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(社説)復帰の日 沖縄を孤立させぬ覚悟

--The Asahi Shimbun, May 16
EDITORIAL: 43 years on, Okinawa still forced to serve mainland's interest
(社説)復帰の日 沖縄を孤立させぬ覚悟

May 15 marked the anniversary of Okinawa’s return to Japan 43 years ago. Never has the anniversary arrived amid such acute tension between Okinawa Prefecture and the central government.
 沖縄が日本に復帰して、きのうで43年。今年ほど沖縄と政府の関係が緊張するなかで迎えた「復帰の日」はないだろう。

Flying in the face of strong opposition from many people in Okinawa, the Abe administration is forging ahead with preparations for the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma from the crowded city of Ginowan to the Henoko area of Nago, another city in the island prefecture.
 米軍普天間飛行場(宜野湾市)の名護市辺野古への移設準備を、多くの県民の反対を顧みず、政府が推し進めている。

The government and Japan’s mainlanders should heed the voices of Okinawa, which has been pivotal to the support of national security since the end of World War II in 1945 by bearing the heavy burden of hosting the vast bulk of U.S. military bases in this country. The Japanese people should not allow Okinawa to become isolated.
 戦後70年間、基地負担にあえぎながらも日本の安全保障を支えてきた沖縄の訴えに耳を傾けるべきで、国民は沖縄を孤立させてはならない。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga and Defense Minister Gen Nakatani, met separately with Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga in April and May for the first time since Onaga came to office in December. The three top government officials refused to hold talks with Onaga until then.
 昨年12月に翁長雄志氏が知事に就任して以来、会うことを拒んできた菅義偉官房長官、安倍晋三首相、中谷元防衛相の政府首脳3人との会談が、ようやく4月、5月に実現した。

Onaga’s remarks about Okinawa’s postwar history made in those meetings underscored Okinawa’s determination to reject the Futenma relocation plan.
その機会に翁長氏が発した言葉が、沖縄の強い意思を明確に示した。

Onaga talked about how the U.S. military, when it governed Okinawa before its reversion to Japan, seized local people’s land forcibly to build bases by using “bayonets and bulldozers.”
 復帰前の米軍統治下、基地建設のために「銃剣とブルドーザー」で土地を強制収用されたこと。

The Okinawa governor also spoke about Paul Caraway, the high commissioner of the U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands during the early 1960s, who once declared that Okinawan self-government is nothing but a legend.
自治権拡大を「神話」と言い放ったキャラウェイ高等弁務官のこと。

Onaga also referred to the 1956 U.S. attempt for an effective blanket purchase of the local land leased for bases, made in line with what is known as the “Price Recommendations” by Rep. Melvin Price, who chaired a special subcommittee of the Armed Services Committee.
軍用地の一括買い上げを狙ったプライス勧告のこと。

Onaga’s words awakened bitter memories about these historical facts that still linger in the minds of the people in Okinawa and highlighted parallels between these incidents and the Abe administration’s approach to the Futenma issue.
翁長氏は県民にわだかまる記憶を次々とすくい上げ、現政権と二重写しにしてみせた。

Onaga’s remarks expressed anger about how the central government has continued to ignore Okinawa’s determined opposition to the base relocation plan, which was made clear in three elections last year--the Nago mayoral election, the gubernatorial poll and the Lower House election. They also indicated that Okinawa’s actions against the administration’s efforts to carry out the plan are similar in nature to Okinawa’s fight for the right of self-government under U.S. military rule.
 翁長氏の発言は、昨年の名護市長選、県知事選、総選挙と繰り返し示された辺野古移設反対の民意が無視され続けていることへの怒り、そして今の沖縄の政府に向けた行動が米軍政下の自治権獲得闘争と同質であるとの見解の表明である。

In his meeting with Nakatani, Onaga recounted an episode about his discussions on the issue with an Upper House member of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party two years ago when he was the mayor of Naha. Onaga severely criticized the mainland’s mind-set by telling Nakatani that the LDP politician said Okinawa should accept the new base because the mainland refused to accept it. The LDP lawmaker also said to Onaga, “Let us stop futile discussions.”
 中谷防衛相との会談では、翁長氏が那覇市長時代の2年前、自民党の参院議員から「本土が(基地受け入れを)嫌だと言っているのだから、沖縄が受けるのは当たり前だ。不毛な議論はやめよう」という言葉を投げかけられた経験を明かし、本土側の意識を痛烈に批判した。

It is notable that the series of meetings between Onaga and the top administration officials have aroused sympathy for Okinawa among the Japanese public.
 一連の会談をきっかけに、国内世論が次第に沖縄に共感を示し始めたことは注目される。

In a clutch of opinion polls recently conducted by The Asahi Shimbun and other media, more respondents than before expressed critical views about the administration’s stance toward the issue.
朝日新聞など多くの報道機関の世論調査でも、政府の姿勢を評価しないとする声が増えた。

The mainland public’s interest in the problem appears to be growing, as indicated by internationally acclaimed animation director Hayao Miyazaki’s decision to co-head a fund set up by prefectural assembly members and local businesses to protest the plan to move the air base to Henoko.
 移設阻止を訴えるために県議や地元経済界が設立した「辺野古基金」の共同代表に映画監督の宮崎駿氏らが就くなど、問題への関心が高まっている。

Onaga plans to make his case to a broad international audience, including the U.S. government.
 翁長知事は今後、米政府をはじめ国際世論にも広く働きかける戦略を描く。

Okinawa’s wish to be treated equally as the mainland has been consistently denied, even after its return to Japan.
 復帰後も、「本土並み」という願いは踏みにじられてきた。

Chobyo Yara, the last chief executive of the government of the Ryukyu Islands under U.S. administration and the first governor of the prefecture after the return of Okinawa, once said. “Okinawa must not be victimized again as a means of the state.”
 「沖縄が再び国の手段として犠牲になってはならない」。琉球政府主席で復帰直後の沖縄県知事、屋良朝苗(やらちょうびょう)氏はこう訴えたという。

One serious question Japanese mainlanders should ask themselves now is whether they are again trying to victimize Okinawa for the mainland’s interests.
今またわれわれは沖縄を犠牲にしようとしていないか。本土の国民は改めてこの問いを受け止める必要がある。
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-05-20 11:41 | 英字新聞

中国の軍事開発 地域の安定脅かす「砂の長城」

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China jeopardizes regional stability by building ‘Great Wall of sand’
中国の軍事開発 地域の安定脅かす「砂の長城」

China is accelerating its land reclamation in the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea, a move that is jeopardizing the stability of the region.
 中国が南シナ海・スプラトリー(南沙)諸島で、岩礁埋め立てを加速させている。地域の安定を脅かす行為だ。

The U.S. Defense Department’s recently released annual report on China’s military strength mentioned for the first time that country’s reclamation of land in the South China Sea, which has been described as the building of “a Great Wall of sand.” The report expressed concern that the reclaimed land around rocks and reefs in the waters would create “persistent civil-military bases of operation.”
 中国の軍事力に関する米国防総省の年次報告書が、「砂の長城」建設と呼ばれる埋め立て作業に初めて言及した。岩礁が「永続的な軍民活動拠点になる」とも指摘している。

As of late last year, China had already begun constructing harbors, communication facilities and an airfield at four of the five reclaimed outposts in the Spratly Islands.
 昨年末の時点で、5か所の埋め立て地のうち4か所で港や通信施設、飛行場などの建設に入っていた。

A Pentagon official said the total acreage of the reclaimed area had grown to about eight square kilometers, quadrupling in size over about four months.
米当局者は、その後の4か月で埋め立て地の面積が4倍の約8平方キロに拡大した、と述べた。

China is reclaiming land at an extraordinarily fast pace. It is clearly trying to create a fait accompli by unilaterally expanding its control over territories disputed with such neighboring countries as the Philippines.
 異様に速いペースだ。フィリピンなどとの係争地で自国の支配を一方的に拡張し、既成事実化を図る中国の狙いは明白である。

It is quite reasonable that the report criticizes China’s “willingness to tolerate a higher level of regional tension” to advance its interests.
 報告書が中国を「地域の緊張を高めるのをいとわない」と批判するのは、もっともだ。

China defends its move to reclaim land in the disputed waters as intended to safeguard its territorial sovereignty, but this claim is excessively self-serving. It is commonly recognized among countries concerned that China’s territorial claims — which assert that its sovereignty covers almost all the area in the South China Sea — have no basis under international law.
 中国は、埋め立てを「領土や主権を守る行動」と正当化するが、独善的にすぎる。南シナ海のほぼ全体に自国の主権が及ぶとする中国の主張に国際法上の根拠がないのは、関係国の共通認識だ。

The prevailing view is that China’s reclamation in the area is part of its preparations for establishing an air-defense identification zone over the South China Sea and securing air supremacy.
 埋め立ては、南シナ海での防空識別圏の設定や制空権確保の準備作業との見方が強い。

Cyberwar capabilities

The report also said it is likely that China’s nuclear submarine, carrying ballistic missiles, will begin its first patrols for nuclear deterrent purposes this year.
核搭載の原子力潜水艦が年内に初の哨戒活動を行う可能性もあるとされる。

It is noteworthy that the report expressed strong alarm over the rapid modernization of China’s military forces, saying “it could potentially reduce the U.S. forces’ core technological advantage.”
 注目すべきは、報告書が中国軍の近代化に対し、「米軍の技術的優位を減じる潜在力がある」として強い危機感を示したことだ。

In the field of space, in particular, the report said China possesses “the most rapidly maturing space program in the world” and that the country continues to develop capabilities designed to limit or prevent the use of space-based assets by its adversaries.
 特に、宇宙分野について、中国が「世界で最も急速に発達した宇宙計画」を持ち、敵の宇宙利用を制限・妨害する能力の開発を続けている、と明記した。

Regarding cyberspace, the report expresses a sense of danger over China’s strengthening of its capabilities to destroy computer networks, as part of its “anti-access and area denial (A2/AD)” strategy to prevent the intervention of U.S. forces in the event of a contingency.
 サイバー分野でも、米軍の有事介入を阻む中国の「接近阻止・領域拒否(A2AD)」戦略の一環として、ネットワーク破壊能力の増強への警戒感を示している。

Close attention must be paid to any progress in China’s military technologies in these newly emerging domains.
 こうした新たな分野における中国の軍事技術の進展について、十分に注視していく必要がある。

Worrisome for Japan is the buildup of equipment for the People’s Liberation Army Navy and Air Force.
 日本にとって懸念されるのは、中国海空軍の装備増強だ。

The report said it was likely that in the next 15 years, China will build multiple domestically produced aircraft carriers and procure Russian-made Sukhoi Su-35s, one of the most advanced fighters in the world. It also said China will likely make progress in the development of stealth strike aircraft in that period.
 報告書は、今後15年で複数の国産空母が建造されるとともに、ロシア製の最新鋭戦闘機スホイ35の調達やステルス戦闘機の開発が進む可能性を指摘している。

Japan and the United States must boost the joint response capabilities of the Self-Defense Forces and U.S. forces, based on recently agreed-upon guidelines on bilateral defense cooperation, and enhance their deterrent against China.
 日米両国は、先に合意した新しい日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)に基づき、自衛隊と米軍の共同対処能力を強化し、中国に対する抑止力を高めるべきだ。

It is also important to cooperate with countries concerned to heighten vigilance and surveillance activities in the East China Sea and the South China Sea, and urge China to refrain from taking any provocative military action.
 関係国とも協調し、東・南シナ海での警戒・監視活動を強めるとともに、中国に軍事的な挑発を自制するよう促すことが大切だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, May 14, 2015)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-05-17 12:46 | 英字新聞