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一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 26
EDITORIAL: Vote-value disparity a gross inequality that cannot continue
(社説)一票の不平等 いつまで放置するのか

The Supreme Court’s latest ruling on the issue of vote-value disparity has left us wondering how long it will take until this clear, outrageous inequality is corrected.
It seems that both the judiciary and the legislature lack awareness of the urgent need to fix this unacceptable situation.
 国民の間に厳然とある不平等をいつまで放置するのか。司法も立法府も、異常をただす切迫感に欠けるのではないか。

The Supreme Court’s Grand Bench ruled on Nov. 25 that the Lower House election in December last year was held in a “state of unconstitutionality,” citing a huge disparity in the relative vote-value among constituencies.
 昨年の衆院選での一票の不平等をめぐり、最高裁が「違憲状態」との判決を出した。

Given that the top court has handed down three similar rulings in the past four years, it has become almost routine to hear it declare that an election was held in a “state of unconstitutionality.”
同様の結論はこの4年間で3回目であり、慣例化した感も漂う。

The Diet has dragged its feet on reforming the electoral system, so a fundamental solution to the problem has yet to be found.
 国会では抜本的に身をただす選挙制度改革の動きは遅れたままだ。

We are concerned that the Supreme Court’s tepid ruling on the issue could be used by the Diet as an excuse for its inaction.
最高裁の手ぬるい判決が国会の免罪符にされてしまわないか、懸念が残る。

In its ruling in 2011, the top court argued that the method of first distributing one seat to each of the 47 prefectures before allocating the remaining seats in the single-seat constituency part of the electoral system in proportion to population was the main cause of the vote-value disparity. The court said this approach should be “abolished as soon as possible.”
 最高裁は2011年、各都道府県にまず議席一つずつを割り振る1人別枠方式が、不平等を生む要因と断じた。「できるだけ速やかな撤廃」を求めた。

In its 2013 ruling on the Lower House election held in December 2012, however, the court took note of the Diet’s last-minute move to reduce the number of seats slightly as “certain progress,” easing the pressure on the Diet. The court’s latest ruling is in line with the 2013 decision.
 ところが13年の判決では、国会が駆け込みで若干の定数削減を決めたことを「一定の前進」とし、手綱を緩めた。今回の判断もこの延長上にある。

In the Nov. 25 ruling, the Supreme Court had encouraging words for work by a Lower House expert committee on the election system to come up with measures to revamp the seat-allocation method, saying efforts to improve the situation are being made in line with the past rulings.
 有識者でつくる衆院の選挙制度調査会が見直し策を検討していることにも言及し、これまでの判決に沿って是正が進められていると高く評価している。

Let us ponder this problem from a basic standpoint.
 原点に戻って考えたい。

In the Lower House election last December, one vote in the nation’s least populated constituency was worth 2.13 votes in the most heavily populated district. In other words, the weight of one person’s vote in a certain district was less than half of the weight of another person’s vote in a different district.
今回の最大格差は2・13倍。ある選挙区での一票の重みは、別の選挙区での半分にも満たない。

Casting votes in elections is the most important of the few opportunities for the public to exercise their sovereign power that is invested in them by the Constitution.
 選挙で票を投じるという行為は、憲法に定められた国民主権を具現化する数少ない、そしてもっとも重要な権利である。

Allowing a situation to continue where a vote in one district is worth less than half of a vote in another represents an egregious inequality among the people that must be redressed immediately.
住む場所によって票の価値が倍以上も違うという不平等はただちに改善されるべき問題だ。

The fact that the flawed seat-allocation method remains basically unchanged four years after the Supreme Court criticized is testimony to the Diet’s gross negligence.
 最高裁が1人別枠方式の問題を指摘して4年がたってもなお事実上撤廃されていないのは、国会の怠慢というほかない。

What is notable about the latest Supreme Court ruling is that three of the 14 justices of the Grand Bench criticized the Diet for its failure to tackle the problem, saying sufficient time had passed to realize equality in voting.
 注目すべきは、14人中3人の裁判官が、「投票の平等」を実現するのに必要な時間はもう十分あったと批判している点だ。

Two of the three dissenting justices argued for invalidating the Lower House election, and the remaining one called for declaring the election “unconstitutional” in the text of the judgment.
うち2人は選挙の無効を、1人は主文での「違憲」の宣言を、それぞれ主張している。

In the ruling, the top court maintained that the constitutional order should be formed through interactions between the judiciary and the legislature.
 最高裁は判決で、憲法の秩序は立法府との相互作用で形成されるとの趣旨を展開している。国会が法をつくる。

The interactions apparently work as follows. The Diet makes laws, and the Supreme Court sends its messages on certain laws through its rulings. The Diet then reforms the laws in response to the court’s rulings.
最高裁が判決でメッセージを出す。それにもとづいて国会が法を改める。

This seems to mean that the top court puts much importance on “dialogue” between the legislature and the judiciary.
立法府と司法との「対話」を重んじる考え方のようだ。

But history shows the Diet has repeatedly ignored messages from the judiciary or interpreted them in a way convenient to it.
 しかし振り返れば、司法のメッセージを国会は繰り返し無視したり、都合よく解釈したりしてきた。

In order to ensure meaningful “dialogue,” the top court should have made more specific demands, such as setting clear deadlines for corrective actions by the Diet.
「対話」を成り立たせるためには、今後の是正期限を明記するなど具体的な求めが必要だったのではないか。

The Supreme Court has repeatedly declared that both the Upper and Lower Houses have been elected in a “state of unconstitutionality.” This is simply an extraordinary situation.
 衆参両院が「違憲状態」で選ばれたと再三指摘されているのは異常事態である。

It is unacceptable that the Diet members, who are obliged to respect the Constitution, allow such serious inequality to remain unchanged.
憲法尊重の義務を負う議員が、不平等を野放しにすることは許されない。

This injustice should be rectified immediately.
早急に改めるべきである。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-30 10:56 | 英字新聞

五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Take every possible antiterror step in preparation for 2020 Tokyo Games
五輪基本方針 テロ対策にも万全を期したい

Preparations for the 2020 Tokyo Olympic and Paralympic Games stumbled significantly due to the withdrawal of plans for a new National Stadium and an emblem design.
 新国立競技場の建設計画とエンブレムの白紙撤回により、2020年東京五輪・パラリンピックの開催準備は、大きくつまずいた。

There will soon be 4½ years remaining before the opening of the sports extravaganza. The government must accelerate a diverse range of preparatory work based on the basic policy approved by the Cabinet.
 大会まで間もなく4年半となる。政府は、閣議決定した基本方針に基づき、多岐にわたる作業を加速させねばならない。

The basic policy defines the 2020 Games as “an opportunity for Japan to demonstrate to the world an advanced undertaking in a mature society.”
 基本方針は、大会を「成熟社会における先進的な取り組みを世界に示す契機」と位置付けた。

Above all, the policy calls for enriching Paralympic programs, saying that it “will contribute greatly to encouraging the impaired to become self-sustaining.” The term Paralympics was first used in the 1964 Tokyo Games. The 2020 Games will mark the first time a city has hosted the Summer Paralympics twice.
 中でも、「障害者の自立を促す大きな力となる」として、パラリンピックの充実を掲げた。1964年東京大会で、パラリンピックという用語が初めて使用された。20年大会は、同一都市で2回目の開催という初のケースとなる。

In view of this history, seeking to make the 2020 Paralymics the biggest ever is significant from the viewpoint of promoting the building of a symbiotic society.
 こうした経緯を踏まえ、過去最大規模のパラリンピックを目指すことは、共生社会の構築を推進する上で意義があろう。

A noticeable point in connection with the Olympics is that the basic plan set forth a goal of acquiring the highest number of gold medals in the country’s history. The past record of 16 was set at the 1964 Games in Tokyo and the Athens Olympics in 2004.
 五輪関連で目を引くのは、過去最多の金メダル獲得という目標を打ち出した点だ。64年東京五輪と04年アテネ五輪の16個がこれまでの最高だった。

As far as public money spent in reinforcing training programs for athletes, it is natural for the government to present a specific target. If Japanese athletes perform spectacularly, it will contribute greatly to generating excitement for the Games.
 選手強化に公費を投じる以上、政府が具体的な目標を示すのは、当然だろう。日本選手が活躍すれば、大会は大いに盛り上がる。

A strategic approach is crucial to achieving the goal. It is necessary to make effective use of limited fiscal resources through such means as allocating training expenses to promising athletes on a priority basis in preparation for the 2020 Games. The Sports Agency, which is in charge of fund distribution, has a grave responsibility.
 目標達成に重要なのは、戦略的な取り組みだ。20年に向けて、有望選手に強化費を重点配分するなど、限られた財源を有効に使う必要がある。配分を主導するスポーツ庁の責任は重い。

Anti-doping measures critical

Anti-doping measures are important for conducting fair athletic events. Against the background of the doping scandal that has hit the Russian athletics circle, eradication of doping has become a top priority in the sports world.
 競技を公正に実施するには、ドーピング対策も大切だ。ロシア陸上界の薬物汚染が問題になる中、ドーピングの撲滅は、スポーツ界の最優先課題である。

The basic policy, however, makes no concrete commitment on the issue, saying only that efforts will be made to “secure a well-prepared system” in cooperation with such organizations as the World Anti-Doping Agency. It is imperative to accelerate the study of specific measures to strengthen the doping test system.
 基本方針は、世界反ドーピング機関(WADA)などと連携し、「万全の体制整備を行う」との記述にとどまる。検査体制を強化する具体策の検討を急ぐべきだ。

To ensure the safety of athletes and spectators, utmost attention must be focused on antiterrorism measures.
 選手や観客の安全を守るために、最も注力せねばならないのが、テロ対策である。

The basic policy expressed a sense of crisis concerning terrorism, saying, “Terrorist threats are becoming a reality,” and pointed out the need to “ramp up intelligence gathering and analysis, border security and vigilance and security at venues, among others.”
 基本方針も「テロの脅威が現実のものになっている」と危機感を示し、「情報収集・分析、水際対策、会場の警戒警備などの強化」を挙げている。

It is indispensable for the private and public sectors to cooperate in enhancing the ability to cope with any possible situation.
 官民一体となって対処能力を向上させることが不可欠だ。

The basic policy enumerates various measures, including those on the expansion of roads and transport infrastructure and those to deal with the summer heat. To prevent expenses from swelling, it is necessary to list measures in the order of priority.
 道路・交通インフラの整備、暑さ対策など、基本方針には様々な施策が列挙されている。費用の膨張を避けるには、対策に優先順位をつける必要がある。

To smoothly prepare for the Games, the need to clarify the division of the roles and responsibilities to be undertaken by the government, the organizing committee and the Tokyo metropolitan government must not be forgotten.
 大会準備を効率的に進めるため、政府と大会組織委員会、東京都の役割分担と責任を明確にすることも忘れてはならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 28, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-29 09:37 | 英字新聞

露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

The Yomiuri Shimbun
It’s not the time for lobbing criticism over downing of Russian warplane
露軍機撃墜 非難合戦を続けている場合か

This situation has poured cold water on the opportunity for cooperation between Russia, the United States and Europe that arose due to the terrorist attacks in Paris earlier this month. Lobbing criticism at each other must not be allowed to derail unity among nations seeking to wipe out the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) extremist group.
 パリ同時テロで生まれた米欧とロシアの協調機運に水を差す事態だ。非難合戦で過激派組織「イスラム国」掃討の足並みを乱してはならない。

This week, a Turkish fighter jet shot down a Russian bomber near the Turkey-Syria border. Turkey insists the Russian plane intruded into Turkish territorial airspace and the pilot did not respond to repeated warnings to leave the area. It reportedly had lodged protests against numerous previous violations of its airspace.
 トルコ軍機が、シリアとの国境付近で露軍の爆撃機を撃墜した。トルコは、露軍機が領空に侵入し、再三の退去警告にも応じなかった、と主張している。領空侵犯については、これまでも繰り返し抗議してきたという。

Russia, which in late September launched airstrikes in Syria, saying its aim is to stamp out ISIL, is supporting the administration of Syrian President Bashar Assad. Turkey supports Syrian antigovernment groups and gives priority to toppling the Assad administration. The diametrically opposed positions of Moscow and Ankara lurk in the background to the downing of the Russian warplane.
 9月末から「イスラム国」掃討を名目にシリアで空爆を始めたロシアは、シリアのアサド政権を擁護する。トルコはアサド政権の打倒を最優先し、反体制派を支援する。今回の撃墜の背景には、両国の立場の根本的な違いがある。

Russian President Vladimir Putin has denied the plane violated Turkish airspace and angrily retorted there would be “serious consequences.” Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov canceled a visit to Turkey, and Moscow has started taking other retaliatory measures such as restricting imports of agricultural products from Turkey.
 プーチン露大統領は侵犯を否定し、「重大な結果をもたらす」と強く反発した。ラブロフ外相がトルコ訪問を中止し、トルコ産農作物の輸入を制限するなどの対抗措置も取り始めた。

However, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization has supported Turkey’s side of the story, and the U.S. military also confirmed the Russian aircraft received the warnings. Russia’s assertions seem to lack credibility.
 だが、北大西洋条約機構(NATO)はトルコの言い分を支持し、米軍も露軍機が警告を受けていたことを確認した。ロシアの主張は信用性に欠けるのではないか。

ISIL is common enemy

It is important that Russia and Turkey stop their tit-for-tat criticism, restore calm to the situation and move toward preventing a recurrence.
 重要なのは、ロシアとトルコが批判の応酬をやめ、再発防止と事態の沈静化へ動くことだ。

Russia and a coalition of willing nations led by the United States continue to conduct independent airstrikes in Syria. Setting up lines of communication between these military forces is an urgent task to help prevent unexpected situations like the downing of the Russian plane.
 米国を中心とする有志連合とロシアは個別に、シリアで空爆を続けている。今回のような不測の事態を防ぐために、軍同士の連絡体制を整えることが急務である。

The international community should be concentrating on weakening ISIL, which is a common enemy. Countries with a stake in this matter also must avoid discussions that go in circles on ways to end Syria’s civil war and on a transition of political power.
 国際社会は、共通の敵である「イスラム国」の弱体化に集中すべきだ。シリア内戦終結と政権移行に向けた関係国の協議の空転も避けねばならない。

The U.N. Security Council recently unanimously adopted a resolution that calls on member states to fight terrorism and newly spells out the council’s determination to crush ISIL. Britain has indicated a plan to expand airstrikes in Syria, and France has strengthened its aggressive stance by deploying an aircraft carrier to the region.
 国連安全保障理事会はテロ防止決議を全会一致で採択し、「イスラム国」打倒の決意を新たにしたばかりだ。英国はシリアへの空爆拡大方針を示し、フランスは空母投入で攻撃態勢を強化した。

French President Francois Hollande has embarked on a rapid series of diplomatic summits as he seeks to build a wide-ranging coalition that includes Russia. Hollande and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Washington, and they agreed to deepen cooperation to combat ISIL. We attach great important to this chain of international cooperation.
 オランド仏大統領は、ロシアも含めた大包囲網の構築を目指し、活発な首脳外交に乗り出している。オバマ米大統領とワシントンで会談し、「イスラム国」対策で協力を深めることで一致した。一連の国際連携を大切にしたい。

Putin considers France to be an antiterrorism “ally” and is taking a cooperative stance on this point. He probably aims to get the United States and European nations to relax sanctions imposed on Russia due to its intervention in Ukraine, and to break Moscow’s international isolation.
 プーチン氏は、フランスを対テロの「同盟国」と位置づけ、協調姿勢を見せている。ウクライナ介入に伴う米欧の制裁緩和を実現させ、国際的孤立から脱却する狙いがあるのだろう。

However, Russia’s position does not appear to change with its aim to keep Assad in power while seizing the initiative in the Syrian situation through the use of force. Under these circumstances, it will be difficult for the United States and Europe to “fight together” alongside Russia.
 しかし、アサド政権を温存したまま、軍事力に頼ってシリア情勢で主導権を握ろうとする戦略に変化は見られない。これでは、米欧が「共闘」するのは難しい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 27, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-28 09:01 | 英字新聞

日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Deepen Japan-U.S. cooperation to handle China’s maritime advances
日米首脳会談 中国の海洋進出に連携対処を

Japan and the United States must work closely together and play a leading role in both the political and economic fields to maintain order in Asia.
 アジアの秩序を守るため、日米両国が政治、経済両分野で緊密に連携して、主導的な役割を果たすことが肝要だ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and U.S. President Barack Obama held talks in Manila and agreed to enhance mutual cooperation in dealing with issues related to artificial islands built by China in the South China Sea.
 安倍首相とオバマ米大統領がマニラで会談し、南シナ海での中国の人工島造成問題で、協力を強化することで一致した。

During the summit talks, Obama expressed his intention to continue the U.S. Navy’s patrol operations within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands. They will be carried out as routine activities, he said.
 オバマ氏は、米軍艦船が人工島の12カイリ内を巡視する作戦について「日常の行動として実行したい」と述べ、継続を表明した。

Abe expressed support for the U.S. patrol operations and told Obama he would “consider the possibility of the Self-Defense Forces conducting operations in the area while examining the impact of the situation on Japan’s national security.”
 首相は、作戦を支持し、南シナ海での自衛隊の活動に関して「日本の安全保障に与える影響を注視しつつ検討する」と述べた。

China must be stopped from carrying out large-scale reclamation in the area and turning the artificial islands into military bases based on self-serving logic in violation of international law. Japan and the United States have to cooperate with Southeast Asian nations and patiently call on China to exercise self-restraint and improve the situation.
 中国が国際法に反する独善的な論理を用い、大規模な埋め立てや軍事拠点化を進めることは阻止せねばならない。日米が東南アジア各国とも連携し、中国に粘り強く自制と改善を促す必要がある。

The U.S. Navy’s operations are significant to prevent China’s unilateral attempt to change the status quo from becoming established fact. Even if it is not participating in them, Japan should provide indirect support for the U.S. operations. The Maritime Self-Defense Force and the U.S. Navy have built strong mutual trust through joint exercises, and joint reconnaissance and surveillance operations, over a long period.
 中国の一方的な現状変更を既成事実化させないため、米軍の作戦は重要だ。日本も、作戦に参加しないまでも、側面支援はしたい。海上自衛隊と米海軍は長年、共同訓練や共同の警戒監視活動を通じて、強い信頼を築いてきた。

Japan must also try to help the navies and coast guards of the Philippines and other countries in the area develop their capabilities through official development assistance.
 政府開発援助(ODA)も活用し、フィリピンなど周辺国の海軍や海上保安機関の能力構築支援にも力を入れねばなるまい。

Abe pledges Futenma progress

Abe also told Obama that his administration would proceed resolutely with the relocation of the U.S. Marine Corps’ Futenma Air Station in Okinawa Prefecture to the Henoko district. Obama thanked Abe and expressed his intention to work with Tokyo in returning U.S. military facilities in the prefecture to Japan, among other issues.
 米軍普天間飛行場の辺野古移設について、首相は「確固たる決意で進める」と表明した。オバマ氏は謝意を表し、米軍施設の返還などに協力する考えを示した。

It is important for Abe to maintain his stance of proceeding steadily with the relocation. Any attempt to seek an entirely new solution will further complicate the issue and only delay the removal of the dangers posed by the Futenma Air Station.
 大切なのは、安倍政権が移設を着実に進める姿勢を堅持することだ。新たな解決策を探ることは、問題を複雑にし、普天間飛行場の危険性除去を遅らせるだけだ。

Obama praised the passage of security-related laws in Japan, saying they are historic achievements. He also said the United States strongly supported the Japan-South Korea bilateral meeting that was achieved recently.
 オバマ氏は、安全保障関連法の成立について「歴史的業績だ」と高く評価した。日韓首脳会談の実現についても「強く支持する」と語った。

In reply, Abe expressed his intention to strengthen cooperation among Japan, the United States and South Korea to deal with North Korea’s nuclear and missile development.
首相は、北朝鮮の核・ミサイル問題を踏まえ、日米韓の協力を強化する考えを示した。

The cooperation of the three countries is essential for security in the northeast Asian region. Japan and the United States must keep urging South Korea to take positive steps toward that goal.
 北東アジアの安全保障にとって日米韓の連携は不可欠だ。日米が韓国に前向きな対応を継続的に働きかけることが求められる。

Referring to the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade pact, the prime minister said Japan and the United States’ leadership of the negotiations made it possible for the countries involved to reach a broad agreement. Obama said the TPP pact would drastically change the global environment and the next challenge was how the pact could be brought into effect and implemented.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)について首相は「日米が主導したからこそ、大筋合意ができた」と指摘した。オバマ氏は「TPPはグローバル環境を一変させる。課題は、協定の発効と実施の段階に持っていくことだ」と語った。

It is significant that Japan and the United States have led the formulation of free, fair and transparent rules on trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. Taking the future expansion of participating countries into consideration, the countries concerned must try to ratify and implement the TPP pact as soon as possible.
 日米が、アジア太平洋地域の自由、公正で透明性のある貿易・投資ルールの確立を牽引けんいんした意義は大きい。参加国の拡大も視野に入れて、できるだけ早期の批准・発効を目指すことが重要だ。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 21, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-22 11:06 | 英字新聞

APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Expansion of free trade framework must center around TPP pact
APEC 自由貿易拡大はTPPを軸に

Broadening high-level trade liberalization based on the Trans-Pacific Partnership free trade agreement is indispensable to the further development of the world economy.
 環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)をベースにした、高水準の貿易自由化を広げることが世界経済の発展に欠かせない。

A declaration was adopted Thursday at a summit meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, of which a major pillar is to speed up discussions about creating a “Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific” (FTAAP).
 アジア太平洋経済協力会議(APEC)首脳会議は、「アジア太平洋自由貿易圏(FTAAP)構想」の検討加速を柱とする首脳宣言を採択した。

The declaration stressed that the realization of the envisioned FTAAP “should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement.”
 宣言は、FTAAPに関して、「包括的な自由貿易協定として追求されるべきだ」と強調した。

The FTAAP would endeavor to economically integrate 21 countries and regions, including Japan, the United States, China and Russia. We welcome the fact that the APEC members — despite their widely different levels of economic development, ranging from industrially advanced to developing — have reconfirmed the importance of unifying trade rules.
 FTAAPは、日米中露など域内21か国・地域の経済統合を図る試みだ。先進国から途上国まで経済の発展段階が違うAPECメンバーがルールを統一する重要性を確認できたのは、歓迎できる。

If the broad agreements reached in the TPP negotiations, such as the abolition of tariffs and the application of fair and transparent trade rules, spread to nations outside the TPP, it will certainly invigorate the economic activities in the region.
 TPPで大筋合意した高いレベルの関税撤廃や、公正で透明な貿易ルールの適用がFTAAPでより多くの国々に広がれば、地域の経済活性化に弾みがつこう。

It is a cause for concern that China and Russia, which are not involved in the TPP, have reacted adversely to the envisaged economic integration centering on the TPP.
 懸念材料は、TPPに参加していない中露がTPPを軸にした経済統合に反発していることだ。

Chinese President Xi Jinping expressed caution in a lecture during the summit, saying: “With various new regional free trade arrangements cropping up, there have been worries about the potential of fragmentation.”
 中国の習近平国家主席は講演で「自由貿易の計画が次々と現れ、地域がバラバラになることを懸念している」と警戒感を示した。

Russian President Vladimir Putin wrote in an article ahead of the APEC summit that “the confidential fashion in which the TPP negotiations were conducted is probably not the best way to facilitate sustainable growth in the Asia-Pacific region.”
 ロシアのプーチン大統領も「TPPの秘密交渉スタイルは、地域の成長を促す最良の道ではない」とする論文を発表した。

U.S. Congress is key

One country after another has shown interest in taking part in the TPP, including South Korea and the Philippines. China and Russia, whose intentions to vie with the economic order led by the United States are now in jeopardy, have apparently taken steps to check the moves of other nations to become additional TPP members.
 韓国やフィリピンなどの参加検討表明が相次いでいる。中露は、米国主導の経済秩序に対抗する目論もくろ見みが危うくなったため、新規参入の動きを牽制けんせいしたのだろう。

China is poised to seek the region’s economic integration based on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which it has been negotiating with countries including Japan, South Korea and India. The United States is not a party to RCEP negotiations.
 中国は、日韓やインドなどと交渉中の東アジア地域包括的経済連携(RCEP)を基礎に経済統合を目指す考えだ。米国は交渉に参加していない。

However, the tariff abolition targets being sought in the RCEP initiative are lower than those under the TPP. It has been pointed out that the RCEP talks have yet to make progress regarding such matters as environmental protection and human and intellectual property rights, while TPP member countries and businesses are required to comply with standards regarding those matters.
 だが、RCEPは、TPPに比べ、目標とする関税撤廃率が低い。TPPが締結国の政府や企業に求めた環境や人権、知的財産権などへの配慮についても、議論がまだ進んでいないとされる。

To ensure fair and free economic activity, it is more desirable to have the TPP rules accepted as international standards.
 公正で自由な経済活動を確保するには、TPPルールを国際標準とする方が望ましい。

It was right that Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at the APEC summit: “Japan hereafter will energetically pour our efforts into expanding the TPP.” By cooperating with such countries as Australia, Japan must play a leading role in the RCEP negotiation process — in which the United States is absent — with the aim of bringing its levels of trade liberalization closer to those of the TPP.
 安倍首相が「日本は今後、TPPを広める取り組みに注力する」と語ったのは適切だ。豪州などと連携して、米国不在のRCEP交渉をリードし、自由化の水準をTPPに近づけねばならない。

It is worrying that rough sailing is expected regarding the ratification of the TPP by the U.S. Congress. In addition to objections from the Republican Party, trade unions, which are the support base for the Democratic Party, have also been intensifying their resistance toward the TPP.
 気がかりなのは、TPPの批准が、米国で難航しそうなことである。野党の共和党に加え、与党・民主党でも、支持層の労働組合が反対を強めている。

The TPP cannot be put into force without ratification by the United States. We hope the U.S. administration will strenuously tackle the challenge in Congress.
 米国が批准しないと、TPPは発効しない。米政府は議会対策に精力的に取り組んでほしい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 20, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-21 09:03 | 英字新聞

行革公開検証 もんじゅが焦点だ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Nov. 10
EDITORIAL: Scrap Monju reactor project and use money to develop renewable energies
(社説)行革公開検証 もんじゅが焦点だ

The annual public review of policy programs by the government to identify wasteful spending ends on Nov. 13. For three days, the government’s administrative reform promotion council has been scouring the budgets of ministries and agencies for savings.
 各省庁の政策に無駄遣いがないか点検する公開検証が、今年も11日から3日間、実施される。政府の行政改革推進会議が行う。

The focus of the budget review this year is the Monju prototype fast-breeder reactor.
 今回の焦点は、高速増殖炉「もんじゅ」の扱いだ。

The Nuclear Regulation Authority recently recommended that the operator of the troubled-plagued experimental reactor, the government-affiliated Japan Atomic Energy Agency, should be replaced.
もんじゅを巡っては、運営主体の日本原子力研究開発機構が原子力規制委員会から運営を退くよう言い渡されたばかりだ。

Certain expenditures related to the Monju project, mainly state subsidies, were examined in the public review. But the council should take this opportunity to scrutinize all aspects of the controversial project instead of evaluating only the subsidies. We are keen to see the panel demonstrate that continuing the project doesn’t make sense and the reactor should be decommissioned from the viewpoint of administrative reforms.
公開検証では、もんじゅ関連予算の一部である交付金などが対象となっている。しかし、せっかくの機会である。交付金にとどまらずに全体像に切り込んで、行革の面から政策の不合理と廃炉の妥当性を示してほしい。

It is already clear that the Monju project is a financial folly.
 もんじゅは、財政面から見ても行き詰まりが明らかになっている。

The construction cost, which was originally estimated at 35 billion yen ($285 million) when the project was in an early planning stage in the 1970s, has ballooned to 1 trillion yen. Although the reactor has been offline for more than 20 years due to a series of accidents and scandals, 20 billion yen is still spent annually, or 50 million yen a day, for maintenance.
70年代の計画初期段階で350億円と見積もられていた建設費は、すでに1兆円規模に達した。事故や不祥事で20年以上運転できずにいる今も年間約200億円、1日あたり約5千万円が維持費に消えている。

The maintenance costs of the reactor under the initial budget for the current fiscal year are almost equivalent to the amount (23.8 billion yen) being shelled out to promote renewable energy projects for local power production and consumption.
 もんじゅの維持費は、今年度当初予算で見れば、地産地消型の再生可能エネルギー活用への取り組み支援(238億円)に匹敵し、

The outlays for the Monju project are far larger than the spending on a demonstration project to build a transmission network for wind power generation (10.5 billion yen) or the appropriation to support research for the development of geothermal power sources (8 billion yen).
風力発電用の送電網整備に向けた実証事業(105億円)や地熱発電の開発調査支援(80億円)を大きく上回る。

Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Japan widened the scope of its energy policy to make greater efforts to develop and promote alternative power sources, including renewable energy.
 福島での原発事故を経て日本のエネルギー政策は、再エネなど新しい電源の普及・育成にも手を広げはじめた。

Instead of spending a huge amount of taxpayer money to keep Monju alive, the government should use the cash to build a new, cleaner energy future for this nation.
もんじゅの継続に巨費を投じるより、新しいエネルギー社会の構築に費やしてはどうか。

Japan is facing a serious fiscal crunch. The government is drowning in a sea of debt as its welfare spending is surging amid the rapid aging of the nation’s population.
 高齢化と巨額の財政赤字を抱えた日本の財政事情は厳しく、

The government has no choice but to raise taxes while cutting its expenditures on social security, education and other programs.
社会保障費や教育費などを切り詰めつつ増税することが避けられない。

It cannot afford the luxury of pouring a hefty sum of money into a questionable nuclear reactor with no prospects for practical operation.
運転の見通しが立たない事業に資金を投入し続ける余裕はないはずだ。

The Monju project has survived for so long despite its troubled history because nobody loses money when the reactor is out of operation.
 もんじゅがこれまで存続してきたのは、運転できなくて困る直接の当事者がいないからだ。

When a reactor operated by an electric utility is shut down because of an accident or a scandal, the company will immediately face a rise in costs that hurts its financial standing.
 電力会社が保有する原発は、事故や不祥事で発電できなければ、たちまちコストがかさみ経営を圧迫する。

In contrast, Monju is treated as a research reactor, and the national program gets funded almost automatically.
だが、研究炉扱いのもんじゅは、国家事業としてほぼ自動的に予算がつく。

Both the industry ministry and the science and technology ministry, which are in charge of the nuclear power policy, have a clear interest in supporting the continuation of the Monju project.
 原子力政策を担当する経済産業省や文部科学省にとっては、続ける姿勢をとり続けたほうがメリットがある。

If this project is terminated, these ministries will be forced to make a sweeping review of the entire nuclear fuel recycling program and tackle the formidable challenge of disposing of plutonium extracted from spent nuclear fuel.
やめるとなれば、核燃サイクル政策全体の見直しを迫られ、使用済み燃料から取り出したプルトニウムの処理にも直面する。

This year’s public budget review is led by Taro Kono, the newly appointed minister in charge of administrative reform who has been a champion of the cause.
 今回の公開検証は、行革に熱心な河野太郎氏が担当相だ。

We urge Kono to make the decision to scrap the Monju project as a step to press ahead with meaningful administrative reforms.
もんじゅ廃炉という行革の実を挙げてほしい。

There is definitely no reason for approving annual spending of 20 billion yen as the cost of postponing this decision.
200億円を先送りのコストとして認める理由はないはずである。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-15 08:21 | 英字新聞

思いやり予算 日米同盟の信頼損ねぬ議論を

The Yomiuri Shimbun
Japan-U.S. talks on ‘sympathy budget’ must be based on trust in alliance
思いやり予算 日米同盟の信頼損ねぬ議論を

Tokyo should conduct discussions calmly with Washington over its budgetary appropriations for host-nation support to U.S. forces in Japan — known as “omoiyari yosan” (sympathy budget) — because this support is crucial for this country’s security.
 日本の安全保障に不可欠な経費負担であり、冷静に議論したい。

Negotiations between Japanese and U.S. governments have gone into high gear over a special treaty to determine Japan’s share of the cost of U.S. forces stationed in this country in fiscal 2016 and thereafter.
 2016年度以降の在日米軍駐留経費の日本側負担(思いやり予算)を定める特別協定を巡り、日米両政府の交渉が本格化している。

The Japanese side is insisting on a drastic reduction of its burden, but the U.S. side is poised to maintain its demand that the cost be increased by several tens of percents.
 日本側が大幅な削減を主張するのに対し、米側は数十%の増額を求めて譲らない構えだ。

The Japanese government wants to conclude the negotiations by the end of this year and have a new draft treaty endorsed by the ordinary Diet session next year.
 年末までに交渉を妥結させたうえ、日本政府は来年の通常国会で新協定案の承認を求める。

The sympathy budget made its debut in fiscal 1978. It mainly pays for the development and maintenance of barracks and housing units stipulated under the Japan-U.S. Status of Forces Agreement, and labor costs and some of the expense of lighting, heating and water determined by a special treaty that is renewed every two to five years.
 思いやり予算は、1978年度から始まった。日米地位協定に基づく隊舎、住宅などの施設整備費と、2~5年ごとに更新される特別協定で定める労務費や、光熱水料の一部負担が柱である。

The sympathy budget in fiscal 2015 is ¥189.9 billion. The budget has been gradually reduced after reaching a peak at ¥275.6 billion in fiscal 1999. But it has tended to level off in recent years.
 15年度の総額は、1899億円だ。99年度の2756億円をピークに徐々に減少してきたが、近年は横ばい傾向にある。

In the current negotiations with the United States, Japan is requesting the abolition or reduction of the labor costs for employees at movie theaters and other entertainment facilities within U.S. bases, as well as expenses for lighting, heating and water because of the country’s difficult fiscal situation and the recent depreciation of the yen.
 日本側は今回の交渉で、基地内の映画館など娯楽施設従業員の労務費や、光熱水料の廃止・縮減を求めている。厳しい財政事情や円安傾向が続いているためだ。

Bases key for security

Japan’s share of the burden will certainly increase in the future due to realignment of U.S. forces stationed in the country such as the transfer of U.S. marines in Okinawa Prefecture to Guam.
 在沖縄海兵隊のグアム移転など在日米軍再編に伴う日本側の財政負担は今後、確実に増加する。

Formulation of new Guidelines for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation and development of the new security-related laws will lead to the Self-Defense Forces expanding activities conducted jointly with U.S. forces. Japan uses this as one of the reasons for demanding a reduction of its cost burden.
 新たな日米防衛協力の指針(ガイドライン)の策定や安全保障関連法の整備により、自衛隊の米軍協力の余地も広がる。これらも、減額要求の理由としている。

It is a matter of course for the government to try to eliminate wasteful spending in reducing the amount it pays for U.S. forces stationed in Japan and to rationalize use of the sympathy budget.
 駐留経費の無駄遣いを排除するとともに、予算の使途の合理化を図るのは当然のことだ。

However, U.S. forces stationed in Japan are a foundation of the Japan-U.S. alliance. Therefore, it is significant to maintain quality of life for U.S. military personnel.
 ただ、米軍の駐留は、日米同盟の根幹である。米兵の「生活の質」を維持することも重要だ。

Washington has reportedly cited reduction of its defense spending and the arms buildup due to its rebalancing effort to Asia as reasons for demanding an increase in Japan’s burden.
 米側は、増額要求の理由として、国防費の削減や、アジア重視のリバランス(再均衡)政策に伴う軍備増強を挙げているという。

North Korea’s nuclear development and China’s maritime advances have made the security environment surrounding Japan increasingly volatile. The significance of the deterrence provided by U.S. forces in Japan is certainly increasing.
 北朝鮮の核開発や、中国の海洋進出などで、日本を取り巻く安全保障環境は厳しさを増している。在日米軍の抑止力の重要性が高まっているのは確かだ。

Also, U.S. forces in Japan are in effect a public asset for the Asia-Pacific region. It was a U.S. Aegis-equipped destroyer based at Yokosuka Naval Base that sailed within 12 nautical miles of at least one of China’s artificial islands in the South China Sea.
 在日米軍はアジア太平洋地域の公共財という側面もある。南シナ海で中国の人工島の12カイリ内を航行したのは、米軍横須賀基地配備のイージス駆逐艦だった。

The government has shouldered part of the costs for U.S. forces in Japan not out of “sympathy.” They are necessary costs to secure peace and stability of Japan and in its neighboring region, and a fair share of responsibility as a U.S. ally.
 在日米軍経費の一部を日本が負担するのは、「思いやり」ではない。日本と地域の平和と安定を確保するための必要経費であり、同盟国としての責任の分担だ。

The negotiations for the current treaty from fiscal 2011 to fiscal 2015 experienced rough going, too, because of the vast difference between assertions made by Japan and the United States. But they finally agreed to maintain the status quo.
 11~15年度の現協定の交渉も双方の主張の隔たりが大きく、難航したが、最終的に現状維持で折り合った。

Tokyo and Washington must search for common ground by negotiating with each other based on how important this alliance is.
日米両政府は、同盟関係の重要性を踏まえて交渉し、着地点を探ることが大切である。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 7, 2015)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-08 09:51 | 英字新聞

(社説)辺野古、本体工事着手 埋め立て強行は許されぬ

--The Asahi Shimbun, Oct. 30
EDITORIAL: Japan's cherished values apparently don't apply to Okinawa
(社説)辺野古、本体工事着手 埋め立て強行は許されぬ

How long does the central government intend to continue the history of discriminatory treatment against Okinawa?
 政府はいつまで、沖縄に差別的な歴史を強いるのか。

The government on Oct. 29 started the main part of land reclamation work in the Henoko district of Nago, Okinawa Prefecture, to build a new U.S. air base to replace the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Futenma in Ginowan, a crowded city in the southernmost prefecture.
 米軍普天間飛行場の移設先、名護市辺野古で政府は、埋め立ての本体工事に着手した。

We cannot help but cast serious doubt on the way the Abe administration has been forging ahead with its plan to build the base, paying little attention to the voices of many people in Okinawa who have clearly rejected the plan.
 新基地建設に「NO」という多くの沖縄県民の声に耳を傾けようとせず、一連の手続きを強行する安倍政権の姿勢に、深刻な疑問を感じざるを得ない。

The administration is running roughshod over Okinawan people’s will and human rights.
 沖縄県民の人権と民意がないがしろにされている。

At the same time, the situation raises some serious questions about the moral standards of this nation, which keeps forcing Okinawa, only a small part of it, to bear an unfairly excessive burden for national security.
 同時に、沖縄という一地域に過度の負担を押しつける、この国のあり方が問われている。

Reasons for Okinawa’s rejection of Henoko plan
 ■沖縄の「NO」の理由

We again urge the administration to immediately stop the construction work in Henoko and hold serious talks with the Okinawa prefectural government over the issue.
 政府に改めて求める。工事を速やかに中止し、県と話し合いの場をもつべきだ。

Let us look back again on Okinawa’s history from the viewpoint of Okinawa’s people.
 いま一度、沖縄県民の心情に寄り添ってみたい。

In the closing days of the Pacific War, Okinawa became a scene of a devastating ground battle that killed a quarter of the local population. Okinawa was used as a “sacrifice” for the defense of mainland Japan.
 太平洋戦争末期、沖縄は県民の4人に1人が犠牲になる痛ましい地上戦を経験した。本土防衛の「捨て石」とされたのだ。

For many years after the end of the war, Okinawa was excluded from the benefits of Japan’s postwar Constitution, which espouses pacifism and guarantees basic human rights. The U.S. military, which ruled Okinawa with an iron fist, took land from local residents forcefully with “bayonet and bulldozer” and built bases around the prefecture.
 その沖縄は戦後、平和主義や基本的人権を保障した日本国憲法から隔絶された。米軍統治のもと、「銃剣とブルドーザー」で土地を奪われ、強権的な支配のなかで米軍基地が広がる。

Forty-three years since Okinawa’s long-awaited reversion to Japanese sovereignty, the prefecture, which constitutes only 0.6 percent of national land, is still home to 73.8 percent of the facilities used exclusively by the U.S. military in Japan.
 念願の本土復帰から43年。今なお、国土の0・6%の沖縄に全国の73・8%もの米軍専用施設を抱えている。

Seven decades since the end of World War II, no other area in the world hosts as many foreign military bases.
 戦後70年たつのに、これほど他国軍の基地が集中する地域が世界のどこにあろうか。

Okinawa has been continuously plagued by accidents, crimes, noise and other problems related to U.S. bases. This is the grim reality of Okinawa.
度重なる事故や犯罪、騒音などの基地被害に脅かされ続けてもいる。それが沖縄の現実である。

Despite all of this, Okinawa Governor Takeshi Onaga doesn’t deny the importance of Japan’s security alliance with the United States. Nor does he demand that the United States return its Kadena Air Base, which is important for deterrence provided by the U.S. forces.
 それでも、翁長雄志知事は日米同盟の重要性を否定していない。抑止力で重要な米空軍嘉手納基地の返還も求めていない。

Onaga and people in Okinawa are saying “no” to the government’s blatant attempt to force Okinawa to accept a new U.S. military base despite the prefecture’s long history of suffering from the heavy U.S. military presence.
 こうした歴史をたどってきた沖縄に、さらに「新たな基地建設」を押し付けようとする。そんな政府の姿勢に「NO」の声を上げているのだ。

Once a new base with state-of-the-art military facilities is built in Henoko, it will be hard to get it removed. It is quite likely to become a permanent base.
 辺野古に最新鋭の基地が造られれば、撤去は難しい。恒久的な基地になりかねない。

Listen to the voices of the people
 ■民意に耳を傾けよ

The will of people in Okinawa to reject the planned new base was made indisputably clear in a series of elections last year. Candidates opposed to the Futenma relocation plan won in the Nago mayoral election in January, the Okinawa gubernatorial poll in November and in all of Okinawa’s four single-seat constituencies in the Dec. 14 Lower House election.
 それに「NO」を告げる沖縄の民意は、昨年の名護市長選、県知事選、総選挙の四つの小選挙区で反対派が相次いで勝利したことで明らかである。

But the series of actions taken by the Abe administration to build the new base makes it hard to believe that the administration has any serious interest in listening to the voices of people in Okinawa.
 政府にとって沖縄の民意は、耳を傾ける対象ではないのか。着工に向けた一連の手続きにも、強い疑問を禁じ得ない。

To override Onaga’s decision to revoke approval of land reclamation work for the Henoko project, the Defense Ministry’s Okinawa bureau resorted to the administrative complaint investigation system to request a temporary injunction against Onaga’s move. The land minister, a member of the same government, on Oct. 27 issued the requested injunction.
 翁長知事による埋め立て承認の取り消しに対し、沖縄防衛局は行政不服審査制度を使い、同じ政府内の国土交通相が取り消し処分の執行停止を認めた。

The system is originally designed to provide relief to private individuals who have suffered damage from actions by administrative organizations.
 この制度はそもそも、行政機関から不利益処分を受けた「私人」の救済が趣旨である。

How can the Defense Ministry’s local bureau qualify as a “private individual?” Is it reasonable for the land minister, a member of the Cabinet, to decide on a dispute between the central government and a prefectural government? There is serious doubt about the fairness of this step.
防衛局は「私人」なのか。政府と県の対立を、政府内の国土交通相が裁くのが妥当なのか。公正性に大きな疑問符がつく。

At the same time, the Abe administration has also embarked on the procedures for administrative substitute execution under the local government law in an attempt to disempower the prefectural government.
 政府は同時に、地方自治法に基づく代執行手続きにも着手し、知事の権限を奪おうとしている。

The administration’s confrontational attitude indicates that it has no intention to try to find common ground with the prefecture.
その対決姿勢からは、県と接点を探ろうという意思が感じられない。

As a point to note for the Okinawa governor’s permission for land reclamation in Henoko, talks are supposed to be held between the central government and the prefectural government before the main part of the work begins.
The administration has said repeatedly that the talks are already over, turning a deaf ear to the prefectural government’s claim that they are not.
 埋め立て承認の留意事項として本体着工前に行うことになっている事前協議についても、政府は「協議は終わった」と繰り返し、「終わっていない」という県の主張を聞こうとしない。

In addition, the administration has announced its decision to provide state subsidies for local development directly to the three districts of Kushi, Henoko and Toyohara in Nago, collectively known as the “Three Kube Districts,” bypassing the governments of Okinawa Prefecture and Nago.
 さらに政府は名護市の久志、辺野古、豊原の「久辺3区」に対し、県や市の頭越しに振興費を直接支出するという。

Do all these facts mean the administration intends to simply ignore the opinions and intentions of the prefectural and municipal governments, which are opposed to the Henoko base plan? Does the Abe administration think only areas that support its policy constitute the nation it serves?
 辺野古移設に反対する県や市は無視すればいい、そういうことなのか。自らの意向に沿う地域だけが、安倍政権にとっての「日本」なのか。

During the one-month intensive talks between Tokyo and Okinawa over the issue held this summer, the administration did little more than let the prefectural government say what it had to say.
 この夏に行われた1カ月の政府と県の集中協議も、結局は、県の主張を聞き置くだけに終わった。

Given that the administration later switched to a hard-line stance toward the prefecture, it is hard to deny that the talks were only intended as a means to buy time for enacting national security legislation.
その後、政府が強硬姿勢に一変したことを見れば、やはり安保関連法を通すための時間稼ぎにすぎなかったと言わざるを得ない。

Japan’s integrity called into question
 ■日本が問われている

Removing the danger posed by the Funtenma air base is the usual refrain used by the government to justify its plan to build a new base in Henoko.
 「普天間飛行場の危険性を除去する」。政府はいつもそう繰り返す。

When the United States considered curtailing and consolidating its military bases in Okinawa, however, the Japanese government showed reluctance in supporting the idea.
しかし、かつて米国で在沖米海兵隊などの整理・縮小案が浮上した際、慎重姿勢を示したのは日本政府だった。

Nineteen years have passed since the 1996 agreement between Tokyo and Washington on the return of the Futenma base to Japan. Its original purpose was to ease the burden borne by Okinawa.
 96年の普天間返還の日米合意から19年。本来の目的は、沖縄の負担軽減のためだった。

To achieve the purpose, the government should first make all-out efforts to deliver on its promise to former Okinawa Governor Hirokazu Nakaima that the operations of the Futenma base will be terminated within five years.
 そのために、まず政府がなすべきは、安倍首相が仲井真弘多(ひろかず)・前知事に約束した「5年以内の運用停止」の実現に向けて全力を傾けることではないか。

The United States has been taking steps to deal with a major cut in its Marine Corps troops stationed in Okinawa, such as planning a transfer of thousands of Marines from Okinawa to Guam and rotational deployments to Hawaii and Australia.
 米国は、在沖海兵隊のグアム移転や、ハワイ、豪州などへの巡回配備で対応を進めている。

The situation argues for Japan’s fresh efforts to reassess its official position that the relocation of the Futenma base to Henoko is the only possible option and explore an alternative way through a major review of all factors underlying its security strategy for the entire region, including the supposed necessity of a new facility to take over the functions of the Futenma base.
 その現状を見れば、「辺野古移設が唯一の解決策」という固定観念をまずリセットし、地域全体の戦略を再考するなかで、代替施設の必要性も含めて「第三の道」を模索すべきだ。

The will of the people in one prefecture has been continuously ignored. As a democratic country, Japan must not overlook this reality.
 ひとつの県の民意が無視され続けている。民主主義国として、この現実を見過ごすことはできない。

Is Japan really a nation that respects human rights? Is it a nation where people can influence the future of their own communities?
 日本は人権を重んじる国なのか。地域の将来に、自分たちの意思を反映させられる国なのか――。

The question posed by the Futenma dispute is whether Japan, our nation, is a country that cherishes universal values.
 私たちの日本が、普遍的な価値観を大事にする国であるのかどうか。そこが問われている。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-11-01 09:25 | 英字新聞