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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

August 24, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Publically shaming criminals online is going too far
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:招きたくない監視社会 /東京

Recently, a comic store generated controversy with a threat to publically release the image of a shoplifter's face who was caught on a security camera stealing an expensive figurine. The store first released an image of the shoplifter with his face pixelated and threatened to remove the pixilation if the person did not return the figurine by a certain day.
 漫画専門店で売り物の高価なフィギュアを万引きした男性。監視カメラでとらえられており、映像のネット公開をめぐって議論が起きた。店側はまずモザイクつきの写真をネットにアップし、期日までに返却に来なければモザイクをはずすと呼びかけたが、

In the end, at the urging of police, the store did not remove the pixilation. However, in on-the-street interviews on television shows, many people gave the opinion that the pixilation should have been removed, to help deter future shoplifters.
結局、警察の指導などにより公開は見送った。情報番組の街頭インタビューなどでは「再犯防止のためにも公開すべきだったのでは」といった厳しい声も目立った。

Crime is said to be overall on the decline, but shoplifting numbers refuse to fall. Perhaps lacking awareness that what they have done is a crime, some shoplifters supposedly take a defiant attitude, saying, "As long as I return it, there's no problem, right?"
 犯罪は全体としては減る方向にあると言われるが、万引きはいっこうに減少しない。犯罪という自覚がないのか、店側が見つけても「返せばいいんだろう」と開き直るケースもあるとのことだ。

Some small retailers are supposedly affected quite badly by shoplifting, so it is not a problem that can be overlooked.  経営に大きな支障が出る小売店もあるというから、見逃せない問題だ。

However, we must be careful about the idea that a store can set up its own "punishment," by for example threatening to release a photo of a shoplifter's face.
とはいえ、店側が「監視カメラの映像をネットで公開します」など独自の“罰”をもうける動きには慎重にならなくてはならない。

In this day and age, using the Internet one can easily find all kinds of information about a person -- their name, their address, their place of work.
It can lead to ruining a person's standing in society.
とくにこの時代、ネットを使えば名前、自宅、職場などが簡単に特定され、その人の社会的生命が断たれるほどのダメージを与えることにもなりかねない。

While the theft in the recent case was of a very valuable item, is it right for stores to be able to decide that when the value of shoplifted merchandise is over some particular amount it warrants a public release of the shoplifter's photo?
今回、盗まれたのはとても高価な品だったが、映像の公開か非公開か、その境目の金額までをはたして店が決めてよいものか。

Sometimes on the Internet, people will release photos of criminals, taken while they happened to be nearby.
 ネットでは、問題を起こした人の写真や名前など個人情報を公開することを「さらす」と呼ぶ。

"This person is a groper," they may write, releasing a photo on a site such as Twitter.
「これが痴漢です」などと居合わせた人が写真を撮り、ツイッターなどで「さらす」こともある。

I feel that more and more, the reaction to this public exposure is not "that's going too far," but "they deserve it."
それに対し「やりすぎだ」という声より「さらされて当然」と肯定する声のほうが大きくなりつつあるのを感じる。

Of course, no matter the reason, there is no excuse for breaking the law or other rules.
 もちろん法律などで決められているルールを破るのは、どんな理由があろうとも許される行為ではない。

But I also think that stores -- who are not police -- should not come up with and deal out their own "punishments." しかし、警察以外の個人や店の手により、どんな“罰”を加えても許されるというのは違うと思う。

While public exposure on the Internet is not a direct punishment like a fine or prison sentence, it is in some ways a heavier punishment.
ネットで「さらす」行為は罰金や懲役といった直接的な制裁ではないが、ある意味でそれ以上の重さを持っているともいえる。

According to police statistics, recently many shoplifters are people 65 and over.
 警察の統計によれば、最近は65歳以上の高齢者の万引きの増加が目立つそうだ。

Maybe, having retired or no longer having any family, they think, "I have nothing left to lose, so I don't care who you report me to.
仕事を退職していたり家族がおらずひとり暮らしだったりで、「もう失うものはないから、誰に報告してくれてもいいですよ。

You're going to put my face out on the Internet? I don't care." If so, it is a sad situation.
ネットで顔を“さらす”? ああ、かまいませんよ」という心境なのだろうか。それも寂しい話だ。

I hope that we do not become a world where people are always observing each other, quick to photograph and expose other people on the Internet the moment they do something wrong.
 お互いが監視し合い、怪しい行動を取ったらすぐに写真を撮って公開。これが当然、という世の中にならないことを願いたい。

(精神科医)
(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 地方版
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-27 11:29 | 英字新聞

健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Elderly must enjoy healthy long life without need for nursing care
健康寿命 「元気で長生き」を目指したい

A major challenge facing the nation at a time when its population is rapidly aging is to ensure that elderly people can maintain their day-to-day lives for as long as possible, dispensing with the need to receive nursing care.
 高齢になっても、介護を必要とせず、自立して生活できる期間をできるだけ延ばしていく。超高齢社会へ向けた大きな課題である。

In early August, the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry released the 2014 edition of its annual white paper, which focused on the goal of expanding the healthy life span so that the nation can be transformed into a long-lived, healthy society.
 厚生労働省が今月公表した2014年版の厚生労働白書は、「健康長寿社会の実現に向けて」をタイトルに、「健康寿命の延伸」をメインテーマに掲げた。

Healthy life expectancy refers to the number of years that people can continue to live their daily lives independently, uninterrupted by health problems and without having to receive the help of family members or others.
 健康寿命は、健康上の問題で日常生活が制限されず、家族などの手を借りることなく暮らせる年数のことだ。

In 2010, the healthy life span of the Japanese stood at 70.42 for men and 73.62 for women, both marking the world’s highest levels. The figures have been increasing year by year.
日本では、2010年時点で男性70・42歳、女性73・62歳と世界最高水準にあり、年々延びている。

However, these figures compare poorly with the average life expectancy—80.21 for men and 86.61 for women in 2013. This shows there is a disparity of about 10 years between the healthy life span and the average life expectancy among both Japanese men and women.
 ただし、平均寿命(13年)の男性80・21歳、女性86・61歳と比較すると、いずれも10歳前後の開きがある点に留意すべきだ。

The gap represents how long men and women will be highly dependent on nursing care and medical services. It is widening due to a greater increase in the average life expectancy compared to that of the healthy life span.
 この差は、介護や医療への依存度が高くなる期間を意味する。健康寿命より平均寿命の延びが大きいため、拡大する傾向にある。

It is necessary to shorten the period for which people need nursing and medical care, a task essential for enabling elderly people to live fulfilling, independent lives. If aged persons do not become bedridden and can live in good health for an extended period, the medical and nursing-care expenses they incur will likely be significantly reduced.
 できる限りこの期間を短縮することが、高齢者一人一人の生活を充実させるために欠かせない。寝たきりにならず、健康に過ごせる期間が延びれば、医療・介護費の抑制効果も期待できる。

The government has said the goal of making Japan a nation of healthy and long-lived people is a pillar of its growth strategy.
 政府は、健康長寿の実現を成長戦略の柱とも位置づけている。

In its strategy for health preservation and medical improvement adopted at a Cabinet meeting in July, the government said it would pursue the target of increasing the healthy life expectancy by more than one year by the end of 2020. The government hopes to nurture healthcare businesses that support elderly people’s efforts to lead long healthy lives, and promote such services and operations overseas, an endeavor conducive to economic growth.
 7月に閣議決定した「健康・医療戦略」では、20年までに健康寿命を1歳以上延ばす目標を打ち出した。「元気で長生き」を支える健康・医療関連産業を育成して、海外展開を促し、経済成長につなげたい考えだ。

An increase in the number of healthy elderly people is also expected to help secure workers and contribute to the promotion of volunteer activities.
 元気な高齢者の増加は、労働力の確保やボランティアの活性化にもつながるだろう。

Battle lifestyle illnesses

To increase the healthy life span, it is important for individuals to take preventive measures against lifestyle-related illnesses even while they are still working. Various complications can occur from diabetes, high blood pressure and other diseases associated with one’s lifestyle habits, which can easily lead to a need for nursing-care services in old age.
 健康寿命を延ばすには、現役時代から生活習慣病の予防を心がけることが大切だ。糖尿病や高血圧などは、様々な合併症を引き起こし、要介護状態を招きやすい。

It is also necessary for local government and business corporations to play an active role in improving the health of local residents and employees. Measures must include promoting better lifestyle habits and raising the percentage of people receiving medical checkups.
 自治体や企業も、住民や社員の生活習慣の改善や、健康診断の受診率向上などの健康作り対策に積極的に取り組む必要がある。

A good case in point is the Shizuoka prefectural government. The local government is promoting what it calls a “health mileage program” under which local residents are awarded points according to their medical checkup and daily physical exercise records. When a resident has collected a certain number of points, he or she is entitled to receive complimentary services at shops participating in the program.
 静岡県は、健診の受診や日々の運動実績をポイント化し、一定以上になると協力店で優待サービスを受けられる「健康マイレージ」事業を行っている。

Meanwhile, Tanita Corp., a Tokyo-based measurement equipment manufacturer, has adopted a system in which pedometers are distributed to all its employees, requiring them to record how many steps they take every day. Employees who score high in this daily practice receive awards for their accomplishments.
 計測器メーカーのタニタは、歩数計を全社員に配って計測を義務づけ、ランキング上位者を表彰する制度を設けている。

We hope measures will be taken to achieve the intended goal in a manner that fits the realities of each community and company.
 地域や会社の実情に合った対策を進めてもらいたい。

It is also important to provide elderly people with more opportunities to play an active role in society. If they make contributions to society through work and community service, elderly people will find their lives to be fulfilling and are unlikely to need nursing care.
 高齢者の活躍の場を広げることも重要だ。仕事や地域活動で社会に貢献することは、生きがいになり、介護予防に役立つだろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 24, 2014)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-26 07:45 | 英字新聞

社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

August 23, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Learning a lesson from Hiroshima landslides
社説:広島土砂災害 検証尽くして教訓導け

The number of residents reported missing following major landslides in northern Hiroshima in the predawn hours of Aug. 20 has significantly increased, threatening to make the disaster the worst of its kind in recent years when combined with the confirmed death toll.
 広島市北部で20日未明発生した土砂崩れの行方不明者が大幅に増え、犠牲者と合わせると近年では最悪の土砂災害となる恐れが強まった。

Initially seven people were reported missing, but a little over 24 hours later that figure climbed to over 50. The discrepancy in the numbers reported missing comes from police and local municipalities using different methods to confirm the safety of residents.
 行方不明の人数が当初の7人から24時間以上たって50人超に増えたのは、住民の安否情報の確認方法が自治体と警察との間で違っていたためだ。

The difficulty that officials face in fully grasping the extent of the damage indicates how severe the disaster is.
被災状況の把握すら困難な厳しい状況であることを示している。

With rain continuing to fall intermittently, rescuers are desperately searching for the missing while remaining on alert against secondary damage. All efforts should be exhausted in search and rescue operations, with priority put on saving human lives.
断続的に雨が降り、2次災害を警戒しながらの捜索活動が続く。人命を最優先に力を尽くしてもらいたい。

Amid ongoing power and water outages in the disaster-hit areas, an increasing number of residents have been forced to take shelter at public facilities.
 被災現場は停電や断水が続き、避難所で暮らす住民が増えている。

Local municipalities are urged to pay close attention to residents' needs so that volunteers can provide adequate support.
ボランティアを受け入れる自治体は、的確な支援ができるよう住民の要望をきめ細かく聞き取ってほしい。

Hiroshima Prefecture has the most spots vulnerable to sediment disaster in Japan.
 広島県は土砂災害危険箇所が全国で最も多いが、

However, the designation of warning zones under the Act on Sediment Disaster Countermeasures for Sediment Disaster Prone Areas has not come fast enough.
土砂災害防止法の警戒区域指定は遅れていた。

The residential areas that suffered damage in the latest landslides were prone to disasters due to their proximity to mountains, but most of them had not been designated as sediment disaster-prone areas.
被災現場は山裾に住宅地が広がり、災害の恐れのある地域だったが、ほとんどが未指定だ。

Financial and manpower shortages have reportedly hampered the progress of field surveys, while residents are reluctant to have land designated as being disaster-prone, fearing that their property values will be downgraded.
財政難や人員不足で現地調査などの作業が進まないという。不動産価値の低下を住民が懸念し、理解を得にくいことも要因だ。

Nevertheless, it is serious that such an immense disaster hit areas that had not been listed as being disaster-prone.
 だが、指定されなかった地域で甚大な災害が起きたことを重く受け止めなければならない。

If more damage like this arises, criticism that the disaster was a man-made calamity could intensify.
今後も同じような被害が出れば、「人災」という批判が強まりかねない。

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is urged to review the operation of the law and promote the designation of areas prone to sediment disaster as such.
国土交通省は指定促進のために運用を見直し、

If reviews alone are insufficient, legislative revisions need to be deliberated in the Diet.
それでも不十分ならば国会で法改正を議論する必要がある。

The city of Hiroshima has acknowledged that its evacuation advisory came too late, and is poised to review the standards for issuing such advisories.
 広島市は避難勧告の遅れを認め、発令基準を見直す。

Memories of the landslide disaster on Izu Oshima Island in October last year, when an absence of an evacuation advisory or order resulted in many casualties, remains fresh in our minds.
昨年10月の土砂災害で東京都大島町(伊豆大島)が避難勧告・指示を出さず、多くの犠牲者が出た。

The central government subsequently notified municipalities across the nation to issue evacuation advisories without fearing that they might turn out to be unnecessary.
そのため政府は、空振りを恐れず勧告を出すよう自治体に通知したが、

The government should fully reassure municipalities about the directive once again.
改めて徹底すべきだ。

It is difficult and dangerous for residents to evacuate at night, but the risks could be lowered in some cases if people moved to the upper floors of buildings.
 夜間の避難は難しく危険もつきまとうが、建物の高層部に逃げる垂直避難であれば危険度は低い。

In the Hiroshima disaster, a family found their way to safety by evacuating upstairs to the second floor of their home. 今回の災害でも1階から2階に移り全員が無事だった家族がいた。

Residents in disaster-prone areas should regularly discuss how to act in the event of a disaster and make steadfast preparations.
災害の危険性が高い地域の住民は、日ごろから災害時の行動を話し合い、備えを万全にしておいてほしい。

In the wake of the torrential rain that hit the Kii Peninsula in September 2011, leaving 82 people dead and 16 missing, the Wakayama Prefectural Government created guidelines for issuing evacuation advisories.
 82人が死亡し16人が行方不明となった2011年9月の紀伊半島豪雨を受けて、和歌山県は避難勧告を出すモデル基準を作った。

The guidelines require avoidance of ambiguous expressions.
あいまいな表現を避け、

They also require the use of numerical criteria such as accumulated precipitation so residents can make an objective judgment.
累積雨量など数値基準を使って客観的に判断できるようにした。

In the Hyogo Prefecture town of Sayo, where flooding from a typhoon five years ago left 18 dead and two missing, the town office introduced a monitoring system in which residents living near rivers report water levels and other relevant information, based on which the town office decides whether to issue evacuation advisories.
5年前の台風による水害で20人の死者・行方不明者が出た兵庫県佐用町は、河川付近の住民から水位などを報告してもらうモニター制度を導入し、発令の判断に活用している。

We should take note of such system improvements grounded in lessons learned from tragedies.
痛ましい体験を教訓とした制度改善例を参考にしたい。

In the Hiroshima disaster, the cause and background factors of the extensive damage should be thoroughly verified so we can utilize the information in future measures.
 今回の土砂災害でも被害が拡大した原因や背景を徹底的に検証し、そこから得た教訓を今後の対策に生かしていくことが極めて重要だ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月23日 02時33分(最終更新 08月23日 09時39分)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-25 12:54 | 英字新聞

社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

August 20, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Nuclear policy committee shows disregard for Fukushima lessons
社説:原子力小委 動画非公開は教訓軽視

One of the most important lessons we've learned from the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant disaster is that the closed nature of the nuclear power industry led us to underestimate the dangers of nuclear reactors.
 福島第1原発過酷事故の大きな教訓は、原子力関係者の閉鎖的な体質が原発の危険性の過小評価を招いたことだ。

The industry tuned out sound criticism from outside sources, largely influencing the government's policy and risk assessment.
外部からの健全な批判を受け入れず、それが国の政策にもリスク評価にも大きく影響してしまった。

We must put this lesson to good use by making the policymaking and risk assessment process public and raising information transparency.
この教訓を生かすには、政策決定やリスク評価の過程を、できる限り公開し、情報の透明性を高めることが重要だ。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) -- established after the onset of the Fukushima disaster -- streams video of its meetings and press conferences live, and the footage is also available for viewing online after the events take place.
 事故後に設置された原子力規制委員会は、委員会そのものや記者会見を動画でライブ中継し、終了後もネット上で公開している。

A Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) deliberative council that reviewed the government's basic energy policy does the same.
国のエネルギー基本計画を検討した経済産業省の審議会も同様だ。

Such arrangements not only allow debate to extend to outside experts, it also serves to raise awareness and interest among the general public.
外部の専門家の間にも議論を広げるだけでなく、一般の人の関心を高める手段としても評価できる。

However, the Nuclear Energy Subcommittee of METI's Advisory Committee on Natural Resources and Energy, which has been holding meetings since June, accepts silent observers but does not publicly broadcast its meetings.
 ところが、6月から開催されている経産省・総合資源エネルギー調査会の「原子力小委員会」は、傍聴は認めるものの、動画による公開はしていない。

Some subcommittee members have demanded that the meetings be broadcast, but as of the fourth meeting held Aug. 7, no video had been made available.
委員からは繰り返し公開を求める声が上がっているが、今月7日に開催された第4回会合でも実現されていない。

The subcommittee was established for the purpose of deliberating specific policies in the nuclear energy field based on the Basic Energy Plan approved by the Cabinet in April.
 この小委は4月に閣議決定されたエネルギー基本計画に基づき、原子力分野の具体的方針を検討する目的で設置された。

Topics under discussion include reconstruction and revival in Fukushima, reduced dependence on nuclear energy, human resource development and nuclear fuel cycle policy.
福島の復興・再生や原子力依存度の低減、人材育成、核燃料サイクル政策などがテーマとなっている。

Such discussions will have a great bearing on what the country decides for its energy mix.
その議論は各電源の割合を示すエネルギーミックスの決定にも関係してくる。

With the subcommittee debating topics that will dictate Japan's nuclear policy, transparency of its discussions is crucial.
 まさに、今後の具体的な原子力政策を左右する会議であり、透明性を高めて議論することが欠かせない。

Some may argue that allowing silent observers to watch from the visitors' gallery and the release of the minutes are sufficient.
 一般傍聴や議事録公開で十分という主張があるかもしれない。

But those who can actually attend the meetings comprise a tiny percentage of the general public.
だが、開催日に会場にこられる人は国民の一握りに過ぎない。

Overviews of the meetings are released within a week or so of each meeting, but they do not indicate who said what. 1週間程度で議事要旨は公開されるが、発言者が誰かわからない。

It takes about a month before the minutes are released, by which time the next meeting has already taken place.
議事録が出るまでには1カ月近くかかり、その間に次の会合が開催されているのが実情だ。

This state of affairs prevents the public from closely following the deliberation process.
 これでは、国民が議論の過程を追うことができない。

Some have proposed a compromise of providing audio broadcasts of the meetings, but such broadcasts fail to provide a complete picture, since it's difficult to identify who has the floor at any given time.
音声だけの公開という妥協案もあるようだが、誰が発言しているかがわかりにくく、情報がそぎ落とされてしまう。

The subcommittee chair, Itaru Yasui, has cited the uneasiness some members would feel in voicing their views if the meetings were to be broadcast via video.
 動画非公開の理由について小委の委員長は「意見を言いにくい人がいる」と述べている。

However, nuclear energy policy is an important matter bearing on Japan's post-Fukushima energy policy.
しかし、原子力政策は原発事故以降の日本のエネルギー政策の行方に関わる重要事項だ。

It's a matter of great interest to the public.
国民の関心も高い。

If indeed the subcommittee's members feel they can't be honest if their meetings are broadcast, then perhaps there's a lack of understanding about the significance of the meetings and the importance of their transparency.
ここで「動画中継されたら本音が言えない」とすれば、この会議の重要性についても、議論の透明性についても、理解が不足しているのではないだろうか。

At its fourth meeting, the subcommittee recognized the importance of making its meetings public, saying that it would "discuss how to improve the situation."
 第4回の会合で事務局は、公開の重要性を認めた上で「そのための手立ての改善を検討したい」と述べている。

We hope the subcommittee will modify its policy and move ahead with video broadcasts of their meetings.
早急に方針を改め、動画公開を進めてほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月20日 02時40分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-22 07:49 | 英字新聞

社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

August 19, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Time to aid residents without family records
社説:無戸籍の人 法を見直し抜本救済を

In Japan there exist a number of adults who have been left without family register records because their parents have failed to register their births. The government does not have a grasp of the situation, and the exact number of such people remains unknown, but private support groups receive roughly 100 inquiries a year.
 出生届が出されず、戸籍がないまま成人した人たちがいる。国は実態を把握しておらず、具体的な人数は不明だが、民間支援団体には年間100件もの相談がある。

Recently, the Ministry of Justice sent notification to regional legal affairs bureaus across the nation and initiated its first investigation into the problem. It is wrong for children to be left struggling in society simply because their parents, dealing with particular circumstances, failed to submit birth notifications. We hope the ministry's investigation will be the first step in providing relief.
法務省はこのほど、全国の法務局に通知し、初めての実態調査に乗り出した。親の事情で出生届が出せず、そのしわ寄せを子供が受けるのはおかしい。調査を救済の一歩にしてもらいたい。

The problem has been partially fuelled by a stipulation in the Civil Code that when a woman gives birth, the person who was the woman's husband at the time she was pregnant is deemed to be the father. Any child born within 300 days of a divorce, therefore, is presumed to be the child of the woman's former husband.
 無戸籍の人が生まれる背景には、民法のきまりがある。子供を産んだ母親が妊娠した時の夫を父親とする「嫡出推定」の規定だ。離婚後300日以内に生まれた子供も「前夫の子」と推定される。

Because of this, if a woman flees her husband due to violence or other such reasons, and meets another man and gives birth without first settling her marriage relationship, it is apparently not uncommon for that woman to refrain from registering the child's birth.
 このため、夫の暴力などが原因で逃げ出した妻が、婚姻関係の解消ができないまま別の男性と知り合い、出産した場合、出生届を出さないことが少なくないとされる。

There are also times when a woman gets pregnant with another man's child before her divorce is finalized, and after the child is born takes measures to avoid her former husband being registered as the father under the 300-day rule.
 また、離婚の成立前に夫以外の男性との間で妊娠した女性が出産後、「300日規定」を理由に前夫の子供とされるのを避ける場合もある。

Of course, such problems can be overcome through arbitration and court rulings, but it is often a great burden for each side to meet face to face.
 もちろん、調停や裁判で解決できるが、そうした場で相手と顔を合わせること自体が大きな負担になる。

If a person has no family register, they cannot prove their age. Accordingly, they cannot vote, and are unable to obtain a driver's license or a passport. There are apparently a significant number of people who are also unable to obtain resident cards.
 戸籍がなければ、年齢の証明ができず、選挙権が認められない、運転免許やパスポートも取得できない。無戸籍の人の中には、住民票もない人が少なくないようだ。

This leaves them in a worse situation, in which they are left out from being notified about entry into public schools while their families remain ineligible to receive administrative services and benefits, such as child welfare allowances.
そうなれば、公立学校への就学案内が届かなかったり、児童手当など行政サービスが受けられなかったりという実生活上の不利益はさらに大きい。

It is possible for local bodies to create resident cards at their own discretion even if a person does not have a family register, but this fact has not been sufficiently publicized.
 住民票は、戸籍がなくても自治体の判断で作成が可能だが、そうしたことが十分に周知されてこなかったのは確かだ。

The Ministry of Justice is said to be seeking the cooperation of municipalities in its investigation. We hope that it will release its findings.
法務省は、市区町村にも調査への協力を求めるという。調査結果はぜひ公表してもらいたい。

The Justice Ministry also sent out notification encouraging local officials to explain the administrative services that people without family register records can access under certain conditions.
 法務省は、無戸籍の人が一定の要件で受けられる行政サービスについて説明を尽くすよう通知もした。

Naturally, a careful explanation of the procedures is necessary, but the ministry should also think about drastic legal revisions that prevent people being left without family register records.
もちろん、手続きの丁寧な説明は必要だが、無戸籍の人を生まない抜本的な法律の見直しを考えるべきだ。

In today's society, divorce and remarriage have increased, and family relationships are often complicated.
 現代社会では、離婚や再婚も増え、家族関係が複雑化している。

Violence toward spouses has also risen, with some 50,000 incidents recorded each year.
配偶者による暴力も増加し年間5万件に上る。

In such circumstances, it is hard to say that the Civil Code stipulations on presuming paternity fit in with the times.
そうした中で、妊娠時の夫を父とする嫡出推定の規定が時代に合っているとは言い難い。

Just last month, cases that questioned paternity on the grounds of DNA tests were heard in a Supreme Court appeal and presumed paternity emerged as a focus of the hearings. Four of the five justices submitted individual opinions stating a need for legislation.
 先月、DNA型鑑定をめぐって父子関係を争い、嫡出推定の規定が焦点になった訴訟の上告審で、5人中4人の最高裁裁判官が個別意見で法整備の必要性に言及したのは記憶に新しい。

In 2007 the Tokyo Bar Association drafted a revision to the Civil Code under which presumed paternity would not apply if the space for the father's details was left blank when registering the child's birth, releasing this draft as a statement of its position.
 東京弁護士会は2007年、戸籍の父欄が空白の出生届が出された場合、嫡出推定が及ばないとする民法改正試案をまとめ、意見書として公表した。

The Legislative Council of the Ministry of Justice should begin full-scale deliberation of such methods discussing ways to presume paternity of a child.
こうした方法を含め、父親の推認法について法制審議会などの場で本格的に議論すべきだ。

毎日新聞 2014年08月19日 02時31分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-21 07:06 | 英字新聞

社説:内部告発者保護 不利益扱い防ぐ制度に

August 18, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Strengthen system to protect whistleblowers
社説:内部告発者保護 不利益扱い防ぐ制度に

Many of those who have blown the whistle on wrongdoing involving their colleagues or employers have complained that they have been dismissed or transferred to unimportant divisions.
 勤務している会社や役所の不正を知って内部告発したら、解雇や閑職に追いやられた。そんな訴えが後を絶たない。

The Whistleblower Protection Act came into force eight years ago, but the spirit of the legislation has not been sufficiently respected. The system to protect whistleblowers needs to be reinforced by amending the law or taking other effective measures to prevent those who try to correct an injustice from being treated unfavorably.
 内部告発者を不利益に扱うことを禁じる公益通報者保護法が8年前に施行されたが、法の趣旨が十分に行き渡っているとはいえない。不正を正そうとした人が損をする本末転倒が生じないよう、法改正などによる制度の強化が必要だ。

The law is aimed at protecting workers, including public servants, who blow the whistle on criminal activities they witness at their workplaces to their employers or administrative organs. The Consumer Affairs Agency that enforces the law is hearing the views of experts and those who have experience of blowing the whistle in an effort to grasp the situation of whistleblowing and consider challenges that must be overcome.
 公務員を含む労働者が勤め先での犯罪行為を事業者や行政機関などに内部告発しても保護されることをうたったのが同法だ。所管する消費者庁は現在、内部告発の実情把握と課題検討のため、関係者から意見聴取を進めている。先日は内部告発を理由に不利益処分を受けたとして裁判で争った人たちから意見を聞いた。

The agency has recently interviewed those who have sued their employers for being unfavorably treated at their workplaces in retaliation for blowing the whistle on wrongdoing. One of the victims, an anesthetist who worked at a public hospital, notified high-ranking officials of his workplace that a dentist who had no license as an anesthetist was anesthetizing patients and that a fatal blunder had occurred. However, he was relieved from his post and forced to resign from the hospital. He also blew the whistle to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. But the ministry dismissed his complaint on the grounds that "the Whistleblower Protection Act does not apply to retirees" and that "it is prefectural governments that are authorized by the law to receive complaints from whistleblowers and issue recommendations to or take punitive measures against offenders."
 そのうち公立病院で働いていた麻酔科医は、資格のない歯科医が麻酔をしていることや死亡事故が起きていることを病院幹部に内部告発したが、業務から外され退職を余儀なくされた。さらに厚生労働省に内部告発したが「公益通報者保護法は退職者には適用されない」「法が通報先として認める処分・勧告権限のある行政機関は県になる」との理由で受け付けてもらえなかったという。

These examples have demonstrated that whistleblowers are not being protected despite the legislation. The anesthetist requested that clauses providing punishment against employers that treat whistleblowers unfavorably and requiring administrative organizations to respond to whistleblowers in an appropriate manner be added to the law.
 あぜんとするが、内部告発者が守られていない現状を象徴する例だ。意見聴取に麻酔科医は「不利益な取り扱いをした事業者への罰則導入や内部告発を受けた行政機関の適正な対応の義務付け」を要望した。

The Whistleblower Protection Act prohibits employers from dismissing or demoting employees or cutting their wages in retaliation for blowing the whistle on wrongdoing, but has no punitive clause against violators. Therefore, whistleblowers who have been treated unfavorably by their employers have no choice but to sue their employers to have the damage redressed.
 法は内部告発を理由にした解雇や降格、減給などを事業者に禁じているが、罰則規定はなく、不利益を受けた人は裁判に訴えない限り泣き寝入りになる。

The results of a survey that the Consumer Affairs Agency released last year show that 7 percent of whistleblowers or those who consulted their bosses or administrative organs about wrongdoing at their workplaces have been dismissed, and 21 percent have been unfavorably treated or harassed.
消費者庁が昨年公表した内部通報・相談経験者への調査では、解雇された人は7%、不利益を受けた人と嫌がらせを受けた人はともに21%(複数回答)に上った。

Critics have expressed fears that the introduction of punitive clauses could encourage workers to blow the whistle with evil intent. However, some form of punishments should be introduced against businesses and administrative organs that violate the law.
罰則導入は悪意の告発を増やすと懸念する声もあるが、実態を考慮すれば、違反した事業者には何らかのペナルティーを科すことを検討すべきだ。

Problems involving administrative bodies that receive complaints from whistleblowers should be addressed. In at least one case, an administrative organization leaked the name of an employee who blew the whistle and the details of the worker's complaint to the company involved, allowing the firm to unfairly punish the whistleblower. As such, there have been calls for a clause to ban administrative bodies from leaking such information.
 内部告発を受ける行政機関側の問題も見過ごせない。告発者の名前や告発内容が行政機関から事業者に筒抜けになり不利益処分を招いたケースがあり、漏えいを禁止する規定を法に新設するよう求める声もある。

There have been calls for the establishment of a third-party body to receive complaints from whistleblowers as administrative bodies often share a mutual interest with businesses. These opinions are worthy of consideration.
 行政機関は事業者と利害が一致して当事者になりうるとの不信感が根強い。そのため告発を受け付ける別の窓口として独立した第三者機関の設置を要望する人もおり、こうした意見にも耳を傾けてほしい。

Whistleblowers tend to be viewed by their colleagues or employers as traitors.
 内部告発者は、ややもすると組織の中で「裏切り者」とのそしりを受けかねない。

However, whistleblowing conducted in a fair manner could save the organizations they work for from an unfortunate predicament, and therefore whistleblowers should be protected.
しかし、正当な告発は組織の窮地を救う手がかりになる可能性があり、守るべき存在である。

毎日新聞 2014年08月18日 02時32分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-20 07:34 | 英字新聞

北方領土演習 ロシアの挑発は看過できない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Provocative Russian military games in northern territories unforgivable
北方領土演習 ロシアの挑発は看過できない

Nothing other than an act of provocation has taken place in the Russian-held northern territories, the biggest of the issues pending between Tokyo and Moscow, and we categorically oppose the Russian action.
 日露間の最大の懸案である北方領土を舞台にした挑発行為であり、断固として容認できない。

Russia has carried out military exercises with about 1,000 soldiers taking part on the islands of Kunashiri and Etorofu off Hokkaido, and the Kuril Islands.
 ロシアが国後、択捉両島や千島列島で、1000人規模の軍事演習を実施した。

Many attack helicopters and military vehicles were reportedly involved in the war exercises. Full-fledged war games in the northern territories are said to be the first since July 2010.
多数の攻撃用大型ヘリコプターや軍用車両が参加したという。北方領土での本格的な演習は2010年7月以来とされる。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has criticized the exercises as “totally unacceptable,” while the Foreign Ministry has lodged a strict protest with Russia’s charges d’affaires ad interim in Tokyo. These responses are undoubtably reasonable.
 安倍首相は「到底受け入れることはできない」と批判し、外務省は駐日ロシア臨時代理大使に厳重抗議した。当然の対応である。

The Soviet Union illegally seized the four islands off eastern Hokkaido, which are an inherent part of Japan’s territory, in 1945 immediately after World War II. They have been illegally held ever since. Russia’s unilateral action of holding military exercises in the disputed areas—the focal point in the long-standing territorial negotiations between the two countries—will have a profound, negative impact on trust in the bilateral relations.
 日本固有の領土である北方4島は、1945年の終戦直後からソ連に不法占拠されてきた。長年にわたる日露領土交渉の係争地における一方的な軍事演習は、両国間の信義を大きく傷つける。

Problematic in particular is the fact that Russia issued a statement on Wednesday that rejected Japan’s protest against the military maneuvers, saying, Russia “can choose by itself where to hold military exercises within its own territory.” Russia had taken no account of Japan’s demand in advance that the exercises be canceled.
 特に問題なのは、ロシアが、日本の抗議に対し、「ロシアは軍事演習を行う場所を自国領内で独自に決定できる」と拒絶する声明を発表したことだ。日本の事前の中止要求も無視している。

During the exercises, Russian President Vladimir Putin made a visit to the Crimean Peninsula in the southern part of Ukraine. This makes us suspicious that the military drills this time may have been designed to stress Moscow’s stance never to budge even an inch on territorial issues as was the case with Crimea, which Russia annexed forcibly in March.
 ロシアのプーチン大統領は演習と同時期に、ウクライナ南部のクリミア半島を訪問した。今回の演習には、3月に編入を強行したクリミアと同様、領土問題では一切譲歩しない姿勢を強調する狙いがあるのではないか。

Strategic diplomacy needed

A machine-gun and artillery division comprising about 3,500 soldiers has been stationed on Kunashiri and Etorofu islands, and it has been modernizing its equipment in recent years. This is part of the “Russification” attempts in the northern territories. Japan must work tenaciously to prod Russia into using self-restraint over the matter.
 国後、択捉両島にはロシア軍の機関銃・砲兵師団約3500人が駐留し、近年、装備の近代化を進めている。北方領土の「ロシア化」の一環だ。日本はロシアに粘り強く自制を促す必要がある。

Also notable is the possibility that a Mistral-class amphibious assault ship, which Moscow will purchase from France, will be deployed to Russia’s Pacific Fleet.
 ロシア極東軍には、フランスから購入する予定のミストラル級強襲揚陸艦が配備される可能性が指摘されている。

Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera, during a meeting with his French counterpart at the end of July, urged France to cancel the sale of the amphibious assault vessel. The government should continue such diplomatic efforts.
小野寺防衛相は7月末の日仏防衛相会談で、強襲揚陸艦の売却中止を求めた。こうした外交努力も続けたい。

Russia, for its part, has reacted adversely to Japan’s support for anti-Russia sanctions by the United States and European countries over the Ukrainian situation.
 ロシアは、ウクライナ問題を巡る米欧の対露制裁に日本が同調していることに反発している。

Following Japan’s decision on Aug. 5 to pursue a set of additional sanctions against Russia, including a freeze on the assets in Japan of Russian government officials and others, Russia took the countermeasure of postponing a consultative meeting of foreign vice ministerial officials that was scheduled toward the end of this month.
 日本が今月5日にロシア政府関係者らの日本国内資産凍結などの追加制裁を決めると、ロシアは、今月末の日露外務次官級協議を延期する対抗措置をとった。

Moscow, however, has exempted Japan from a ban on farm product and fisheries imports, targeting only the United States and Europe. This has been deemed a tactic presumably aimed at disrupting ties between Japan and the United States and European nations.
 一方、米欧からの農水産物輸入を禁じたが、日本は対象外とした。日本と米欧の分断工作だろう。

Because of the military exercises this time, further stagnation of Tokyo-Moscow relations is most likely inevitable. The prospects for realizing a visit to Japan by Putin this coming autumn, which the two countries have agreed upon, have become even slimmer.
 今回の演習により、日露関係の一層の停滞は避けられまい。両国が合意している今秋のプーチン大統領の来日も、実現が一段と厳しい状況になった。

It is very important for Japan not to waver in the face of Russia’s attempt to put this country off balance, but rather to maintain the stance of keeping cooperative relations with the United States and European countries.
 大切なのは、日本がロシアの揺さぶりに動じず、米欧との協調を維持することだ。

The government must engage in strategic diplomacy to never allow Russia’s infringement on any country’s territorial sovereignty or attempts to change the status quo by force.
力を背景とした領土の侵害や現状変更を許さない戦略的外交を展開すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Aug. 17, 2014)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-19 07:02 | 英字新聞

社説:8・15と日中韓 「歴史の衝突」回避せよ

August 16, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Japan must avoid conflict with China, S. Korea over historical perception
社説:8・15と日中韓 「歴史の衝突」回避せよ

Japan commemorated the 69th anniversary of the end of World War II on Aug. 15 without resolving its conflicts with China and South Korea over historical perceptions and territorial issues. This is indeed regrettable.
 69回目の終戦記念日を、私たちは日中、日韓の歴史認識や領土を巡る対立を解消できないまま迎えた。極めて残念なことだ。

In some ways, changes in the power balance in East Asia stemming from the rise of China have created friction, but the leaders of the three countries are largely responsible for the conflicts.
 対立の背景として、中国の台頭に伴う東アジアのパワーバランス(力関係)の変化が摩擦を生み出している面もあるが、3カ国の指導者の責任も大きい。

There are signs that Japan's bilateral relations with China and South Korea are beginning to improve as Japan-China and Japan-South Korea foreign ministerial talks have recently been held. These moves should lead to fundamental improvement in Tokyo's ties with Beijing and Seoul.
最近、日中、日韓それぞれに外相会談が開かれるなど、ようやく関係改善の兆しが出てきている。この流れを大事にしたい。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe refrained from visiting Yasukuni Shrine, where Class A war criminals are enshrined along with the war dead, on Aug. 15 this year. Instead, he sent a close aide to make a ritual offering to the shrine as president of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), while Internal Affairs and Communications Minister Yoshitaka Shindo and two other Cabinet ministers paid a visit to the shrine. The Chinese Foreign Ministry has issued a statement criticizing the prime minister and the three Cabinet ministers' acts.
 安倍晋三首相は終戦記念日の15日、靖国神社への参拝を見送り、自民党の萩生田光一総裁特別補佐を通じて党総裁として私費で玉串料を奉納した。閣僚では新藤義孝総務相ら3人が参拝した。中国外務省は、閣僚の参拝や首相の玉串料奉納を批判する談話を発表した。

Prime Minister Abe's decision not to visit the shrine on the anniversary of the war's end is appropriate. The last war was a reckless war of aggression. The prime minister apparently made the decision out of diplomatic considerations. The prime minister should not, however, visit the shrine where Class A war criminals -- or war leaders -- are enshrined in the first place.
 首相の参拝見送りは妥当な判断だ。先の大戦は無謀な侵略戦争である。首相は外交的配慮から参拝を見送ったのだろうが、そもそも戦争指導者のA級戦犯がまつられた神社に首相が参拝すべきでない。

It is necessary to put an end to the controversy and diplomatic rows over the pros and cons of the prime minister and other high-ranking government officials visiting the shrine. Now is the time to seriously explore the possibility of separating war criminals from the war dead enshrined at Yasukuni or building a non-religious national memorial for the war dead, which has previously been discussed within the LDP.
 靖国参拝の是非を巡る論争や外交的対立に終止符を打とう。自民党内でもかつて議論されたA級戦犯の分祀(ぶんし)や、新たな国立追悼施設の建設について、再び議論をおこし、真剣に検討すべき時だ。

For the second consecutive year, Abe stopped short of mentioning responsibility for Japan's wartime aggression in Asia or pledging not to wage war again, which could invite misunderstanding among Asian countries.
 また首相は全国戦没者追悼式の式辞で、昨年に引き続き、アジア諸国に対する加害責任や「不戦の誓い」に触れなかった。アジア諸国から誤解を招きかねない。

In a speech marking the anniversary of Korea's liberation from Japanese colonial rule, South Korean President Park Geun-hye urged Japan to take proactive measures to settle the issue of so-called "comfort women" that can satisfy the victims by next year -- the 50th anniversary of the normalization of bilateral diplomatic relations.
 一方、韓国の朴槿恵(パククネ)大統領は15日、日本の植民地支配からの解放を祝う「光復節」式典の演説で、来年の日韓国交正常化50周年までに、元慰安婦が納得できる解決策を示すよう日本政府に努力を求めた。

There is still a wide perception gap between Japan and South Korea over the issue. While Seoul is demanding that Japan admit the government's responsibility for conscripting Korean women to serve as comfort women for Japanese soldiers during the war, Tokyo has taken the position that the issue of compensation has been legally settled.
 慰安婦問題では、韓国が国の責任を認めるよう求めているのに対し、日本は戦後補償問題は法的に解決済みとの立場で、隔たりは大きい。

It is necessary for Japan and South Korea to lead international efforts to settle the comfort women issue from the viewpoint that it is an issue of women's individual rights in wartime rather than just a bilateral issue.
 日韓両国が、慰安婦問題を2国間だけの問題ととらえるのでなく、戦時下の女性の人権という広い視野に立ち、国際的な取り組みを主導することも必要だろう。

Japan should discuss with South Korea what Tokyo can do in terms of its humanitarian and ethical responsibility. South Korea should also refrain from excessively criticizing Japan and show its readiness to play a constructive role in settling the issue.
 日本は人道的・道義的責任の観点から、さらに何ができるか、韓国とよく話し合うべきだ。韓国にも過剰な対日批判を慎み、問題解決に向けた建設的な姿勢を示すよう求めたい。

China should also refrain from using the history of Japan's wartime aggression to paint Japan as the bad guy on the international stage, or take any other provocative action in bilateral territorial disputes.
 そして中国にも、歴史問題を日本批判の国際的な宣伝材料にすることや、領土を巡る挑発的行為をやめるよう求めたい。

The leaders of the three countries must try to avoid any conflict over historical perceptions or nationalism-fuelled clashes, and work toward improving relations as we approach 2015, which marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II.
 3カ国の指導者は、歴史認識やナショナリズムの衝突を回避するよう努めなければならない。8月15日にそのことを改めてそれぞれの胸に刻み、戦後70年に向けて関係改善につなげてほしい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月16日 02時31分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-18 07:26 | 英字新聞

社説:8・15と戦争 記憶の継承の担い手に

これは驚きました。
毎日の英文翻訳が格段に進歩!
英語学習でつかえます。
(スラチャイ)

August 15, 2014(Mainichi Japan)
Editorial: Pass on lessons of war to future generations
社説:8・15と戦争 記憶の継承の担い手に

The Aug. 15 anniversary of the end of World War II is the anniversary of surrender for Japanese people.
 終戦記念日の8月15日は、正確には敗戦の日である。

Japan, which invaded China and launched a surprise attack on the United States, was defeated exactly 69 years ago, although Japanese leaders said all 100 million Japanese were prepared to die an honorable death.
中国を侵略し、米国を奇襲攻撃した日本は、69年前のこの日、一億玉砕を叫びながら万策尽き果て、降伏した。

This reckless war left 3.1 million Japanese nationals dead. In all of Asia, the number of victims is believed to surpass 20 million.
無謀な戦争による犠牲者は、日本人だけで310万人、アジアでは2000万人以上にのぼるとされる。

Every August, many newspapers run articles featuring the war.
 8月になると、新聞に戦争を振り返る特集が増える。

This tendency is occasionally ridiculed as journalism limited to August.
夏だけの「8月ジャーナリズム」とやゆされたりするが、

However, on Aug. 15 each year it is an indispensable ritual to quietly mourn war victims both in Japan and overseas and deeply consider war and peace.
8・15が巡ってくるたび、内外の死者を静かに追悼し、戦争と平和について深く思いを致すのは、欠かせない儀礼である。

 ◇人を人でなくすもの

Next year marks the 70th anniversary of the end of the war.
 来年は戦後70年の節目だ。

Those born after the war account for 80 percent of all Japanese nationals, and an overwhelming majority of those who experienced the war are in their 80s to 90s.
戦後生まれの日本人が人口の8割を占め、戦争をじかに知る人は、大半が80代から90代の高齢者である。

The memory of the war is gradually fading among Japanese people, and there are tendencies to regard wars as if they were games and describe the last war in a nostalgic tone.
国民の記憶の中で戦争が風化し、戦争をゲーム感覚で考えたり、戦争への郷愁を口にしたりする風潮さえも、見受けられるようになった。

No time should be wasted.
 残された時は少ない。

It is an urgent task to hand over the memory of the war to future generations to prevent a recurrence of the same mistakes.
戦争の記憶の継承は、未来を再び過たせないための、喫緊の課題だ。

Even those who did not experience World War II can visualize the war through the words of those who experienced the tragedy and through literary works featuring the war.
 戦争を知らない世代でも、戦争体験者の語る言葉や書き残したもの、文学作品などを通じ、戦争の姿を思い描くことはできる。

Novelist Shohei Ooka channeled his experience of the last war into literary works, such as "Furyoki" ("Taken Captive: A Japanese POW's Story") and "Leyte Senki" ("The Battle of Leyte Gulf").
 フィリピンでの戦争体験を「俘虜記」「レイテ戦記」などの文学に昇華させた大岡昇平は

In his book, "Sendo" ("War"), published by Iwanami Shoten Publishers, he wrote, "As a soldier and someone who experienced the war, I'd like to talk forever about how tragic war is."
「兵士として、戦争の経験を持つ人間として、戦争がいかに不幸なことであるかを、いつまでも語りたい」と書いた(「戦争」岩波現代文庫)。

It is important for each and every member of the public to respect his resolve and to pass on how stupid wars are to future generations.
その心情を受け止め、一人一人が記憶の継承の担い手となって、戦争の愚かさを伝えていくことが大切だ。

Former Okinawa Gov. Masahide Ota, who fought in the war as part of student mobilization, has collected photos of various wars in the world and reminded the public of the cruelty of wars.
 学徒動員で沖縄戦を戦った元沖縄県知事の大田昌秀さんは、世界のさまざまな戦争の写真を集め、その残虐さを告発してきた。

Ota inserted photos of a soldier being beheaded, a child who was stabbed in the stomach, a charred woman and other cruel scenes into a book titled, "Ningen-ga Ningen-de Nakunaru Toki" ("When humans become non-humans").  首をはねられる兵士、腹を裂かれた子供、焼け焦げた女性。目を背けたくなるような写真の数々を「人間が人間でなくなるとき」という題の記録集にまとめた大田さんは、

In the book, Ota writes, "It is necessary to confirm that we, individuals, cannot only be easily turned into 'non-humans' depending on the situation, but can also turn others into non-humans."
次のように記している。「私たち個々人は、時と場合によっては、自らが容易に『非人間化』されてしまう存在であるばかりでなく、他人をも非人間化してしまう存在だということを確認する必要がある」

Wars are nothing but absurdity that turn humans into non-humans and madness that tramples down the dignity of lives.
 戦争は、まさに「人間を人間でなくす」不条理であり、命の尊厳を踏みにじる狂気である。

The novel, "All Quiet on the Western Front," authored by German novelist Erich Maria Remarque, known for his antiwar literature and works describing World War I, ends after notifying its readers of the death of protagonist Paul Baeumer.
 第一次世界大戦を描いた反戦文学として名高いレマルクの「西部戦線異状なし」は、主人公のドイツ人志願兵パウル・ボイメルの死を、読む者に知らせて終わる。

Remarque, a World War I veteran, wrote in the work's last scene that it was so quiet and calm on the western front that a command post had nothing to say but "All quiet on the western front. There is nothing to report."
 ドイツ出身で、自ら第一次大戦に従軍した作者レマルクは、最後の場面を「その日は全戦線にわたって、きわめて穏やかで静かで、司令部報告は『西部戦線異状なし、報告すべき件なし』という文句に尽きているくらいであった」(新潮文庫版・秦豊吉訳)と描写した。

This year marks the 100th anniversary of the beginning of World War I. Up to 15 million people are believed to have died in the war. In other words, in the history of that war, there are 15 million people who perished and were buried, just like Baeumer.
 第一次大戦の開戦から今年で100年。死者は最大で1500万人とされている。ボイメル志願兵も、歴史の片隅に埋もれていった、1500万分の1人だった。

In the Pacific War, a massive U.S. airstrike on Tokyo left 100,000 people dead on a single night.
 太平洋戦争では、米軍の東京大空襲により、一晩で10万人が犠牲になった。

The atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed over 200,000 people.
原爆は広島、長崎で20万人以上の命を奪った。

There were numerous other air raids on Japanese cities.
ほかにも無数の都市爆撃があった。

Poet Zenmaro Toki composed a poem that reads, "There were reportedly hundreds, or even thousands of abandoned bodies. None of them had two lives."
土岐善麿は、日中戦争をこう詠んだ。「遺棄死体 数百といひ数千といふ いのちをふたつ もちしものなし」

 ◇加害の責任も忘れず

Tens of thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of precious lives could be lost instantly in any war.
 かけがえのない「生」の集積が、何万、何十万の犠牲である。

Having a rich imagination of such a tragedy can lead to true mourning of the war dead.
その想像力を持つことが、戦死者を追悼するという行為である。

If so, we must keep in mind that a massive number of Asian people fell victim to the Japanese military in the last war.
 であるなら、日本軍の犠牲になった、おびただしい数のアジアの死者も忘れてはならない。

The victims of the Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War are spread throughout Asia.
 日中戦争、太平洋戦争の犠牲者はアジア全体に広がる。

There is no difference between countries and regions in the degree of absurdity and cruelty of war.
戦争の不条理と戦死の痛ましさに、国境はない。

Such being the case, it is the duty of Japan, which caused immeasurable human suffering and damage to property in Asia, to equally mourn Japanese and other war victims.
内外の死者を等しく追悼する誠実さを身に備えることは、アジアに計り知れない人的、物的被害を与えた日本の、当然の務めだ。

Any war causes a rift between countries involved and instills feelings of hate.
 戦争は、国と国を長きにわたって不和にし、憎しみの感情を植えつける。

While those who wage war tend to forget their memory of causing damage to their victims, the victims keep their memory of suffering forever.
加害の記憶がともすれば忘れられがちなのに対し、被害の記憶はずっと残る。

Japan's deep-rooted row with China and South Korea over the interpretation of history involving Japan's wartime atrocities has raised questions as to how countries that wage war and victims should hand over their bitter memories to future generations.
中国や韓国との根深い歴史対立は、加害者と被害者が、それぞれの歴史の記憶をどう継承していくかの摩擦でもある。

How to remember what has historically happened may differ from country to country. But a conflict over the matter must not cover up the tragedy of war.
 歴史の記憶の仕方は、国によって異なるかもしれない。だが、その対立が、戦争の悲惨さを覆い隠すことになってはならない。

Ongoing discussions on reinterpreting the war-renouncing Constitution to open the way for Japan to exercise the right to collective self-defense have called into question the pros and cons of using force.
 今、集団的自衛権の論議で、武力行使のあり方が問われている。

There are wars to counter acts of aggression and unavoidable wars that must be fought for humanitarian purposes. 戦争には侵略に対抗する戦争も、人道支援が目的の、やむをえない戦争もある。

Having a military deterrence is necessary to maintain peace.
軍事的抑止力を持つことは、平和のためにも必要だ。

However, wars cause cruel bruises and leave a negative legacy to countries involved and their people, regardless of how they start or end.
 ただし、どのように始められ、どのように終わったとしても、戦争は国家と国民にむごたらしい傷と、負の遺産をもたらす。

This is the reality of any war.
それが戦争の現実である。

The phrase, "use of force," should not be easily mentioned without deeply thinking about its meaning.
武力行使という言葉は、深く考えないままに、安易に使われるべきものではない。

Almost everyone throughout the world certainly hopes that they will not experience a tragedy similar to World War II.  二度とあのような戦争は経験したくない、というのが、ほとんどの国民の願いだろう。

Each and every member of the public should keep in mind the ugliness and cruelty of war in discussing how to ensure peace.
平和を論ずるにあたっては、戦争の醜さと残酷さを、常に原点に置きたい。

毎日新聞 2014年08月15日 02時30分
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-17 07:53 | 英字新聞

(社説)戦後69年 歴史を忘れぬ後代の責務

August 13, 2014
EDITORIAL: Japan has duty to keep alive lessons of wartime abuse
(社説)戦後69年 歴史を忘れぬ後代の責務

This year marks the 120th anniversary of the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War. When peace was shattered in

East Asia, the Tokyo Asahi Shimbun, the predecessor of The Asahi Shimbun, welcomed it in its July 29, 1894,

editorial.
 今年は日清戦争の開戦から120年にあたる。東アジアの平和が破られたその時、1894年7月29日付の東京朝日新聞朝刊は、

歓迎する社説を掲げた。

“War is not a disaster,” it read. “Rather, it is a means for progress. If trounced by Japan, China will repent.”
「戦争は災害ではなくむしろ進歩の方法」「清国は日本に大敗すれば反省するだろう」

Back then, it was taken for granted that countries seeking greatness would battle one another. And people were

probably not really aware yet of the brutality of modern artillery. But many soldiers and civilians ended up dead.
 富強を目指す国同士が戦うのを当然視した時代だった。火砲の発達がもたらす残虐さに対する意識も薄かったかもしれない。実際に

は将兵、一般人を含め犠牲者が多数にのぼった。

After two world wars in the 20th century, countries around the world learned from hard experience that they should

not go to war as a rule. This understanding is reflected in the Charter of the United Nations that provides for

restricted use of arms, and in Japan’s pacifist Constitution as well.
 その後、二つの世界大戦の経験を通じて各国は、戦争を基本的にやってはいけないこととみなした。武力行使を慎むと規定する国連

憲章、平和主義を掲げる日本国憲法とも、その延長線上にある。

The Japanese people came to understand acutely what war means after expanding their territory and then bringing

ruin upon themselves. But with the passage of 69 years since their nation’s defeat in World War II, their collective

memory is fading. How do we keep the memory alive?
 版図拡大と破綻(はたん)を経験した日本人自身の心にも、戦争の何たるかが刻まれた。だが戦後69年も経てば記憶は風化する。

どう伝えていけばいいだろう。

REWRITTEN NARRATIVES
 ■書き換えられる物語

History is sometimes forgotten, sometimes brought back from oblivion, and sometimes rewritten. This was already

going on in ancient Greece, notes British historian Robin Osborne in his book “Greece in the Making 1200-479 BC.”
 歴史は、ときに忘れられ、忘却からよみがえり、書き換えられる。それが古代ギリシャの時代からあったと、英国の歴史学者、R・オズボ

ーン氏が指摘している。(刀水書房刊「ギリシアの古代」による)

In 510 B.C., the expulsion of Hippias, a tyrant, from Athens brought democratic rule to Athens, which “was directly a

product of Spartan action,” writes Osborne.
 紀元前510年、アテネが独裁者ヒッピアスを追放し、民主政に道を開いたのはスパルタの協力によってであった。

But the Athenians came up with their own narrative, in which two Athenians, who had assassinated Hippias’s brother

four years previously, were given full credit for ending tyranny in Athens. The Athenians even built statues of the two

assassins to honor them. Why? Because relations between Athens and Sparta had become hostile.
ところがアテネでは、その4年前にヒッピアスではなく、その弟を殺したアテネ人の偉業という話にすり替わり、像が建てられた。それはアテネ

とスパルタが敵対関係に入ったためだった。

This reminds us of China. Until the 1980s, China refrained from openly discussing its history of fighting Japanese

aggression because maintaining amicable relations with Japan was Beijing’s top priority then. But China began

harping on Japanese aggression in the 1990s, and has since become increasingly strident. Nowadays, China hardly

ever mentions Japan’s past contributions to China’s development.
 連想されるのは中国である。日本による侵略と戦った歴史を語ることは、友好関係を最優先とした80年代まで抑えられていたが、90

年代以降、強調するようになった。関係が悪化した最近はなおさらだ。中国の発展に日本が貢献したことなど、なかなか触れられること

はない。

Some people may be quite put off by China’s ways. But before we complain to China, let us first look at our own

country.
 そんなやり方にうんざりする向きもあろう。だが相手に注文をつける前に、まずは、わが国について省みよう。

In April 2013, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe hosted a ceremony for the first time to commemorate Japan’s recovery of

sovereignty in 1952 when the 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty took effect. Lauding the nation’s phenomenal postwar

recovery and stressing the horrors of the lost war, Abe noted: “Japan was in ruins, and only its mountains and rivers

remained. Such was the state of our country in the summer of 1945.”
 安倍首相は昨年4月、サンフランシスコ講和条約発効を記念する主権回復式典を初めて催した。「国破れ、まさしく山河だけが残っ

たのが、昭和20年夏、わが国の姿でありました」。敗戦の悲惨を語り、その後の復興をたたえた。

But four months later, at the Aug. 15 memorial ceremony to mourn the nation’s war dead, Abe made no mention

whatsoever of the damage Japan inflicted on its Asian neighbors during the war.
 一方で4カ月後、8月15日の全国戦没者追悼式では、アジア諸国への加害についていっさい言及しなかった。

“From humiliation to glory” was the theme of Abe’s appealing narrative that left out any inconvenient historical fact.

The narrative is not necessarily all false, but there seems to lurk a design to rewrite history.
 「屈辱から栄光へ」という受け入れられやすい物語を強調し、不都合な史実には触れない。必ずしもうそではない。しかし、歴史書き

換えの一歩が潜んでいるのではないか。

WHAT IT MEANS TO RESPECT PEACE
 ■平和を尊ぶために

Of course, remembering the war damage done to our country is an important first step in the path to pacifism.
 もちろん、自国にもたらされた戦争被害を思い出すのは、平和思想の起点として大事だ。

But we must also remember our country’s history of spreading the horrors of war across Asia and victimizing innocent

citizens. To remember this history is the duty of all citizens who value peace above everything.
 だが、当時の日本軍がアジア諸国に戦火を広げ、市民を巻き込んだ歴史を忘れるわけにはいかない。平和を何よりも大事にする者と

しての義務である。

It is silly to criticize such citizens for having a masochistic view of history. It is shameful to be obsessed with the nation

’s superficial prestige and try to protect it by misrepresenting or distorting the past. A country can be considered

honorable only if it can honestly face the past to learn lessons from it.
 それを自虐史観と呼ぶのは愚かである。表面的な国の威信を気にして過去をごまかすのは、恥ずべきことだ。過去から教訓を正しく引

き出してこそ、誇りある国だろう。

Keeping alive the memories of the country’s history of abuse of its wartime enemies and citizens is not easy in the

absence of a firm resolve to do so. The people who personally committed acts of abuse do not want to talk, and it is

certainly hard and painful to listen to harrowing accounts. And most of the victims of abuse or their surviving families

live outside Japan.
 加害の歴史を記憶していくのは、よほど自覚しないと難しい。手を下した当事者は口をつぐむ。聞くほうもつらい。被害者やその遺族の

居場所は、ほとんどが国外だ。

In the 69 years since the end of World War II, many stories about kamikaze suicide missions have become bestsellers.

But among war-related works that continue to be read today, how many deal with the damage Japan inflicted on

Asian nations?
 そして69年が過ぎた。特攻隊の物語はベストセラーになるが、戦争加害を正面から扱う文学で読み継がれているものが、どれほどあ

るだろう。

It is the duty of Japan’s postwar generation to keep reminding itself not to forget the easy-to-forget history and let

the rest of the world know its resolve whenever appropriate.
 後代の者の務めは、忘れがちな歴史を忘れないと、折に触れ内外に示すことだ。

And this is exactly why it is of tremendous significance that generations of Japanese prime ministers have established

the custom of mentioning Japan’s war responsibility while mourning the nation’s war dead on Aug. 15 every year.
だからこそ8月15日、歴代首相が戦没者追悼とともに加害責任に触れる慣例が、意義を持ったのだ。

In 2007, during his first stint as prime minister, Abe said that Japan had “inflicted tremendous damage and pain on

people in Asian nations.” But last year, he chose a different approach. We urge him strongly to repeat those original

words t
his year on behalf of the people of Japan.
 安倍首相も、第1次政権の07年は「アジア諸国の人々に対して多大の損害と苦痛を与えた」と述べた。にもかかわらず、昨年は異な

る選択をした。今年こそ、日本国民を代表して再び言うべきである。

LESSONS FROM FIRST SINO-JAPANESE WAR
 ■日清戦争の教訓とは

Last month, several opinion pieces on the First Sino-Japanese War were published in China. Noting that China of the

Qing dynasty lost the war because it was weaker than Japan, the authors discussed what China of today should do.
 先月、中国では日清戦争を回顧した論評がいくつか発表された。当時は弱いから負けた、ならばいま、どうすればいいか、という問題

意識だ。

The overseas version of The People’s Daily, the organ of the Chinese Communist Party, argued to the effect, “We

must ensure not to repeat the tragedy of the First Sino-Japanese War by securing extensive maritime rights with our

navy and enhancing our capability to protect our sovereignty and security.”
 中国共産党機関紙・人民日報(海外版)は「我々は海軍を基本とする強大な海上権を確立し、国家の主権、安全を守る能力を高

め、甲午戦争(日清戦争)の悲劇が繰り返されないようにすべきだ」と論じた。

But in using history to justify its recent arms expansion, China is heading in the wrong direction. Its argument in favor

of an armed clash, just like 120 years ago, suggests China’s failure to understand history correctly.
 しかし昨今の軍備拡張の正当化のために歴史を利用するのでは、方向性を間違えている。120年前と同様、力と力の衝突を肯定

するかのような議論は、むしろ歴史を踏まえていないものだ。

And Japan definitely must not do anything that might result in giving credence to China’s perception of history. Even

if only to prevent such an eventuality, Japan must continue to express the remorse it felt 69 years ago.
 そのような議論に、こちらのほうから現実味を与えるわけにはいかない。そのためにも、69年前の反省をきちんと掲げ続けなくてはならな

いのである。

--The Asahi Shimbun, Aug. 13
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2014-08-16 07:43 | 英字新聞