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五輪追加種目 「東京」を盛り上げる決定打に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Make additional sports events winning hits to enliven Tokyo Games
五輪追加種目 「東京」を盛り上げる決定打に

It is hoped that the new initiative in which host cities pick out additional sports to be held during their Olympic Games will help enliven the Games.
 五輪で実施する競技を開催都市が選ぶ。新たな試みを、大会の盛り上がりにつなげたい。

The organizing committee of the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games on Monday decided on the additional events to be proposed to the International Olympic Committee. The formal decision on the additional events will be made at a general meeting of the IOC next summer.
 2020年東京五輪の組織委員会が、国際オリンピック委員会(IOC)に提案する追加種目を決めた。来夏のIOC総会で正式決定される。

Proposed were five sports with 18 medal events: baseball/softball, karate, skateboard, sports climbing and surfing. For those athletes in the proposed sports, the increased likelihood that they will be able to participate in the Tokyo Games will certainly be great encouragement.
 野球・ソフトボール、空手、ローラースポーツ(スケートボード)、スポーツクライミング、サーフィンの5競技18種目だ。これらの選手にとって、東京五輪の舞台に立てる可能性が高まったことは、大きな励みになるだろう。

The implementation of the additional events and new competitions is one of the main features of the Olympic reforms, which the IOC has been promoting since late last year.
 追加種目の実施は、IOCが昨年末から進めている五輪改革の目玉の一つだ。

These are aimed at enhancing public interest in the Games by adding sports that are popular in the host country and sports in which athletes of the host country are likely to win medals.
開催する国で人気のある競技や、メダル獲得が有望な競技を加えることにより、五輪への関心を高める狙いがある。

Underlying the new initiative is a sense of crisis within the IOC. Due to such factors as local citizens’ opposition to massive financial burdens that are borne by host cities, a number of cities have recently given up bidding to host the Games in turn.
 背景にあるのは、IOCの危機感である。巨額の財政負担に対する市民の反発などで、五輪招致を断念する都市が相次いでいる。

The Tokyo Games will serve as a test of whether the additional events can bring out new potential in the Olympics.
 追加種目が五輪の新たな可能性を引き出せるかどうか、東京五輪が試金石となる。

In Japan, baseball is a national sport. As there are many well-equipped stadiums, the overall construction cost of the Games would be reduced. The Tokyo organizing committee must cooperate with pro and amateur baseball circles to promote to the IOC the attractiveness of the sport that has taken hold in Japan.
 日本において、野球は国民的スポーツだ。設備の整った球場が多数存在するため、建設コストを削減できる。組織委だけでなく、プロとアマチュア球界が協力し、日本に根付いた野球の魅力をIOCに訴えていく必要がある。

Cooperation vital

Baseball was dropped as an Olympic event after the 2008 Beijing Games. Its failed candidacy since that time has been due chiefly to such negative factors as top players of the U.S. major leagues not participating in the Games, as the events were to be held mid-season for them.
 08年北京五輪を最後に、五輪競技から外れた。この際には、米大リーグのトップ選手が、シーズン中であるために出場しないことなどがマイナス材料となった。

It is essential for the Tokyo organizing committee to seek the cooperation of the major leagues as much as possible.
大リーグ側に可能な限りの協力を求めていく努力も欠かせない。

The beaming smiles of members of the Japanese national women’s softball team, who won gold at the Beijing Games, have made a great impression. The return of women’s softball to the Games is also a long-held wish in the world of softball.
 ソフトボール日本代表の女子選手たちが、北京五輪で金メダルを獲得した際の笑顔は、感動をもたらした。五輪への復帰は、ソフトボール界にとっても悲願だ。

This time, the strategy of newly establishing the World Baseball Softball Confederation and petitioning, jointly with men’s baseball circles, to the IOC for the return of women’s softball as a Games event is about to bear fruit.
 今回、世界野球ソフトボール連盟を新設し、男子の野球と一体となってアピールしてきた戦略が実を結びつつある。

Karate, which originated in Japan, has the advantage of being a sport with a large population of players the world over. For the competitions, existing facilities such as the Nippon Budokan can be used as venues. Such matters as making its rules known more widely will be a task for the future.
 日本発祥の空手は、世界的に競技人口が多いことが強みだ。会場には、既存の日本武道館などを活用できる。ルールの周知などが課題となるだろう。

The selections of skateboard, sports climbing and surfing were made in line with the IOC’s desire to add sports that are popular among young people.
 ローラースポーツ、スポーツクライミング、サーフィンについては、若者に人気の競技を重視するIOCの意向に沿った選考だ。

In connection with the Tokyo Games, the organizing committee has suffered major setbacks over the construction plan for the new National Stadium and the cancellation of the official emblem for the Games.
 東京五輪を巡っては、新国立競技場建設計画とエンブレムの白紙撤回で失点が続く。

In order not to disappoint public expectations any more, the organizing committee must thoroughly prepare for negotiations with the IOC as it moves toward a final decision.
 国民の期待をこれ以上、裏切らぬよう、組織委は最終決定に向けたIOCとの折衝に万全の態勢で臨まねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 29, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-30 11:06 | 英字新聞

難民大量流入 欧州の支援策は奏功するのか

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Will refugee assistance measures by EU countries prove effective?
難民大量流入 欧州の支援策は奏功するのか

The true value of European Union cooperation will be put to the test through EU efforts to slow down the influx of refugees and illegal migrants from the Middle East, Africa and elsewhere and build a system to assist them in an orderly manner.
 中東やアフリカなどから難民や不法移民が流入するスピードを抑え、秩序だった難民支援の体制を構築できるのか。欧州連合(EU)の協調の真価が試されよう。

The EU recently held a summit of its leaders and pledged at least an additional €1 billion (about ¥130 billion) to international organizations, including the Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). This is to support refugees in countries neighboring Syria.
 EUは、首脳会議を開き、国連難民高等弁務官事務所(UNHCR)など国際機関に少なくとも10億ユーロ(約1300億円)を追加拠出することを決めた。シリア周辺国で難民を支援するためだ。

More than 4 million people have fled Syria, a country where a civil war continues, to such countries as Turkey and Jordan.
 内戦が続くシリアからは、400万人以上がトルコやヨルダンなどに流出した。

To reduce the number of refugees heading for Europe, it is vital to help stabilize the lives of people living as refugees in Syria’s neighbors. The EU’s assistance can be considered a desperate measure to tackle the refugee crisis, as a path to ending the civil war is not in sight.
 欧州に向かう難民を減らすには、周辺国での難民生活を安定させることが肝要である。EUの支援は、内戦終結の道筋が見えない中での苦肉の策と言えよう。

The leaders of EU member countries have also agreed on establishing facilities for registering refugees and taking fingerprints in Greece and Italy, European gateways for refugees, by the end of November. It is to differentiate legitimate refugees from illegal migrants. The EU and its member countries will also cooperate in tightening border security.
 首脳会議は、難民流入の玄関口であるギリシャとイタリアに、難民登録や指紋採取を行う施設を、11月末までに設置することでも合意した。難民と不法移民を区別する狙いだ。EUと加盟国が連携して国境警備を増強するという。

A thorny problem for the EU is how to fairly share among member countries refugees who have entered Europe.
 EUにとっての難題は、欧州入りした難民の受け入れについて、加盟国がどう分担するかだ。

During a justice and interior ministers’ meeting, held prior to the summit talks, the ministers decided that the member countries would jointly take in 120,000 refugees, now hosted by Greece and Italy, over the next two years.
 首脳会議に先立って開催された法相・内相理事会では、ギリシャとイタリアが抱える難民12万人を2年間で、加盟国が共同で受け入れることを決めた。

As Hungary, Slovakia and two other East European countries opposed the refugee sharing plan, the ministerial meeting had no other choice but to reach its conclusion through an unusual majority vote.
 ハンガリーやスロバキアなど東欧4か国が反対し、異例の多数決で決着せざるを得なかった。

Sustainable system needed

The number of those refugees applying for European asylum is forecast to top 1 million this year. The latest decision on sharing refugees will be like a drop in a bucket, we think. Building a sustainable system to accept refugees is urgently needed.
 欧州での難民申請者は今年、100万人を超えると予測されている。今回の分担決定は焼け石に水ではないか。持続的な受け入れ体制を作ることが急務である。

The EU has hammered out the latest measures, including one to contain the influx of refugees, as its member countries are alarmed that the large numbers of refugees and migrants crossing their borders will threaten the social stability of their countries.
 EUが流入抑制を含む対策を打ち出したのは、大量の難民らが殺到することが各国の社会の安定を脅かすという危機感からだ。

In Greece, a country burdened with fiscal woes, a far-right anti-immigrant party placed third in the general elections held on Sept. 20.
 財政危機のギリシャで20日行われた総選挙では、反移民を掲げる極右政党が第3党になった。

Germany, an economic powerhouse which has been generous in taking in refugees, began, in the middle of this month, limiting the influx of refugees with border checks. The measures are linked largely to protests by local authorities, whose capacity to accommodate refugees has surpassed their limits due to the upsurge in the influx. Also evident are the activities of ultra-right groups opposed to accepting the refugees.
 経済大国ドイツは難民を寛大に受け入れてきたが、今月中旬、国境検問による制限を始めた。流入急増で収容能力を超えた地元当局が抗議の声を上げたことが大きい。受け入れに反発する極右集団の活動も顕在化している。

The influx of refugees into Europe has now become an issue that the international community as a whole must tackle. The United States and Australia have pledged to accept more Syrian refugees.
 欧州への難民流入は今や、国際社会全体が取り組むべき問題だ。米国やオーストラリアはシリア難民の受け入れ拡大を表明した。

Japan, for its part, has focused on extending such assistance as the provision of food to refugees in Syria’s neighbors and the improvement of water supply systems in these countries, contributing more than $1.1 billion (about ¥130 billion).
 日本は、シリア周辺国の難民に対する食料供与や上水道整備など支援に力を入れ、11億ドル(約1300億円)以上を拠出してきた。

It is time for this country to rack its brains on how it can contribute further, in response to the worsening humanitarian crisis.
人道危機の深刻化を受け、一層の貢献へ知恵を絞る時である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 28, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-29 11:02 | 英字新聞

米中首脳会談 「独善」で大国関係は築けない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
China’s self-justified stance won’t help build major-power relations
米中首脳会談 「独善」で大国関係は築けない

It will be impossible for China to build what it calls a “new type of great power relations” with the United States as long as it continues to challenge international order through self-justified conduct.
 中国が独善的行動で国際秩序に挑戦し続ける限り、自らが望む米国との「新しいタイプの大国関係」は構築できまい。

Chinese President Xi Jinping is making an official visit to the United States and held talks with U.S. President Barack Obama in Washington.
 中国の習近平国家主席が米国を公式訪問し、ワシントンでオバマ大統領と会談した。

Obama expressed “very serious concerns” about Chinese cyber-attacks on U.S. corporations and citizens, and demanded Xi ensure a halt to such activities.
 オバマ氏は、米企業や国民への中国発のサイバー攻撃に対して、「非常に深刻な懸念」を表明し、習氏に停止を要求した。

With a presidential election scheduled for next year, U.S. public opinion is increasingly harsh on China. It seems that Obama had to adopt an even more critical stance on China.
 大統領選挙を来年に控えた米国では、対中世論が硬化している。オバマ氏も一層厳しい姿勢を示さざるを得なかったのだろう。

The two leaders agreed that their countries would not conduct or support cyberattacks to steal trade secrets and other confidential information. They also agreed to initiate a ministerial-level dialogue.
 両首脳は、企業秘密などを盗み出すサイバー攻撃を実行、支援しないことでは一致した。閣僚級対話の創設でも合意した。

The question is whether this agreement will be followed by action. The international community must pay close attention to whether the mutual agreement will be truly honored by China, which has denied involvement in cyber-attacks.
 問われるのは実際の行動だ。攻撃への関与を否定する中国が合意を本当に順守するのか、国際社会は注視しなければならない。

The two leaders’ talks led to no agreement on the issue regarding China’s reef reclamation activities in the South China Sea.
 中国が南シナ海で岩礁を埋め立てている問題を巡って、両首脳の議論は平行線に終わった。

At a joint press conference following the talks, Obama warned the Chinese leader on the issue. “The United States will continue to sail, fly and operate anywhere that international law allows,” he said. Xi, however, stood his ground firmly, insisting, “We have the right to uphold our own territorial sovereignty and lawful and legitimate maritime rights and interests.”
 オバマ氏は会談後の共同記者会見で、「米国は国際法が許す場所ではどこでも、航行や飛行、軍事行動を継続する」とクギを刺した。習氏は「領土主権と、合法的で正当な海洋権益を守る権利がある」と強弁し、譲らなかった。

Arbitrary policy management

It has recently been found that China is building 3,000-meter runways on three of the reclaimed islands. If these facilities are completed, a vast expanse of waters in the South China Sea could, in effect, come under Chinese control, according to some experts.
 最近、中国が埋め立てた岩礁の3か所で3000メートル級の滑走路を建設していることが判明した。完成すれば、南シナ海の広大な海域が中国の事実上の支配下に入る可能性も指摘されている。

China’s bid to change the status quo by force cannot be overlooked. The United States needs to join hands with Japan and other pertinent countries in urging China to exercise self-restraint in this respect. If China wants an equal relationship with the United States and a position as a major power in the international community, it should fulfill its share of responsibility for securing regional stability.
 中国の力による現状変更は看過できない。米国は、日本など関係国と連携して、中国に自制を促す必要がある。中国が米国との対等な関係や国際社会での大国としての地位を望むなら、地域の安定に相応の責任を果たすべきだ。

In making an official visit to the United States, Xi signed a contract for a huge purchase of 300 passenger airplanes with Boeing Co. It was evident that he tried to use the deal as leverage for wooing and winning over the U.S. business community.
 習氏の訪米に合わせて、中国は米ボーイング社から旅客機300機を購入する大型契約を結んだ。経済カードで米財界を懐柔し、取り込む狙いが明白である。

However, the United States has a deepening distrust of China’s arbitrary policy management, which can be illustrated by its market intervention aimed at maintaining stock prices and the devaluation of the yuan.
 だが、株価維持の市場介入や人民元切り下げなどに見られる中国の恣意しい的な政策運営に、米国は不信感を強めている。

At the press conference, Xi emphasized that China would attach importance to market principles. “There is no basis for the renminbi to be devalued for a long period,” he said. We hope the Chinese president will be as good as his word to carry out highly transparent reforms in accordance with international rules.
 習氏は記者会見で、「長期的には人民元を切り下げる根拠はない」と述べ、市場原理を重視する考えを強調した。その言葉通り、国際ルールに則のっとった透明性の高い改革を推進してもらいたい。

The two leaders reconfirmed their nations would increase cooperation in addressing climate change-related problems. Climate change may be one of the few areas in which the two countries can facilitate a cooperative relationship. China and the United States — the world’s largest and second-largest greenhouse gas emitters — should make steady progress in reducing their emissions.
 気候変動問題に関して、両首脳は協力強化を改めて確認した。協調を打ち出せる数少ない分野の一つではないか。温室効果ガス排出量の世界1、2位の中国と米国は着実に削減を進めるべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 27, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-28 10:52 | 英字新聞

VW排ガス不正 顧客を欺く大規模な規制逃れ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Consumers betrayed by VW’s scheme to evade controls on vehicle emissions
VW排ガス不正 顧客を欺く大規模な規制逃れ

Despite being touted as “clean diesel” cars, Volkswagen vehicles were found to have discharged emissions that far exceeded the required environmental standards.
 「クリーンディーゼル車」と銘打ちながら、環境基準を大幅に超える排ガスを出していた。

This act betrayed consumers who are strongly concerned about environmental conservation and was extremely pernicious.
 環境保護意識の高い消費者を欺いた行為は、極めて悪質である。

It was recently revealed that the German carmaker had taken illegal measures to ensure its vehicles passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s emission control tests.
 独フォルクスワーゲン(VW)が、米環境保護局(EPA)の排ガス規制を違法にクリアしていたことが発覚した。

The scheme involved software installed in diesel engines that was designed to make vehicles’ emission levels meet the standard required by the U.S. authorities — but only at the time of the emissions test.
 ディーゼル車の排ガス試験の際、エンジンに搭載したソフトウェアを作動させることにより、基準値を満たすように細工していた。

When the vehicles were driven on the road, the engines were reportedly found to discharge nitrogen oxide at levels up to 40 times the standard.
実際に道路を走行すると、基準値の最大40倍の窒素酸化物などを排出していたという。

Eleven million Volkswagen vehicles around the world have been affected by the test-rigging scandal. This includes a number of popular models, including the Golf.
 対象車数は世界で1100万台に上る。ゴルフなどの人気車種も数多く含まれている。

In announcing his resignation to take responsibility for the scandal, Volkswagen Chief Executive Officer Martin Winterkorn said, “I am stunned that misconduct on such a scale was possible in the Volkswagen group.” We have to say that Volkswagen lacks corporate governance despite its status as a world-leading carmaker.
 引責辞任するマーティン・ウインターコーン最高経営責任者は「これほどの規模の不正が行われていたとは信じられない」と語った。有数のメーカーでありながら、ガバナンス(企業統治)が欠如していると言わざるを得ない。

Were company executives involved in the irregularities? We want the factors behind the misconduct to be thoroughly revealed by investigations by the EPA and others.
 経営陣は不正に関与していなかったのか。EPAなどによる調査で、不正の経緯を徹底的に解明してもらいたい。

VW has Audi, Porsche and other carmakers under its wing. With fuel-efficient diesel vehicles as its mainstay product, VW doubled its global car sales to 10 million in the decade from 2004, thereby bringing it into competition with Toyota Motor Corp. for the No. 1 position in the world.
 VWは、アウディ、ポルシェなどのメーカーを傘下に抱える。燃費の良いディーゼル車を主力に据え、2004年からの10年間で世界の販売台数を1000万台に倍増させた。今やトヨタ自動車と首位を競う規模に躍進した。

Heavy price to pay

However, the German maker has been forced to fight an uphill battle in the U.S. market, where strict emission controls are in place and there is strong competition from hybrid vehicles manufactured by Toyota and other carmakers. VW’s irritation over this, it could be said, led to the wrongdoing.
 だが、排ガス規制の厳しい米市場では、トヨタのハイブリッド車などに押され、苦戦を強いられている。VWの焦りが、不正につながったと言える。

VW may be fined up to $18 billion (about ¥2 trillion), which would top its annual profits. The price for its misconduct is very heavy.
 VWには、年間の利益を上回る最大180億ドル(約2兆円)の制裁金が科される可能性がある。違法行為の重いツケである。

VW’s diesel vehicles are not officially sold in Japan, although they were scheduled to enter the market next year. The company will inevitably have to reexamine its sales strategy.
 日本では、VWのディーゼル車は正規販売されていないが、来年にも投入される予定だった。販売戦略の見直しは避けられまい。

The European Commission, which is the executive body of the European Union, called for its member nations to conduct a fact-finding survey based on suspicions that carmakers other than VW have also engaged in misconduct. The automobile industry, which holds a key position in each country in which it conducts business, is being tested on its ability to cleanse itself of wrongdoing.
 欧州連合の執行機関、欧州委員会は、VW以外のメーカーでも不正の疑いがあるとして、加盟国に実態調査を求めた。各国で基幹産業と位置付けられる自動車業界も、自浄能力を試される時だ。

Fierce competition for fuel efficiency among car manufacturers could be behind the VW scandal. Consumers have a strong tendency to choose vehicles that perform even just a little better than others in terms of fuel efficiency. Moreover, many people have pointed out that even in Japan, there is a huge difference between the fuel efficiency figures in product catalogs and what is actually seen in normal use, which causes confusion.
 今回の問題の背景には、メーカー間の激しい燃費競争もあろう。消費者には、少しでも燃費の良い車を求める傾向が強い。日本でもカタログ表記の燃費と実際の走行時の数値の差が大きく、混乱を招いているとの指摘が多い。

A sincere attitude is needed on the part of carmakers to provide consumers with accurate information.
 メーカーに求められているのは、正確な情報を消費者に伝える真摯しんしな姿勢である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 26, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-27 10:23 | 英字新聞

安倍総裁続投 「経済最優先」に軸足を戻せ

大切なのは、威勢のよい発言ではなく、地に足のついた目標と、対策の着実な実行である。そのためにも、アベノミクス「第1ステージ」の総括が欠かせないはずだ。
日本銀行による異次元緩和や政府の補正予算編成の功罪を検証し、予想されるリスクを分析する。これまでの成果として政権は雇用や賃金の指標が好転していることを強調するが、国民に実感が乏しいのはなぜか。アベノミクスの成否を左右すると位置づけてきた成長戦略の方向性は間違っていないか。
個別の政策についても同様だ。介護では、政府は財政難から特別養護老人ホームなど施設の建設に一定の歯止めをかけ、在宅介護を中心にすえている。介護職員の不足が深刻さを増すなかで、年10万人とされる介護離職者をどうやってゼロにしていくのか。
国民が聞きたいのは言葉ではない。実現可能な具体策と、財源などその裏付けである。

二兎を追う者は一兎をも得ず!
選手交代の時期到来です。
解散総選挙する前に、違憲状態にある現在の選挙制度を改革してください。
地方区はなくして全国国1本化するしか解決方法がないのは、子供でも理解できることです。
全国から人物本位で選べるようにしたらよい。


The Yomiuri Shimbun
Abe administration must focus on 'economy-first' policy priorities
安倍総裁続投 「経済最優先」に軸足を戻せ

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s basic stance of shifting the focus of his policy platform from the nation’s security to the economy revitalization is reasonable.
 政策の軸足を安全保障から経済再生に移す。そうした安倍首相の基本方針は妥当である。

After being formally reelected as president of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party, the prime minister on Thursday held a news conference. He declared, “The nation is close to coming out of deflation,” emphasizing his intention to place maximum priority on economic policies.
 首相が、自民党総裁再選の正式決定を受けて、記者会見した。今後の政権運営について、「デフレ脱却はもう目の前だ」と語り、経済政策を最優先する考えを示した。

He also indicated to increase the nation’s annual nominal gross national product to ¥600 trillion, compared to ¥490 trillion in fiscal 2014.
 昨年度は490兆円だった名目国内総生産(GDP)を600兆円に増やす目標も掲げた。

Fulfilling his ¥600 trillion target will most likely be difficult to achieve. As seen by the GDP’s negative growth rate in real terms for the April-June period compared to the previous quarter, the recovery pace has made little headway. Although the major companies have posted favorable business results, the performances of small and midsize businesses and the degree of vitalization of regional economies have shown limited progress.
 GDP600兆円という目標の達成は、簡単ではあるまい。4~6月期の実質GDPが前期比マイナスとなるなど、景気回復は足踏みしている。大企業の決算は好調だが、中小企業の業績改善や地方活性化はまだ限定的である。

Of the “three arrows” of the Abenomics economic policy package, bold monetary relaxation and ramping up fiscal measures have produced such positive results as rectifying the yen’s excessively high appreciation and helping boost stock prices. However, the other arrow — growth strategy — has yet to produce any tangible outcome.
 経済政策「アベノミクス」の3本の矢のうち、金融緩和と財政出動は、円高是正、株高などの成果を上げた。反面、成長戦略は目に見える結果を出していない。

Since the spring of last year, the Abe administration has placed particular emphasis on getting legislation passed to secure the country’s peace and security. The enactment of the security legislation can be said to have provided Abe’s new term with a good opportunity to return to the starting line at the time of the inauguration of the Second Abe Cabinet, which pledged to put economy at the top of its list of priorities.
 安倍政権は昨春以降、平和安全法制の整備に力点を置いてきた。安全保障関連法の成立は、経済最優先という第2次政権発足時の原点に立ち返る好機と言える。

In the second phase of Abenomics, the government must buckle down primarily to the tasks of strengthening up the growth strategy, such as by reforming tough regulations in the fields of medical services, agriculture and labor, as well as expanding infrastructure exports.
 アベノミクスの第2段階では、医療、農業、労働分野の岩盤規制の改革やインフラ輸出の拡大など、成長戦略の強化に重点的に取り組む必要がある。

Hike wages, cut workload

At the news conference, Abe announced new “three arrows” to steer the administration’s economic policy: a combination of creating an “economy robust enough to nurture hopes of the public,” “dream-inspiring support for child-rearing” and “reassuring improvement of social security services.”
 首相は、「希望を生み出す強い経済」「夢をつむぐ子育て支援」「安心につながる社会保障」を新たな3本の矢と位置づけた。

The newly defined tasks are quite different qualitatively from the initial three arrows, but the concentration on social security is understandable.
 最初の3本の矢とはかなり性格が異なるが、社会保障を重視する姿勢は理解できる。

Regarding social security policy, the prime minister has hammered out a new goal of “reducing to zero the number of people who quit their jobs to provide nursing care.” Through such steps as increasing special nursing homes, the Abe administration will reduce the number of people waiting to enter such nursing facilities, who are required care at level 3 or higher on a scale of 5 nursing care requirements — which currently stands at about 150,000 — to zero by 2020.
 首相は、社会保障政策に関し、「介護離職ゼロ」という新たな目標を打ち出した。特別養護老人ホームを大幅に増やすことなどで、「要介護3」以上の特養ホーム入所待機者約15万人を、2020年までにゼロにするという。

The number of people, most of whom are in their 40s and 50s, who quit their jobs to provide nursing care has reportedly reached about 100,000 per year. Ensuring people in their most productive years remain among the working population must be helpful for the growth strategy.
 親の介護目的の離職者は、40、50歳代を中心に年10万人に上るとされる。働き盛りの労働力の確保は成長戦略にも役立とう。

The task of building special nursing homes will require a huge amount of financial resources. The task should be undertaken in a coordinated manner with the expansion of nursing care at homes which social security expenditures will reduce. To secure personnel necessary for proper nursing care services, measures must be taken to rectify low wages and the heavy workloads.
 特養ホーム増設は巨額の財源を要する。社会保障費の抑制につながる在宅介護の拡充とバランスを取りつつ、進めたい。必要な介護人材を確保するため、低賃金・重労働も是正せねばなるまい。

It is also important to make it easier for workers to obtain temporary absence from work and temporary paid leave for nursing care purposes. The percentage of those obtaining temporary absence for nursing care is currently no more than 3.2 percent. The statutory rule that allows those who need a temporary leave to utilize the system only once, in principle, per person in need for nursing care constitutes a major obstacle in this respect.
 介護休業・休暇を取りやすくすることも重要だ。介護休業の取得率は3・2%に過ぎない。要介護者1人につき原則1回しか取れないことが高いハードルである。

The government is now considering a revision to a law to allow people to take temporary leave more than once. While securing understanding and cooperation from companies, reform efforts should be made to turn the current system into one that is easier to use.
 政府は、複数回の取得を可能にする法改正を検討している。企業の理解と協力を得ながら、利用しやすい仕組みに改革すべきだ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 25, 2015)Speech
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-26 09:44 | 英字新聞

子宮頸がん ワクチンの副作用対策を急げ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Quick action needed in dealing with side effects of cervical cancer vaccine
子宮頸がん ワクチンの副作用対策を急げ

The most important task is to clarify any cause and effect relationship between the vaccinations and the side effects.
 ワクチン接種と副作用の因果関係を解明することが、何より重要だ。

The Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry recently delivered to an expert panel the results of a follow-up survey on patients who experienced negative side effects from a cervical cancer vaccine.
 子宮頸けいがんワクチンの副作用問題で、厚生労働省が、患者の追跡調査結果を有識者検討会に報告した。

The ministry’s report confirmed 186 people had not returned to full health and were still suffering from serious side effects. In response to this finding, the panel decided to put off resuming recommending that people receive the vaccination. This recommendation has been suspended since June 2013.
 186人が「未回復」の状態と判明し、深刻な副作用が残ることが確認された。これを受け、検討会は、2013年6月以降、控えてきたワクチン接種の勧奨について、再開の見送りを決めた。

The panel had no option on this matter, given that the cause of the side effects has yet to be pinpointed.
 原因が究明されていないことを考えれば、やむを得まい。

About 3.38 million women received the vaccination from December 2009, when the vaccine went on the market, to November 2014. The survey covered 2,584 of these women who reported suffering some sort of symptoms. The survey was able to confirm developments in the cases of 1,739 women.
 調査では、09年12月のワクチン発売から14年11月までに接種を受けた約338万人の女性のうち、何らかの症状が報告された2584人を追跡調査した。経過が確認できたのは1739人だった。

The proportion of people who reported side effects is not remarkably high compared with rates in other nations, where such vaccinations are being increasingly widely done.
 副作用報告の割合は、接種が拡大している海外に比べて、格段に高いわけではない。

However, a significant number of specialists have said that Japan is conspicuous for patients suffering from comparatively severe symptoms. The various ongoing symptoms include headaches, fatigue, aching joints and a decline in cognitive function. These are serious health issues.
 しかし、日本では、比較的症状の重い患者が目立つと指摘する専門家が相当数いる。頭痛や倦怠けんたい感、関節痛、認知機能の低下など、症状は様々で、深刻だ。

There were limits to how much data could be gleaned from this survey, which was based mostly on information these patients reported to doctors who treated them. There needs to be a detailed examination of the diagnoses and treatments given to these patients, as well as a comparative review of the health conditions of women in the same age brackets who did not receive the vaccinations, and other factors.
 主に医師の報告データに基づく今回の調査には限界がある。患者の詳細な診断、治療に加え、接種歴のない同世代女子の体調などとの比較検討も求められる。

Reducing distrust vital

The health ministry will establish consultation counters in every prefecture and strengthen support provided to the victims, including treatment. It also has kicked into gear a stalled review of relief provided to people who suffered health problems.
 厚労省は、相談窓口を全都道府県に設け、治療などの支援を強化する。滞っていた健康被害救済の審査も本格化させた。

It is impossible to reduce the risk accompanying a vaccination to zero. Advanced nations such as the United States and those in Europe have set up systems to quickly pay compensation when there are suspicions a vaccination has caused negative side effects. If the government takes a long time to provide relief, distrust would grow among patients and hamper steps to prevent infectious diseases from spreading.
 ワクチン接種のリスクは、ゼロにできない。欧米先進国は、副作用の疑いがあれば、速やかに補償する制度を設けている。救済に長期間を要するようでは、患者たちに不信が増大し、感染症対策に支障を来すためだ。

We think such relief measures should be swiftly put in place in Japan, too.
 日本も救済を急ぎたい。

The number of women in Japan with cervical cancer is increasing, with about 10,000 developing the disease each year. About 3,000 die from it annually.
 国内では子宮頸がん患者が増加し、年間約1万人が発症している。死亡者は約3000人に上る。

The cervical cancer vaccine is said to prevent the virus that causes the cancer from being transmitted from men to women through sexual relations. In Australia, such a vaccine is administered to both males and females during routine immunizations.
 子宮頸がんワクチンは、性交渉により、男性から女性に原因ウイルスが感染するのを防ぐ効果が期待されている。豪州では、男女両方が定期接種の対象だ。

Although the vaccine is currently not promoted in Japan, the system in place includes it among routine vaccinations for women. People wishing to receive the vaccine can have it subsidized by the government, but clearly the current situation does not enable them to take the vaccine with peace of mind.
 国内でも現在、勧奨はしていないものの、女性を対象にした定期接種の制度が設けられている。希望者は公的な助成を得られるが、安心して接種を受けられる状況にないのは明らかだろう。

Having regular checkups is important for detecting cervical cancer at an early stage. However, this does not contribute to preventing the disease, so the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and other bodies have stressed the significance of the inoculations.
 子宮頸がんの早期発見には、定期検診を受診することが重要である。ただし、予防にはつながらず、日本産科婦人科学会などは接種の意義を訴えている。

Reducing distrust in the vaccine will be a major prerequisite for achieving this. The health ministry must move fast on this issue.
 そのためには、ワクチン不信の軽減が大前提だ。厚労省は対応を急がねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 24, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-25 10:58 | 英字新聞

日露外相会談 領土対立打開へ対話を重ねよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Tenacious talks with Russia key to ending impasse in territorial dispute
日露外相会談 領土対立打開へ対話を重ねよ

Russia’s hard-line stance toward the northern territories has become more conspicuous. Nevertheless, the only way to improve Japan-Russia relations is for politicians of the two countries to hold talks tenaciously and repeatedly.
 北方領土問題に関するロシアの強硬姿勢がより鮮明になった。それでも、日露関係の改善には、政治家間の対話を粘り強く重ねるしかあるまい。

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida met his Russian counterpart, Sergey Lavrov, on Monday in Moscow and protested a recent series of visits by the Russian prime minister and cabinet ministers to the northern territories, saying, “Their visits are extremely regrettable and not acceptable.” Lavrov reportedly refuted this by saying, “Russia has its own standpoint.”
 岸田外相がモスクワで、ラブロフ外相と会談し、ロシアの首相や閣僚の相次ぐ北方領土訪問について「極めて遺憾で、受け入れられない」と抗議した。ラブロフ氏は「ロシアにはロシアの立場がある」などと反論した。

On the other hand, Kishida and Lavrov agreed “to explore ways to a solution acceptable to both sides.” They also agreed to resume vice-ministerial-level talks early next month — for the first time in one year and nine months — regarding the conclusion of a peace treaty. The two countries will reportedly seek to hold talks between their top leaders and foreign ministers on the sidelines of international conferences.
 一方で、「双方に受け入れ可能な解決策を模索する」ことでは一致した。来月上旬に次官級の平和条約交渉を1年9か月ぶりに再開することでも合意した。今後は、国際会議などの場で首脳や外相の対話を継続するという。

Negotiations on the peace treaty have been suspended following sanctions imposed by Japan on Russia in connection with the Ukrainian situation and Russia’s retaliatory steps. We cannot expect immediate results, but we appreciate the fact that the two countries agreed to resume talks.
 平和条約交渉は、ウクライナ情勢に基づく日本の対露制裁や露側の対抗措置に伴い、中断していた。すぐに成果は期待できないが、交渉再開自体は評価したい。

Kishida, who had postponed his visit to Russia, told Lavrov during the meeting, “Because there are issues pending between us, it’s all the more important to hold talks repeatedly.” His assertion is understandable.
 訪露を延期してきた岸田氏は会談で、「問題があるからこそ、対話を重ねていくことが重要だ」と強調した。理解できる主張だ。

However, the two countries stand far apart in their positions on the territorial dispute.
 ただ、領土問題を巡る日露の立場の隔たりは大きい。

During a joint news conference after the meeting, Lavrov said: “We didn’t discuss the northern territories. The agenda of the talks was the conclusion of a peace treaty.”
 ラブロフ氏は会談後の共同記者会見で、「北方領土については協議しなかった。議題は平和条約の締結だった」と語った。

Illogical argument

It cannot be overlooked, however, that Lavrov tried to justify the illegal occupation of the northern territories for 70 years and make it a fait accompli by saying “the reality of postwar history should be recognized.”
 看過できないのは、ラブロフ氏が「戦後の歴史の現実を認識すべきだ」と述べ、70年に及ぶ北方領土の不法占拠を正当化し、既成事実化しようとしていることだ。

A joint statement issued by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2013 called for holding negotiations on a peace treaty based on all accords adopted by the two countries, including the Irkutsk Statement that specified efforts toward a solution to the sovereignty issue over the four islands off Hokkaido. In this sense, Lavrov’s argument is illogical.
 安倍首相とプーチン大統領による2013年の日露共同声明は、北方4島の帰属問題解決を明記した「イルクーツク声明」など、両国が採択した全合意に基づき、条約交渉を進めるとうたっている。ラブロフ氏の発言は筋違いだ。

It seems that Russia wants to draw concessions from Japan, such as the lifting of sanctions and economic cooperation, by swaying Japan through hard-line and moderate approaches.
 露側には、日本を硬軟両様で揺さぶり、制裁解除や経済協力を引き出したい思惑があるようだ。

Russia’s economy has been deteriorating due to economic sanctions imposed by the United States and European countries and the decline in crude oil prices. Russian expectations on Japan, it may be said, are reflected by the fact that Igor Shuvalov, first vice premier in charge of economic affairs, conferred with Kishida.
 米欧の経済制裁や原油価格下落などの影響で、国内経済は悪化している。経済担当のシュワロフ第1副首相が岸田氏と会談したのも露側の期待の表れと言えよう。

A focal point for the time being is whether Putin’s visit to Japan can be realized before the end of this year.
 当面の焦点は、プーチン氏の年内来日の行方である。

Japan is forward-looking in regard to Putin’s visit. But even if it is realized, it will come to nothing if meaningful talks are not held. It may end up merely disrupting the unity of the Group of Seven industrialized countries on anti-Russia sanctions.
 日本側は前向きだが、来日が実現しても、中身のある会談ができなければ、意味がない。対露制裁に関する先進7か国(G7)の結束を乱すだけになりかねない。

Does Putin have the resolve and ability to earnestly tackle the tasks of repairing relations with Japan and proceeding with a solution to the territorial issue? The Japanese government must deal with the matter carefully after seeing Russian responses. Strategic negotiating capabilities are called for in this regard.
 プーチン氏は、対日関係の修復と領土問題の前進に本気で取り組む意思と能力があるのか。日本政府は、露側の出方を見極めつつ、慎重に対処しなければなるまい。戦略的な交渉力が求められる。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 23, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-24 10:53 | 英字新聞

飲酒喫煙の年齢 18歳解禁は理解を得られない

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Drinking, smoking ban should stay when age of majority is lowered to 18
飲酒喫煙の年齢 18歳解禁は理解を得られない

Reducing the age of majority would affect various fields. It is essential to look into the advisability of meticulously revising relevant laws one by one.
 「大人」になる年齢の見直しは、様々な分野に影響が及ぶ。根拠となる法律ごとに、改正の是非を丁寧に検討することが重要である。

The Liberal Democratic Party has put together recommendations to lower the age of majority set at 20 under the Civil Code to 18. The ruling party will report the recommendations to the government by the end of this month.
 自民党が、民法で20歳と定めている成人年齢を18歳に引き下げるよう求める提言をまとめた。月内にも政府に提出する。

The move is in response to the enactment of the revised Public Offices Election Law under which the voting age has been lowered to 18. The age for exercising the right to vote should correspond to the age of eligibility for other rights and the obligation to take responsibility under the Civil Code.
 改正公職選挙法の成立で、選挙権年齢が20歳以上から18歳以上に引き下げられることを受けたものだ。選挙権を行使する年齢と、民事上の権利や責任が生じる年齢は一致させるべきだろう。

If the age of majority is lowered to 18, it will become possible to take out loans and enter other commercial contracts without parental approval. Efforts must be made to promote consumer education at school and with other programs to prevent young people from falling victim to illegal business practices.
 成人年齢が18歳になると、親の同意なしに、ローンなど商取引の契約が結べるようになる。悪徳商法の被害に遭わないよう、学校での消費者教育の充実など、環境整備を進めることが欠かせない。

The LDP has postponed a decision on whether to lower the legal age for drinking and smoking.
 飲酒や喫煙を解禁する年齢については、結論を先送りした。

Initially, the party tried to come up with a proposal to permit drinking and smoking from the age of 18 but kicked the plan down the road in the face of opposition from within the party and the medical world. The postponement is quite natural.
 当初、18歳から認める案をまとめようとしたが、党内や医療関係者などから、反対論が続出したためだ。当然だろう。

If smoking starts early in adolescence, it increases the risk of lung cancer and heart disease, according to the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry. The Japan Medical Association warns that habitual smoking by those aged less than 20 adversely affects brain growth and leads to early onset of dementia and other diseases.
 厚生労働省によると、青少年期に喫煙を始めると、肺がんや心疾患にかかるリスクが大きくなる。日本医師会は、20歳未満の喫煙習慣が脳の発育にも悪影響を与え、認知症などの早期発症につながる恐れがあると警告している。

Adverse health impacts

Furthermore, the younger one starts drinking, the higher the risk of suffering from alcoholism, according to experts.
 酒を飲み始める年齢が早いほど、アルコール依存症になる確率が高まるとも指摘される。

Considering the possible adverse health effects, lowering the age for permitting smoking and drinking will never obtain social understanding.
 健康面への影響を踏まえれば、解禁年齢の引き下げは到底、社会の理解を得られまい。

How to rein in social welfare spending amid dire fiscal straits is a huge challenge. From this point of view, too, no policy change that would entail an increase in medical spending should be made.
 厳しい財政状況の中、社会保障費をどう抑制するかが、大きな課題だ。その観点からも、将来的に医療費の増大を招くような制度変更はすべきでない。

Drinking and smoking can also lead to juvenile delinquency. Moreover, student guidance at high school would become confused if students aged 18, who are allowed to drink and smoke, and those aged 17 attended the same school. Lowering the legal age for drinking and smoking would also make it more difficult for schools to give guidance to students under school rules that ban such behavior.
 飲酒や喫煙は、非行の引き金になる危険をはらむ。酒やたばこが許される18歳の生徒と、そうでない17歳の生徒が混在すれば、高校の生徒指導は混乱する。法律で認められれば、校則で禁止しても限界があるのではないか。

Concerning the minimum age for application of the Juvenile Law, the LDP has proposed lowering it from “less than 20” to “less than 18.”
 一方、少年法の適用年齢に関し、自民党は、20歳未満から18歳未満への引き下げを提言した。

To encourage rehabilitation for those aged 18 and 19 who will be excluded from the application of the Juvenile Law if the age of application is lowered, the party has called for implementing such probational measures as provided for by the Juvenile Law by prioritizing correctional education over punishment. This recommendation is reasonable.
 更生を促すため、対象から外れる18歳と19歳に、刑罰より矯正教育を重視する少年法上の保護処分のような措置を講じることも求めた。妥当な内容だ。

Sending teenage violators to reformatories where correctional education is provided or placing them on probation to give them chances for rehabilitation in society is greatly helpful in preventing juvenile recidivism. If the age for application of the Juvenile Law is lowered to “less than 18,” it will be necessary to deepen discussions about when to apply probational measures to those aged 18 and 19.
 矯正教育を行う少年院への送致や、社会内で立ち直りを図る保護観察の処分が、少年の再犯防止に果たす役割は小さくない。引き下げを前提に、どのようなケースで18歳や19歳に保護的措置を適用するのか、議論を深めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 22, 2015)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-23 11:06 | 英字新聞

生涯現役社会 高齢者の活躍の場を増やそう

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Increase opportunities for elderly to remain active in aging society
生涯現役社会 高齢者の活躍の場を増やそう

The average Japanese life expectancy stands at 80.5 years for men and 86.83 years for women. Both are projected to rise even more in the future. This will herald the era of 90-year life spans.
 日本の平均寿命は、男性80・5歳、女性86・83歳だ。今後も延びると予測される。人生90年時代の到来である。

On Monday, Respect for the Aged Day, we should rejoice in the fact that Japan has become one of the world’s leading nations in terms of longevity.
 敬老の日のきょう、世界屈指の長寿国となったことを、改めて喜びたい。

Those aged 65 and over account for more than 25 percent of the overall population, and this figure is expected to reach 40 percent in 2060.
 総人口に占める65歳以上の割合は25%を超え、2060年には40%となる見込みだ。

With Japan’s society aging faster, such serious problems as a shrinkage in the workforce and swelling expenses for social security programs have arisen.
 高齢化が進むに連れて、労働力人口の減少や社会保障費の膨張など、深刻な問題も生じている。

It is important to increase opportunities in which the elderly who want to work can exhibit their ability so they can actively help support society. The creation of such a “society in which people actively contribute through their whole lives” will hold the key for Japan to overcome the ultra-aging of its society.
 意欲のある高齢者が、能力を発揮して活躍できる場を増やし、社会の支え手になってもらう。「生涯現役社会」の実現が、超高齢社会を乗り切るカギとなる。

Fifty percent of those in the 35-64 age group want to continue working after 65. Aiming for the creation of a society in which people can actively contribute their whole lives will help enrich the lives of the elderly and financially stabilize their daily lives.
 65歳を超えても働きたいと思っている人が、35~64歳の5割を占めている。生涯現役社会を目指すことは、高齢者一人一人の生活を充実させ、経済的に安定させる上でも重要だろう。

With the enforcement of the revised Law for the Stabilization of Employment of Elderly People in April 2013, all employees are allowed to stay on the payroll until they turn 65 if they want to. Yet the present reality is that work opportunities for those aged 65 and over are limited.
 13年4月に改正高年齢者雇用安定法が施行され、希望すれば65歳まで継続雇用されるようになった。だが、65歳以降の就労機会については限られるのが現状だ。

A report compiled in June by a study panel of the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry proposed measures to promote the continued employment of those aged 65 and older and to boost support for skills development and the reemployment of middle-aged and older people, with an eye to the realization of a society in which people can actively contribute their whole lives.
 厚生労働省の検討会が6月にまとめた報告書は、生涯現役社会の実現に向け、65歳以上の継続雇用の促進や、中高年の能力開発・再就職の支援強化を打ち出した。

More company opportunities

More businesses are keeping people on after they reach 65 by having them use their knowledge and experience to serve as advisers for young workers and allowing the elderly to work flexible hours to suit their lifestyle. We hope businesses will promote such measures in conformity with their needs.
 高齢者の知識や経験を生かし、若手の指導役にする。本人の生活パターンに合わせた柔軟な働き方を認める。こうした工夫で、65歳以上を引き続き雇用する企業が増えた。各企業が実情に応じた対策を進めてもらいたい。

Changes in the consciousness of workers are also important. To remain active in their later years, workers must make clear plans while still young and continually work to enhance their skills.
 働く側の意識改革も重要だ。長く働き続けるには、若いうちから将来設計を明確にし、能力の向上に取り組む必要がある。

It is also important to create labor markets in which middle-aged and older people can change jobs more easily.
 中高年が転職しやすい労働市場の形成も求められる。

The elderly differ greatly from person to person in terms of health and economic status. To meet their diverse needs, it is essential for local governments, in cooperation with such entities as local economic organizations and nonprofit organizations, to build a system that can cultivate jobs for the elderly.
 高齢者は、健康や経済力の面で個人差が大きい。多様なニーズに対応するには、自治体が地域の経済団体やNPOなどと連携し、高齢者向けの仕事を開拓する体制作りが欠かせない。

It will also become a challenge for society to reinforce the functions of human resources centers that offer light work and other suitable jobs to elderly people.
 軽作業などの働き口を提供しているシルバー人材センターの機能強化も課題となる。

The government of Kashiwa, Chiba Prefecture, has created job opportunities for elderly people in the farming and welfare sectors, under the concept of “offering jobs to help elderly people make their lives worth living.”
 千葉県柏市は「生きがい就労」として、農業や福祉の仕事を創出し、高齢者に提供している。

The prefectural government of Fukuoka has established a center to help elderly people find jobs or take part in volunteer activities until they reach the age of 70, or even older in some cases.
福岡県は「70歳現役応援センター」を開設し、高齢者の就労やボランティア活動を手助けしている。

These efforts should help solve local problems, by, for instance, making up for labor shortages in nursing care and child care.
 介護や保育分野の人手不足を補うなど、地域の問題解決にもつながる取り組みだ。

Expanding opportunities for elderly people to take an active role in society will also prevent them from becoming isolated in society and declining to the point that they need nursing care.
高齢者の活躍の場を広げることは、孤立防止や介護予防にも有効だろう。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Sept. 21, 2015)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-22 11:23 | 英字新聞

香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「人間の底力」 /東京

September 20, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: The potential of humans
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:「人間の底力」 /東京

Torrential rain and flood damage recently struck the northern Kanto and Tohoku regions. I happened to be visiting the Tohoku region for work over the weekend, and even looking out from the window of the bullet train, I saw countless rice paddies and fields that had been flooded by water overflowing from streams and irrigation channels. If we were to include everything that wasn't reported, I wonder just how much damage there was.
 北関東から東北を襲った大雨と水害。ちょうど週末に仕事で東北を訪れたのだが、道中、新幹線の窓から見ているだけでも、小さな河川や用水路からあふれた水をかぶった田畑が無数に目に入った。報道されていないものも含めると、被害はいったいどれくらいになるのだろう。

On television I saw a reporter pointing a microphone at a person who had barely escaped with their life after their home had been flooded. This is a common sight during disasters, but reporters aren't as pushy as they used to be. Now more start off saying something like, "I'm sorry to be asking you at a time like this, but ..."
 自宅も水にのまれ、命からがら逃げ出した人にテレビリポーターがマイクを向ける。災害時のいつもの光景だが、昔ほどは強引ではない。「こんなときに申し訳ありませんが」とひとこと言ってから質問を繰り出す人も増えてきた。

The people who respond all say things like, "It's the first time this has happened. I was shocked." And many of them make such comments as, "I'm just happy to be safe," or, "I'm thankful to have been rescued."
 答える人たちは一様に「こんなことははじめて。驚いた」と言い、そのあと多くが「助かっただけでもありがたい」「救出してもらえて感謝しています」と話す。

On TV and on the Internet, one hardly ever encounters people in such disasters getting angry and saying things like, "Why did this have to happen to me?"
 「どうして私がこんな目にあわなければいけないのか」と怒りを口にする人は、テレビニュースでもネット上でもほとんど目にしない。

Some people give accounts like, "Neighbors have evacuated together and are helping each other," or, "I spent the night in an isolated apartment, but residents brought food and shared it."
 「家が近い人どうしで避難して励まし合っている」「孤立したアパートで一夜をすごしたが、住民で食べものを持ち寄って分けた」といった経験談を語る人もいる。

Meanwhile, rescuers and supporters -- from the Self-Defense Forces to firefighters and members of local bodies -- have gone beyond all expectations in their efforts to help.
 また、今回も自衛隊や消防、地元の自治体職員など救援、支援する側の人たちも、想像を超えたがんばりを見せている。

In my consultation rooms, I hear so many tragic stories. "I was abused by my parents," one person says. "I was betrayed by a friend," says another. It leaves me tending to think, "Humans are bad by nature." I get the impression that humans are always cheating someone, always trying to get a good deal for just themselves.
 診察室にいると「親に虐待された」「友人に裏切られた」といった悲惨な話ばかり聞くものだから、つい「人間って、本質的には悪人なのではないか」と思いがちになる。常にだれかをあざむこう、自分だけが得をしよう、と思っているのが人間、と思ってしまうのだ。

But in the latest disaster, looking at the people who have cooperated with those around them in an attempt to overcome their difficulties, at those who have remembered to thank others amid such trying circumstances, and at those putting a full effort into saving and supporting victims, I'm compelled to amend my line of thinking.
 しかし、このような災害が起きて、それでもまわりと協力し合って乗り切ろうとする人、こんなときでも感謝の気持ちを忘れない人、被害者のために持てる力をフルに発揮しようとする救援・支援の人を目にすると、「いや、人間の本質は悪なんかじゃない」と自分の考えを訂正したくなる。

Deep down, surely, people have compassion and kindness, thinking, "I want to help someone," or "I want to tell them, 'Thank you.'" But I guess that as they are forced into tough situations, those feelings are gradually pushed back, and people resort to attacking others or conning them to survive.
 きっとどんな人でも、心の底には「誰かを助けたい」「“ありがとう”と伝えたい」という思いやりや、やさしさを持っているのだ。それが、自らが厳しい状況に追い込まれるうちに、次第に奥に隠れ、生き延びるために他人を攻撃したり、あざむいたりしてしまうのではないだろうか。

I convey my sympathy to those affected by the latest disaster. And in my words here, I leave my thoughts on the potential of humans that I have felt through the disaster.
 今回の災害にあった方たちへのお見舞いを伝えるとともに、そこで感じた「人間の底力」について書かせていただいた。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
毎日新聞 2015年09月15日 地方版
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-09-21 11:11 | 英字新聞