
 国民和解を優先し、暫定政権をまず発足させ、選挙など民主化日程を決めていく必要がある。

The restoration of public security in the conflict-torn country is also vitally important.
 治安の回復も重要だ。

The NTC must incorporate militiamen, police and military forces from various factions under its umbrella into a unified system of command and help develop their human resources.
評議会は、傘下各派の民兵を軍や警察の指揮系統に組み入れ、育成していかねばならない。

Another concern is that large quantities of firearms, including portable ground-to-air missiles, were scattered across the country during the civil war.
 内戦中、携行型地対空ミサイルなどの火器類が散逸したことも懸念される。

There is an urgent need to collect and properly dispose of such weapons.
大量に拡散した小火器を含め、武器回収が急務だ。

===

Roles of Britain, France

Libya is a resource-rich country, ranking eighth worldwide in confirmed oil deposits.
 リビアは石油の確認埋蔵量世界8位の資源国だ。

We strongly hope that Libya, on the strength of this natural wealth, will take the path toward a political system guaranteeing freedom and fundamental human rights so the Libyan people will be able to truly enjoy the fruits of democracy.
その富を有効に生かし、自由や基本的人権も保障して、国民が民主化の果実を実感できる政治体制が求められる。

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization played a crucial role in the fall of the Gaddafi regime, especially through British and French air strikes.
 カダフィ政権の崩壊には、北大西洋条約機構(NATO)が英仏主導による空爆などで決定的な役割を果たした。

Britain and France, therefore, should act responsibly in the forthcoming process of creating a new Libyan government and in shoring up the process of the country's democratization.
英仏は責任を持って、新体制作り、民主化プロセスを支えなくてはならない。

Japan, too, should contribute to helping Libya rebuild.
 日本もリビア再建に貢献すべきだ。

Foreign Minister Koichiro Gemba has expressed Japan's readiness to extend humanitarian assistance in the field of medical services.
玄葉外相は医療分野で人道支援を行うと表明した。

Japan, in contrast to Europe and the United States, is not burdened by a legacy of complicated relations with Libya, leaving it significant room to work out aid to that country in its own unique way.
歴史的なしがらみが薄いからこそ、欧米とは違った支援も工夫できよう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Oct. 22, 2011)
(2011年10月22日01時04分 読売新聞)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-24 08:49 | 英字新聞

新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その2止) 放射線知る一助に

(Mainichi Japan) October 21, 2011
Journalists strived to get truth about nuclear fallout to public (Part 2)
新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その2止) 放射線知る一助に

 ◇累積線量、独自算出し掲載

The question of how much and where radioactive materials were dispersed by the hydrogen explosions at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant have been of the utmost importance to residents of both Fukushima Prefecture and beyond, and one we began to pursue soon after the nuclear disaster started to unfold.
 福島第1原発事故から水素爆発などにより放出された放射性物質は、どのような範囲にどれくらい広がったのか。周辺地域の住民にとって最大の関心事であり、事故直後から力を入れて取材した。

The government initially designated the area within a 20-kilometer radius of the power plant an evacuation zone, while those living between 20 kilometers and 30 kilometers from the plant were instructed to remain indoors.  政府は当初、原発から半径20キロを避難区域、20~30キロを屋内退避区域に指定していたが、

However, high levels of radiation were being detected even beyond those areas.
その外側でもかなり高い放射線量が計測されていた。

A long-term advisory to stay indoors had not been a part of the government's disaster preparedness guidelines, and would pose too great a burden on residents.
長期間の屋内退避は防災指針でも想定していない事態で、住民への負担が大きすぎる。

It seemed to us that a designation of evacuation zones based on actual radiation measurements was necessary.
実際の放射線量に応じた避難区域の設定が必要だと感じていた。

That was when we came up with the idea of calculating cumulative radiation levels at various locations.
 そこで考えついたのが、各地の累積放射線量の算出だった。

At the time, radiation monitoring results released by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) and municipal governments were limited to the amount of radiation detected in the atmosphere per hour (dosage rate).
当時、文部科学省や自治体の放射線モニタリング結果は、1時間当たりの大気中の放射線量(線量率)しか公表されていなかった。

But since local residents would continue to be exposed to radiation, we felt it far more important to provide information on cumulative radiation levels.
しかし、放射線を浴び続けることを考えれば、積算した線量の情報こそが重要だ。

When we appealed to MEXT to provide this information, we were told it was not something they could do right away.
文科省に取材したが、「すぐには出せない」との回答だったため、

It was decided then that the Mainichi would crunch the cumulative radiation level numbers by adding together dosage rates released by public sources.
線量率を足し合わせて独自に算出した。

Between March 14 and March 21, the cumulative radiation level in the city of Fukushima reached 1770.7 microsieverts.
 3月14~21日の積算値が福島市で1770・7マイクロシーベルトになったほか、

The figure was 299.7 microsieverts for the Fukushima prefectural city of Iwaki and 34.1 microsieverts for the Tochigi Prefecture capital of Utsunomiya for the same period, and 33.2 microsieverts in the Ibaraki Prefecture capital city of Mito between March 15 and March 21.
福島県いわき市299・7マイクロシーベルト▽宇都宮市34・1マイクロシーベルト▽水戸市33・2マイクロシーベルト(同市のみ15~21日)--などとなった。

Having found the cumulative radiation in the city of Fukushima to exceed the average 1500 microsieverts of natural background radiation that we are normally exposed to annually, the Mainichi's Science and Environment News Department debated what to do with the information, concerned about the public response the information could spark.
特に福島市の値は、1年間に自然に浴びる放射線量(平均約1500マイクロシーベルト)を上回っていたため、住民の不安感情を考え、部内で議論した。

Ultimately, we decided to release the information along with the explanation that cumulative radiation levels indicate how much radiation one would be exposed to if they stayed outdoors all day, and that radiation levels in general were trending downwards.
その結果、あくまで一日中屋外にいた場合の数値であり、線量は減少傾向にあることなどを明記し、

We also added commentary from multiple experts that the radiation levels posed no health risks for people "stepping out to shop" for groceries, and published the information in the March 23 morning issue of the Mainichi's Japanese edition.
「買い物などに出るのは問題ない」などという複数の専門家の見方を付け加えて、3月23日の朝刊に掲載した。

Following publication, we received inquiries from various municipal governments in Fukushima Prefecture, and were criticized by some readers for "causing panic among Fukushima city residents."
 掲載後、福島県内の自治体担当者から問い合わせがあったほか、読者の一部から「福島市民を動揺させる」との批判も受けた。

We maintain, however, that by contributing information on cumulative radiation levels -- which until then had been largely ignored -- we helped residents come to their own conclusions on what to do next.
しかし、それまであまり考慮されていなかった累積放射線量の情報を提供し、住民自身に自分の行動を判断してもらう一助になったのではないかと思っている。

On March 25, MEXT began releasing cumulative radiation figures.
3月25日になって文科省は累積放射線量の公表を開始。

Since then, it has gone on to conduct detailed monitoring of radiation levels, and has posted predicted cumulative radiation levels through March 2012.
その後、詳細なモニタリングを実施、来年3月までの1年間の累積線量予測値も公表した。

 ◇的確な警告できず悔い

We still regret not having been able to predict that radioactive contamination would spread to the extent that it has.
 一方、放射性物質の汚染がこれほど広がることを予測できなかったことに悔いが残る。

We keep asking ourselves if there was any way we could've sounded a more precise alarm when large volumes of radioactive materials were released on March 14 and March 15, as we continue working toward protecting the public from unnecessary exposure.
特に3月14、15日の大量放出の際、もっと的確に警告を発することができなかっただろうか。住民の無用な被ばくを防ぐという視点を忘れず、取材を続けたい。

<東京科学環境部・西川拓>
(By Taku Nishikawa, Science and Environment News Department)

(This is part two of a six-part series on coverage of the Fukushima nuclear crisis.)
毎日新聞 2011年10月18日 東京朝刊
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-23 07:16 | 英字新聞

新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その1) 被災者の視点重く

(Mainichi Japan) October 20, 2011
Journalists' responsibilities heavy in face of unprecedented crisis (Part 1)
新聞週間特集:「原発事故と報道」報告(その1) 被災者の視点重く
 <新聞週間代表標語 上を向く 力をくれた 記事がある>

The unprecedented disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant, in which fuel meltdowns were found to have taken place simultaneously at three reactors, poses a massive challenge to the media.
 3基の原子炉が同時期に炉心溶融するという世界でも例のない東京電力福島第1原発事故は、報道する側にも重い課題を突きつけた。

Looking back, did we promptly deliver accurate information that could save the lives of the public?
国民の命を守るため、事実を正確に迅速に伝えられたか。

Reflecting upon our experiences gathering information from the disaster areas, as well as from the Prime Minister's Office, plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. (TEPCO), the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA), and other groups and individuals, what can we say about our coverage of the ongoing crisis?
被災地や官邸、東京電力、経済産業省原子力安全・保安院などで悩みながら取材した記者の体験を通して、原発と報道について考えた。(肩書はすべて当時、紙面イメージは東京本社朝刊最終版)

-----

 ◇「どう裏付け、どう伝える」迷い 東電・保安院、二転三転

Press conferences were held intermittently by TEPCO and NISA beginning March 11, when the nuclear disaster was triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami.
 事故発生日の3月11日から東京電力と経済産業省原子力安全・保安院で断続的に開かれる会見を取材した。

As the safeguards meant to guarantee the safety of the nuclear power plant failed one after another, it was our task as reporters to discern the state of the plant with the limited information we had, motivated by a sense of impending danger to residents living in close proximity to the power plant.
原発の安全を守るはずの機能が次々と失われていく中、限られた情報で、何とか原発の状態を見極めようとした。
周辺住民の命に関わるとの危機感があったからだ。

At the mercy of backtracking government and TEPCO officials, however, we were often at a loss as to how to confirm the legitimacy of the information we were given and how the information should be relayed to the public.
だが、二転三転する情報に振り回され、どう裏付けを取り、どう伝えるべきか迷うことも多かった。

A little after 3:30 p.m. on March 12, images of the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant appeared on the screen of a television at TEPCO's head office in Tokyo's Uchisaiwaicho district.
 12日午後3時半過ぎ、東京・内幸町の東電本店のテレビに、福島第1原発が映っていた。

It appeared as though just the steel frame of the upper part of the No. 1 reactor building remained.
1号機の原子炉建屋の上部は鉄骨しか残っていないように見えた。

The reporters grew alarmed. "Something's not right," one said.
「何か変だ」。集まっていた記者が騒ぎ出した。

However, even after seeing the footage, TEPCO's public relations officer stubbornly insisted: "We don't know what's going on.
 しかし、東電の広報担当者は映像を見ても「分かりません。

We're trying to confirm with those on the scene."
現地に確認します」の一点張りだった。

Finally, at a press conference held four hours later, TEPCO admitted that there had been a hydrogen explosion at the plant's No. 1 reactor.
ようやく4時間後に開かれた会見で、水素爆発と認めた。

By that afternoon, radioactive cesium and iodine were detected in the power plant's surrounding areas.
 午後には原発周辺で放射性セシウムやヨウ素が検出された。

Koichiro Nakamura, then deputy director-general of NISA and the press officer for the agency, explained that it was possible that a reactor meltdown had taken place.
広報担当だった保安院の中村幸一郎審議官は1号機について「炉心溶融の可能性がある」と説明した。

Soon thereafter, Nakamura stopped appearing in press conferences.
その直後に中村氏は会見から姿を消した。

The new press officer refused to offer any further information, sticking to the line: "We can't discuss anything until the Prime Minister's Office has made an announcement."
新たな広報担当は、「官邸が発表した後でないと話せない」と口が堅くなった。

Subsequently, NISA avoided using the phrase "core meltdown," replacing it with either "fuel damage" or "core damage."
保安院はその後、深刻な事態を物語る「炉心溶融」という言葉を避け、「燃料破損」や「炉心損傷」という言葉を頻繁に使った。

However, several months later, it emerged that NISA had previously asked power companies to fake support for nuclear power at a symposium, and on Aug. 10, approximately five months after the onset of the nuclear crisis, then NISA director Nobuaki Terasaka announced: "We recognized the possibility of a core meltdown soon after the incident began."
 ところが、保安院による原発シンポジウムのやらせ問題の発覚などを受け、事故発生から約5カ月後の8月10日に会見に応じた寺坂信昭保安院長は「炉心溶融の可能性を事故直後に認識していた」と発言した。

On March 12, NISA designated the Fukushima disaster a level 4 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES), but a month later upgraded it to level 7, the worst level on the scale, which had until then been given only to Chernobyl.
 保安院は3月12日に国際評価尺度(INES)で事故をレベル4と発表したが、1カ月後にはチェルノブイリ事故と並ぶ最悪のレベル7に切り替えた。

An understated announcement would be made, followed later by a revision.
事態を過小に見積もった後、訂正する。

Statements concerning the nuclear disaster simply repeated this pattern.
事故にまつわる発表はその繰り返しだった。

So did TEPCO and the government respond appropriately to the crisis?
 事故以降、東電や政府の事故対応は適切だったのか。

I cannot shake the feeling that the damage could have been reined in far more than it has been.
もっと被害を防ぐ方法があったのではないかという疑問をずっと持ち続けている。

And slowly, through the efforts of the "Investigation Committee on the Accidents at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company" set up by the government, it's become clear what prevented officials from being more effective.
最近、少しずつだが分かり始めた。カギの一つは政府が設置した事故調査・検証委員会にあった。

In preparation for a midterm report to be submitted by the end of the year, the committee has been conducting interviews with TEPCO and government officials.
東京科学環境部 調査・検証委は年内の中間報告に向け、東電や政府関係者のヒアリングを続けている。

These interviews have revealed that it occurred to neither NISA nor to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to use a computer system called the System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information (SPEEDI), in coming up with an evacuation plan.
その中で明らかになったのは、放射性物質の拡散を予測する「緊急時迅速放射能影響予測システム」(SPEEDI)について、保安院をはじめ、文部科学省などに予測結果を避難に役立てようという発想がなかったということだった。

Furthermore, no one in NISA had even recognized the necessity of contacting neighboring countries, let alone raising the issue, before low-level radioactive water was dumped into the Pacific Ocean on April 4.
また、4月4日に低濃度の汚染水を海に放出する際、近隣諸国に事前通報をせず、批判を招いたが、保安院の担当者の中には、事前通報の必要性を認識し、指摘した人すらいなかったことも分かった。

What I've gathered from my experiences trying to understand the disaster is that both TEPCO and the government have failed to look at the crisis from the point of view of the victims.
 事故の背景を探るこうした独自取材を重ねて感じたのは、東電や政府には被害を受ける側の視点が足りなかったということだ。

Norio Kanno, the mayor of the Fukushima Prefecture village of Iitate, lamented that he did not receive any information from the central government for a month or two after the nuclear disaster began, and suggested that it was because "hearts (of government officials) lacked concern for the disaster areas."
 福島県飯舘村の菅野典雄村長は、「事故から1、2カ月は政府から情報が届かなかった」と憤ったが、その理由を「心が被災地に向いていないからではないか」と話していた。

There is anger directed toward media, too, which we as journalists must accept and learn from.
怒りの矛先は我々マスメディアにも向けられている。率直に受け止めたいと思う。

The basic mission of newspapers is to collect information in the field and deliver it accurately to the public.
 新聞の基本は現場取材を重ね、確実な情報を伝えることだ。

At the beginning of the nuclear crisis, however, we had no idea whether the information we had to work off of was accurate.
だが、事故発生時は基となる情報が正しいかどうかがわからないうえ、

In addition, many experts were divided on what they believed.
専門家の評価も分かれた。

Requests for permission to go on-site to the power plant to report were denied by TEPCO.
東電には福島第1原発の現地取材を申し入れているが、「対応が難しい」と断られている。

When reporters haven't looked at the scene themselves, how are they to communicate the very limited information that they do have?
記者が現場を見ていない中、限られた情報をどのように伝えたらいいかと迷いは尽きない。

Settling of the ongoing crisis, including decontamination beyond the plant's borders, is expected to take many years.
 除染も含めた事故収束には、まだ長い年月がかかるとみられる。

The investigation into the disaster's cause has just begun.
事故原因の調査も始まったばかりだ。

The responsibility to stand on the side of those who receive the news, and write articles that will contribute to reconstruction and to shed light on the cause of the disaster weighs squarely on our shoulders.
情報を受け取る側の立場に立って、復興や事故原因の解明に役立つ記事を書く。その重みをかみしめている。

(By Junko Adachi, Science and Environment News Department)
<東京科学環境部・足立旬子>

(This is part one of a six-part series on coverage of the Fukushima nuclear crisis.)
毎日新聞 2011年10月18日 東京朝刊
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2011-10-22 08:10 | 英字新聞