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日韓解決合意 法的責任、曖昧なまま 少女像撤去は玉虫色

毎日新聞2015年12月29日 東京朝刊
Japan-South Korea accord on 'comfort women' leaves ambiguities
日韓解決合意 法的責任、曖昧なまま 少女像撤去は玉虫色

In the latest accord reached by the governments of Japan and South Korea on the so-called "comfort women" issue, Japan did not back down from its position that the issue had been resolved in a 1965 treaty with South Korea. Instead, the two governments agreed that South Korea would establish a foundation for former comfort women, for which the Japanese government would provide the funds. There remain, however, gaps between what the two governments are seeking, which will require future political maneuvering.
 慰安婦問題で韓国側には日本政府の「法的責任」を求める声が強かったが、日本側は「解決済み」との立場は崩さず、韓国が財団を設立し日本が資金を拠出する新たな支援策で折り合った。両国間で完全に一致していない論点もあり、今後の調整に委ねられた。

According to the latest agreement, the South Korean government will establish a new foundation to support former comfort women, for which the Japanese government will supply some 1 billion yen. Unlike the Asian Women's Fund, which was funded in part by donations from the private sector and dissolved in 2007, the new foundation's monies will come solely by the Japanese government. The arrangement implies that the Japanese government is taking a certain degree of responsibility for the comfort women issue, making the agreement more acceptable for Seoul, which had been calling on Japan to explicitly acknowledge its responsibility as a state.
 □請求権
 今回の合意では、元慰安婦を支援する新たな財団を韓国政府が設立し、日本政府が10億円程度支出することで両国が歩み寄った。資金の一部を民間からの寄付金で賄ったアジア女性基金と異なり、全額が日本の政府予算。日本側が一定の責任を取ったとの意味合いを持たせ、日本が国家としての責任を明確に認めるよう求めてきた韓国側が受け入れやすくなった面がある。

Meanwhile, the Japanese government, which has continued to argue that the comfort women issue was completely and definitively resolved in the 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, will be providing the funds for the new foundation under the pretext that it is taking "moral responsibility." According to a Japanese government source, the cash amount ended up being much higher than initially planned, because "it would be difficult to persuade former comfort women to accept the accord if the amount were too small." Asked about the Japanese government's provision of funds for the foundation, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida emphasized to reporters, "They are not reparations."
 一方、1965年の日韓請求権協定で「完全かつ最終的に解決済み」と主張してきた日本側は「道義的責任」との名目で支出する。政府関係者は「あまりに少ないと韓国が元慰安婦らを説得できなくなる」と当初の想定より大幅に増額した。岸田文雄外相は財団への支出について記者団に「賠償ではない」と強調した。

At a joint press conference held by Kishida and his South Korean counterpart Yun Byung-se following the accord, Kishida said the Japanese government is "painfully aware of its responsibilities." He also explained that the prime minister would express a "heartfelt apology and remorse." The wording the prime minister will use will be almost exactly the same as those in letters sent by past prime ministers to former comfort women -- which was the limit of what the Japanese government was willing to accept. As for the method by which the prime minister's sentiments will be communicated to former comfort women, Kishida said, "That is the job of the foundation. We will move forward in adherence with the Japan-South Korea agreement."
 □謝罪
 元慰安婦らが求める謝罪については、岸田氏が共同記者発表で「日本政府は責任を痛感している」と表明。「首相が心からおわびと反省の気持ちを表明する」と説明した。歴代首相が元慰安婦に送った手紙の文言とほぼ同じで、日本側にとって受け入れ可能なラインだった。合意に基づく首相の言葉を元慰安婦に伝える方法について、岸田氏は記者団に「財団の事業。日韓で合意したものを進める」と語った。

At the Japan-South Korea summit held in November, South Korean President Park Geun-hye sought a resolution to the comfort women issue that "the victims would be able to accept, and that the public will find satisfactory" as a condition for reaching a final agreement. Meanwhile, the Japanese government demanded that South Korea put in writing that, after an agreement is reached, the issue would not be brought up again. Ultimately, both Kishida and Yun stated that the agreement reached on Dec. 28 was "final and irreversible," using the term "irreversible" for the first time. Tokyo believes that the document released at the joint foreign ministerial press conference is proof of Seoul's definitive commitment to this promise.
 □最終妥結の条件
 最終決着となる妥結の条件については、韓国側は朴槿恵(パククネ)大統領が「被害者が受け入れられ、韓国国民が納得のいく水準の解決策」と11月の日韓首脳会談で求めていた。日本側は韓国側が「蒸し返す」ことがないよう文書化を目指した。結局、両外相が「最終的かつ不可逆的に解決することを確認」と表明し、「不可逆的」という言葉が初めて使われた。共同記者発表の文書によって、日本側は決着の確約が取れたと受け止めている。

However, the fate of the statue of a girl in front of the Japanese Embassy in Seoul -- installed in remembrance of former comfort women -- is still unclear. South Korea said merely that it would "take the measures necessary," while Kishida took it one step further, saying the statue will be "appropriately relocated." The end result remains ambiguous, with both sides going only as far as they were willing to go, respectively.
 □少女像
 少女像の撤去をめぐっては、韓国側は「適切に解決されるよう努力」との表現にとどめた。一方で岸田氏は「適切な移転がなされる」と踏み込んだ。双方で言い分が異なる玉虫色の結果だが、双方が折り合えるギリギリの表現となった。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-31 10:50 | 英字新聞

慰安婦問題の合意 歴史を越え日韓の前進を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 29
EDITORIAL: 'Comfort women' deal should lead to new era of Tokyo-Seoul relations
(社説)慰安婦問題の合意 歴史を越え日韓の前進を

Japan and South Korea on Dec. 28 reached a landmark agreement to settle the long-festering issue of “comfort women.” The agreement, struck at the closing of the year that marks the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II and the 50th anniversary of formal diplomatic relations between the two countries, has removed the largest source of tension in their bilateral ties.
 戦後70年であり、日本と韓国が国交正常化してから半世紀。そんな1年の終わりに、両政府は最大の懸案だった慰安婦問題で合意に達した。

This is a historic deal for the relationship between Tokyo and Seoul suitable for this milestone year. We welcome the weighty decision by the two governments to move beyond their long-standing feud and take a wise step forward to overcome the negative legacies of their history.
 節目の年にふさわしい歴史的な日韓関係の進展である。両政府がわだかまりを越え、負の歴史を克服するための賢明な一歩を刻んだことを歓迎したい。

After the Dec. 28 meeting between Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida and his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung-se, Kishida defined the issue of comfort women as “an issue that deeply scarred the honor and dignity of many women under the involvement of the military of that time" and stated, “The Japanese government is acutely aware of its responsibility” for the matter.
“Comfort women” is a euphemism for women who were forced to provide sex to members of the imperial Japanese military before and during World War II.
 きのうあった外相会談の後、岸田外相は慰安婦問題を「軍の関与のもと多数の女性の名誉と尊厳を傷つけた問題」と定義し、「日本政府は責任を痛感している」と明言した。

The Japanese government, which argues that a bilateral agreement on war reparations concluded 50 years ago legally resolved the issue, has been reluctant to use any language that suggests the nation’s responsibility for the issue. This time, the Japanese government used more candid expressions in referring to its stance toward the sensitive topic while maintaining its official position.
 50年前の請求権協定で「法的には解決済み」とする日本政府はこれまで、国家責任を連想させる言葉遣いに消極的だった。今回はその原則を維持しつつ、率直な表現に踏み込んだ。

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe expressed his heartfelt apology and remorse as prime minister of Japan to former comfort women.
 安倍首相は日本の首相として元慰安婦に対し、「心からのおわびと反省」を表明した。

Abe once indicated a desire to review the 1993 Kono statement on the issue, released by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono. It is quite significant that Abe, albeit through Kishida, expressed his commitment to the core message of the key statement.
 かつて慰安婦問題をめぐる「河野談話」の見直しに言及したこともある安倍首相だが、岸田外相を通じてとはいえ、談話の核心部分を韓国で表明したことには大きな意味がある。

JAPANESE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSIBILITY MADE CLEAR
 ■日本政府の責任明言

South Korean Foreign Minister Yun, for his part, made remarks that responded to Tokyo’s demands.
 一方、韓国の尹炳世(ユンビョンセ)外相も日本政府に応えた。

Yun confirmed that the agreement represents a “final and irreversible resolution” of the bitter dispute, although he premised his comment by saying the measures promised by the Japanese government need to be implemented without fail.
 今回の合意について、「日本政府の措置の着実な実施」という前提つきながら、「最終的かつ不可逆的に解決されることを確認する」と言い切った。

Yun expressed the South Korean government’s solid commitment to the terms of the agreement in an apparent attempt to reassure Japan, which has criticized South Korea for “moving the goal posts” by changing its position on promises it has made.
 日本側から「韓国は約束してもゴールポストを動かす」と批判されていたことを意識したうえでの確約の表明である。

The top diplomats of both countries made these pledges in front of media. They should ensure that the agreement will be faithfully carried out.
 両外相ともメディアを通じて両国民に固く誓ったのだ。合意をしっかり履行してほしい。

Under the deal, the South Korean government will establish a foundation to restore the honor and dignity of former comfort women and heal the wounds they bear in their hearts. Tokyo will provide about 1 billion yen ($8.3 million) from its state budget for the foundation.
 韓国政府は、元慰安婦の名誉と尊厳を回復し、心の傷を癒やすための財団をつくり、そこに日本政府が約10億円を国家予算から拠出する。

In the 1990s, Japan set up the Asian Women’s Fund, which offered compensation to former comfort women financed by donations from the Japanese public, as well as medical and welfare programs financed by public funds, along with a letter of apology from the prime minister.
 日本は90年代、国民の募金からなる「償い金」と、政府の資金による医療・福祉支援事業に首相の「おわびの手紙」を添えた「アジア女性基金」事業を始めた。

This initiative produced positive results in Southeast Asia and some other areas, but it failed to achieve its objectives in South Korea because of the rise of public opposition to the project in the country.
東南アジアなどで成果を生んだが、韓国では反対の声が強まり、頓挫してしまった。

Various factors were behind the fund’s failure to win support in South Korea. For one thing, the Japanese government was not necessarily very eager to promote the project. Secondly, the compensation paid to former comfort women was financed by donations from Japanese people, not by the government’s money. These facts provoked criticism in South Korea that Japan was trying to dodge its responsibility.
 韓国側で基金の意義が理解されなかった要因は、さまざまあった。日本政府が必ずしも積極的な姿勢で事業に臨まなかったことや、「償い金」に民間募金をあてたことなどで、韓国側は責任回避だとして反発した。

Both governments, citizen groups supporting former comfort women and news media should all learn lessons from this failure.
 両政府とともに、元慰安婦たちの支援者ら市民団体、メディアも含めて、当時の教訓を考えたい。

Through future talks, the two sides will work out details about the operation of the proposed new foundation. The top priority should be placed on respecting the feelings of the surviving former comfort women, who now number fewer than 50.
 新たに設けられる財団の運営のあり方については今後、詰められる。何より優先すべきは、存命者が50人を切ってしまった元慰安婦たちのそれぞれの気持ちをくむことだろう。

A support group for these women has denounced the agreement as “diplomatic collusion that betrays both the victims and the public.” Negative reactions to the deal driven by nationalism could also emerge in Japan.
 韓国の支援団体は合意について「被害者や国民を裏切る外交的談合」と非難している。日本側からもナショナリズムにかられた不満の声がでかねない。

But the agreement can be a valuable foundation for building new relations between Japan and South Korea. The Japanese government has to meet its commitments faithfully, while the South Korean government has no choice but to have a serious conversation with the people to win their support for the agreement.
 だが今回の合意は、新たな日韓関係を築くうえで貴重な土台の一つとなる。日本政府は誠実に合意を履行し、韓国政府は真剣に国内での対話を強める以外に道はない。

PROMOTE RELATIONS BASED ON MUTUAL BENEFITS
 ■互恵の関係強化を

On Dec. 18, 1965, Japan and South Korea held a ceremony in Seoul to exchange ratification documents for the basic treaty to establish diplomatic relations and four other agreements, opening a new chapter in their history.
 50年前の12月18日。
 日韓はソウルで基本条約と四つの協定の批准文書を交換し、新たな第一歩を踏み出した。

The four agreements on war reparations, fishing industries, cultural assets and cooperation, and Korean residents in Japan have been improved in some way in response to the demands of the times.
 請求権のほか、漁業、文化財・文化協力、在日韓国人の法的地位の4協定はこれまで、その時々の実情に合わせて何らかの形で改良が加えられてきた。

Generations of people in the two countries, including those alive today, have a shared responsibility to review and reconsider the “1965 regime,” the historic framework created in that year by these agreements to define the basic assumptions for the bilateral relationship.
 現在の日韓関係の原点ともいえる「65年体制」の枠組みを、時代に応じて考えていくことは、いまを含む各世代の両国民が担う責務である。

Japan-South Korea relations have developed remarkably over the past half-century.
 この半世紀で日韓関係は大きく飛躍した。

South Korea’s per-capita income has grown to nearly $30,000 from slightly more than $100 back then. Japan’s support contributed to South Korea’s marvelous economic development.
韓国の1人あたりの国民所得は、当時の100ドル余りが今や3万ドルの目前。そこには日本の経済協力金が役立った。

Japan has also gained huge benefits from its neighbor’s rapid economic growth.
そして日本も、急成長する韓国から莫大(ばくだい)な利益を得た。

Over the past half-century, the development of the relationship between Japan and South Korea has been driven by mutual cooperation and benefits. This is also how ties between the two neighbors should be in the future.
 ともに協力し合い、利益を広げる互恵の関係がこの半世紀の歩みだったし、これからもあるべき隣国関係の姿である。

The United States, which strongly urged the two nations to normalize their relations five decades ago, has been actively involved in the process leading to the agreement on the comfort women issue.
 日韓の国交正常化を強く後押しした米国は、今回の和解にも大きく関与した。

During the past two-and-a-half years, Tokyo and Seoul have been locked in diplomatic smear campaigns against each other, making demeaning remarks in front of other countries, mainly on the diplomatic stage in Washington.
この2年半、日韓両国はワシントンを主舞台として、激しい「告げ口」外交を展開してきた。

Hurt and exhausted by this verbal battle, the two countries have realized the obvious fact that this futile fight produces nothing and decided to return to the most basic principle in diplomacy--dialogue.
 その結果、傷つき、疲れ果てた日韓が悟ったのは「不毛な争いは何も生み出さない」というあたり前のことであり、対話という原点に戻ることだった。

LONG LIST OF CHALLENGES TOKYO, SEOUL SHOULD TACKLE TOGETHER
 ■安保など課題山積

This is an age when the world faces a large number of challenges that demand global responses, including not only various economic problems but also issues concerning security, humanitarian assistance related to conflicts and natural disasters, and environmental protection.
 経済だけでなく、安全保障や紛争・災害の人道支援、環境対策など、地球規模の課題が多い時代、

That means there are countless challenges Japan and South Korea, the two major powers in Asia, should grapple with together through cooperative efforts.
アジアを代表する主要国同士の日韓が手を携えて取り組むべきテーマは数知れない。

The foreign ministers of the two countries on Dec. 28 voiced their expectations that the agreement will open a new chapter in the history of the bilateral ties. Kishida said he is convinced that Japan-South Korea relations will enter a new era, while Yun said he expects the two countries to start carving out a new relationship next year.
 両外相はきのう、ともに「日韓関係が新時代に入ることを確信している」「来年から新しい関係を切り開けることを期待する」と期待を述べた。

The hope is that the new year, which starts in three days, will mark the beginning of 50 years in which Japan and South Korea can walk together with their eyes looking ahead toward a new future for their relations.
 3日後の新年からは、日韓がともに前を向いて歩む50年の始まりとしたい。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-30 11:33 | 英字新聞

高浜原発 再稼働に反対する

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 27
EDITORIAL: Approval to restart Takahama reactors based on unmet conditions, weak promises
(社説)高浜原発 再稼働に反対する

The Fukui District Court recently nullified its earlier injunction against reactivating the No. 3 and No. 4 reactors of the Takahama nuclear power plant in Fukui Prefecture.
 関西電力高浜原発3、4号機(福井県高浜町)の運転を禁じた福井地裁の仮処分決定が取り消された。

Kansai Electric Power Co., operator of the nuclear plant in the town of Takahama, is expected to restart one of the two reactors as early as late January.
関電は来月下旬にも再稼働に踏み切る見込みだ。

But the procedure for obtaining the approval of the hosting government of Fukui Prefecture, which was completed immediately before the court decision, was laden with problems. We oppose moves to press ahead with the planned restarts under the current circumstances.
 だが、司法判断の直前に完了した地元・福井県の同意手続きには問題が多い。このまま再稼働へ進むことには反対だ。

Fifteen nuclear reactors are concentrated in Fukui Prefecture, including some for which decisions have been made for decommissioning.
 福井県には廃炉が決まったものも含めて15基の原子炉が集中する。

Fukui Governor Issei Nishikawa set five conditions for his approval, calling on the central government and Kansai Electric to clearly pinpoint their responsibilities.
西川一誠知事は同意にあたって五つの条件を掲げ、国と関電に責任の明確化を迫った。

Public opinion has consistently been cautious about restarting nuclear reactors following the 2011 disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant. Nishikawa called strongly on the central government to “promote public understanding,” and he obtained Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s assurances that he will ensure that meetings with residents will be held across Japan for that purpose.
 福島第一原発事故後、原発再稼働に世論は一貫して慎重だ。西川氏は「国民理解の促進」を国に強く求め、安倍首相から「全国各地で説明会を開く」との言質をとった。

The governor called on Kansai Electric to precisely explain when it plans to build an interim storage facility outside Fukui Prefecture for spent nuclear fuel. The utility said in November that it will locate the site for the facility around 2020 and have it operational around 2030.
 関電には使用済み核燃料の中間貯蔵施設を県外につくる時期の明示を求めた。関電は11月、「20年ごろに場所を決め、30年ごろに操業する」と表明した。

Nishikawa said he believes that all his conditions have been met. But the substantiality of those commitments remains questionable.
 西川氏は、条件がすべて満たされたとの認識を示した。だがこれらの約束がどれほど内実を伴っているかは疑問だ。

Kansai Electric has said it hopes to install an interim storage facility somewhere in the Kansai region, and it has long been canvassing local governments for their understanding. But resistance to hosting such a facility remains strong, and the building site is not likely to be selected any time soon. There is no denying suspicions that the plan could end up as an empty promise.
 関電は以前から「中間貯蔵施設は関西に設置したい」と自治体への説明を続けてきた。しかし反発は強く、めどは立たない。結局は「空手形」ではないか、との疑いが否めない。

Questions also remain on the extent to which Nishikawa has fulfilled his own responsibilities.
 一方、西川氏はどこまで自身の責任を果たしたか。

He has never had the prefectural government organize meetings with local residents, saying it is up to the central government and the plant operators to explain the safety and necessity of nuclear plants.
 「原発の安全性や必要性は国や事業者に説明責任がある」とし、県主催の住民説明会は開かなかった。

An emergency evacuation plan for areas within a 30-kilometer radius of the Takahama nuclear plant was only worked out earlier this month. That zone contains parts of Kyoto and Shiga prefectures and has a total population of about 180,000.
30キロ圏に京都、滋賀両府県を含み、計約18万人が暮らす高浜原発周辺の避難計画は今月まとまったばかり。

But Nishikawa approved the planned restarts without waiting for a drill held across prefectural borders, arguing that working out an emergency evacuation plan is not a legal requisite for restarting a nuclear reactor.
だが西川氏は「法律上、避難計画は再稼働の条件ではない」と述べ、府県境をまたぐ訓練も待たずに同意に踏み切った。

Obtaining the host communities’ approval for a reactor restart should primarily be a process to enhance the safety and peace of mind of local residents.
 地元同意は本来、住民の安全と安心を高めるプロセスのはずだ。

It is all too regretful that another undesirable example has been set, following the earlier approvals to restart the Sendai nuclear power plant in Kagoshima Prefecture and the Ikata nuclear power plant in Ehime Prefecture.
だが、九州電力川内原発(鹿児島県)、四国電力伊方原発(愛媛県)に続き、望ましくない「ひな型」がまた一つ増えたのは残念というしかない。

The central government was also quite candid in postulating that restarting nuclear reactors is a foregone conclusion. Industry minister Motoo Hayashi visited Fukui, the capital of Fukui Prefecture, four days before the court decision to ask Nishikawa for his approval.
 国の再稼働ありきの姿勢もより露骨だった。林幹雄経済産業相は司法判断の4日前に福井を訪れ西川氏に同意を要請した。

The local governments and residents of communities adjacent to nuclear plants are strongly dissatisfied that they have no say in decisions on reactor restarts. Kansai Electric has rejected the demands of the Kyoto and Shiga prefectural governments for inclusion on the list of “hosting communities,” whose approvals are required for restarting reactors of the Takahama nuclear plant. The central government has only been looking on, arguing that approvals of the hosting communities are not a legal requirement.
 原発周辺の自治体や住民には、再稼働の判断に関与できないことへの不満が強い。高浜でも京都、滋賀両府県が立地自治体並みの「同意権」を求めたが、関電は応じていない。国も「地元同意は法令上の要件ではない」と静観するばかりだ。

Abe has said he will provide explanations to gain the public’s understanding of the importance of nuclear power generation. That leads us to believe that he should also be presenting guidelines on the extent and coverage of the “hosting communities,” whose approvals are necessary for nuclear restarts.
 安倍首相は「原発の重要性に国民理解が得られるよう説明していく」と述べた。それならば「地元」の範囲についても方向性を示すべきではないか。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-29 12:22 | 英字新聞

香山リカのココロの万華鏡: 女性、結婚 姓で考える /東京

December 27, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Considering women and marriage through the lens of the surname
香山リカのココロの万華鏡: 女性、結婚 姓で考える /東京

I increasingly use email during the course of my work, and I sometimes inadvertently type in the wrong name. For example I might accidentally call someone whose last name is Fujimoto as Fujiki -- which contains an extremely similar second kanji character -- or use the wrong first character for the surname Mifune.
 仕事のやり取りでメールを使うことが多くなったが、つい相手の名前を間違ったりしてしまうことがある。たとえば、藤本さんを「藤木さん」、三船さんを「美船さん」という具合にだ。

Sometimes, I realize my mistake after I have sent the message, but there have likely been other times that I remained unaware of the error.
後から気づいて「しまった」と思うこともあるが、こちらが気づかないこともあるだろう。

Occasionally, I will get a return message saying something like, "My last name is Fujimoto, not Fujiki." And while it is obviously impossible to read someone's feelings through email, there are times when the tone of such a message suggests the person has been somewhat offended.
 しかしときどき、「私の名前は藤本ではなく藤木です」などと伝えてくれる人もいる。メールだからその心情まではわからないが、文面からするとちょっと機嫌をそこねているのかな、と思うこともある。

Because mistaking someone's name is clearly impolite, I respond by apologizing and saying something like, "Please forgive me. I have been experiencing the onset of farsightedness due to age, and I made a mistake reading your name on your business card."
もちろん、名前を間違えるなどというのは失礼なことだから、こちらも「たいへん申し訳ありません。老眼が進んでおりまして、名刺のお名前を読み間違えてしまいました」などと言い訳しながら、謝ることになる。

In every instance where I have received such a message, it has been from a man. Most likely, their surnames are something very important for them. In that case, then, I think that they should be able to imagine to at least some extent the feelings experienced by women who must change their surname following marriage.
 そういうメールをくれるのは決まって男性だ。きっと自分の名前をとても大切にしているのだ。だとしたら、結婚して姓をまるごと変えなければならない女性の気持ちも、少しは想像できるのではないだろうか。

Presently in Japan, 96 percent of marrying couples end up using the husband's surname.
 いまの日本では、結婚する男女はだいたい96%が男性側、つまり夫の姓を名乗ることになる。

The assertion that a man and woman who are marrying may choose whose last name to adopt is a mere formality, since women don't really have a choice.
「結婚する男女で姓を選べる」というのは建前で、実際には女性には選択肢などないのだ。

A friend of mine once said to me, "My family believes very strongly in the divination associated with the number of strokes used in the kanji of one's name, and my first name was chosen after careful consideration of the total number of strokes in combination with my last name. But changing your last name following marriage changes the entire number of strokes -- and a fortune-teller told me after calculating the number of strokes in my new name that it was the least auspicious figure possible."
かつて友人がこんなことを言っていた。「私の親族は字画占いにこだわりが強くて、私の名前も姓名全体の画数を考え抜いてつけられたものなんだよね。でも結婚して名字が変わることになったら、画数も変わっちゃうでしょう。それでもう一度占ったら最悪の運勢なんだって」。

At the urging of her relatives, my friend ended up using different characters for her first name. She once smiled wryly and said to me, "Both my first and last names ended up changing."
結局、彼女は親族のすすめで名前も漢字を変え、「姓も名も変わっちゃったよ」と苦笑していた。

Many people advocate for men and women being able to choose separate surnames following marriage, as working women find it professionally inconvenient to change their names. However, I assume that there are also numerous women without jobs who have no desire to change the family names that they have become familiar with, and/or who are fond of the combination of their first and last names.
 選択的男女別姓を主張している人の多くは「仕事をする上で女性が姓を変えるのは不便だから」と言っているが、仕事をしていない女性の中にも、ずっとなじんできた姓を変えたくない、自分の姓と名前の組み合わせが好き、という人はたくさんいるのではないだろうか。

For this reason, I find it odd to assume that it is unproblematic for non-working women to change their surnames after marriage.
「仕事をしていない女性なら姓を変えても問題ないでしょう」という考えはおかしいと思う。

Sometimes, women at my clinic say to me with a smile, "My last name has changed." In such cases, however, I assume that it is the marriage itself that they are happy about -- not their new family name.
 診察室でも「今度、名前が変わったんです」と笑顔で報告する女性もいるが、彼女は結婚がうれしいのであって、改姓そのものがうれしいわけではないだろう。

I once saw a man say with a straight face, "Every woman is happy about changing her surname to that of her husband." This statement caused me to reconsider the following questions: What does it mean to be a woman? And what does it mean to get married?
メディアで「女性であれば誰でも夫の名字になるのは喜び」と真顔で言う男性もいて、「女性って何だろう。結婚って何だろう」と改めて考えさせられた。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-28 07:54 | 英字新聞

慰安婦問題 日韓で歴史的な合意を

--The Asahi Shimbun, Dec. 26
EDITORIAL: Let 2015 be the year 'comfort women' issue is resolved
(社説)慰安婦問題 日韓で歴史的な合意を

Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida will visit South Korea on Dec. 28 to hold talks with his South Korean counterpart, Yun Byung-se, in a diplomatic effort to reach an agreement on the wartime “comfort women” issue that has been a festering sore in relations between Japan and its neighbor.
 慰安婦問題の合意をめざし、岸田外相があさって韓国を訪れ、尹炳世(ユンビョンセ)外相と会談する。

How to provide relief to women who were forced to provide sex to wartime Japanese soldiers is a human rights issue the governments of both countries need to tackle together, regardless of differences in their political positions on this sticky issue.
 戦時中、日本軍の将兵たちの性の相手を強いられた女性たちをいかに救済するか。政治的な立場を超えて、両政府がともに対処すべき人権問題である。

Twenty-four years have passed since a former comfort woman in South Korea came forward to talk about her experience for the first time.
 元慰安婦の1人が初めて韓国で名乗り出て、24年の歳月が流れた。

This year alone, many former comfort women died with bitter resentment in their hearts. The number of former comfort women recognized by the South Korean government who are still alive is now less than 50, and their average age is nearly 90.
今年だけでも多くの元慰安婦が遺恨を胸に抱いたまま、亡くなった。韓国政府が把握する存命中の元慰安婦は50人を切り、平均年齢は90歳近い。

Time is growing short for both governments to resolve this long-running issue. This is clearly the time for Tokyo and Seoul to take action to remove this painful thorn in their relationship.
 両政府に残された時間はわずかしかない。両国関係にとっても長く刺さってきたトゲを自らの手で抜くべき時だ。

Any agreement on the issue reached between the two governments will stir up discontent and anger among people in both countries. There are narrow-minded opinions on both sides that use this issue to stir nationalistic impulses.
 政府間で合意がなされても、日韓とも国内から不満や反発は出るだろう。一部には、この問題をナショナリズムに絡めて論じる狭量な声もある。

The political leaders of Japan and South Korea have a duty to overcome such friction and speak about the importance of building healthy relations between their countries through efforts based on a broad, long-term perspective. They must not let this crucial opportunity slip through their fingers.
 しかし、そうした摩擦を乗り越え、大局的な見地から、健全な隣国関係を築く重みを説くことが政治の責務であろう。この機を逃してはならない。

Japan and South Korea established a formal diplomatic relationship in 1965, and this year marks the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the normal ties between the two nations.
 日韓は1965年に国交正常化し、ことしで50年を迎えた。

Half a century ago, the number of Japanese and South Koreans who visited the other country was about 10,000 annually. The figure has since grown to more than 5 million due to steady expansion of exchanges between the two nations.
 半世紀前、両国を往来する人は1万人にすぎなかったが、最近では500万人を超えるなど交流は活発化している。

Nowadays, Japan and South Korea are bound together by inseparable and cooperative economic and cultural ties.
いまや経済や文化の協力関係は切っても切れない間柄である。

However, the comfort women issue has been a major obstacle to further development of the bilateral relations.
 その一方で、慰安婦問題は、関係の深化を阻む壁となってきた。

Tokyo and Seoul have been at odds over the question of whether a 1965 bilateral agreement on war reparations and economic cooperation legally solved the comfort women issue, as it did on issues concerning Japanese compensation for its colonial rule of the Korean Peninsula between 1910 and 1945. Bilateral talks over this question have gone nowhere.
両政府は、50年前に交わした請求権・経済協力協定で、慰安婦問題も法的に解決したかどうかの見解で対立し、話し合いは平行線をたどってきた。

If an agreement is to be reached in the meeting between the foreign ministers, it would be a product of major mutual, not unilateral, concessions.
 今回の会談で合意ができれば、それはどちらか一方ではなく、双方が大きく歩み寄った中身になるはずだ。

Such a deal would be an important symbol of the two governments’ commitment to overcome the legacies of the unfortunate past of the two countries and start building a new future for bilateral ties.
不幸な過去の歴史から未来に向けて歩を進めようとする両政府の意思を確認する一里塚となろう。

The real negotiations over the comfort women issue have been taking place behind the scenes through an unofficial diplomatic channel, rather than official director-general level talks.
 慰安婦問題をめぐる交渉は、表向きの外交当局の局長級協議ではなく、水面下での非公式接触で進められてきた。

The negotiations have made significant headway since the first one-on-one summit between Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and South Korean President Park Geun-hye on Nov. 2.
それがここで急加速したのは、先月の初の日韓首脳会談が実現した直後からだ。

The Abe and Park administrations have been under strong diplomatic pressure from the United States, the principal ally for both countries, to take steps toward settling the issue.
 日韓双方の政権とも、最大の同盟国である米国から、和解へ向けて強く背中を押されてきた事情がある。

In addition, the scheduled general election in South Korea next spring has provided a strong political incentive for both governments to push the negotiations forward quickly.
それに加え、来春にある韓国の総選挙を意識して交渉を急いだ面もある。

The Japanese and South Korean governments share the need to manage their diplomatic agendas while feeling the pulse of the public.
 国内世論を探りつつ、外交のかじ取りをせねばならない事情は日韓とも同じだ。

This is a situation that will test the political leadership of both administrations.
ここは両政権の指導力の真価が問われる局面である。

We strongly hope that the political leaders of the two countries will work out a historic agreement on the issue suitable for this milestone year by duly fulfilling their responsibility.
 国交50年の節目の年にふさわしい歴史的な合意を政治の責任でまとめてほしい。
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-27 10:23 | 英字新聞

韓国憲法裁判決 却下で「反日」火種は回避した

The Yomiuri Shimbun
ROK’s court decision in constitutional suit avoids new friction with Japan
韓国憲法裁判決 却下で「反日」火種は回避した

South Korea’s Constitutional Court on Wednesday dismissed a lawsuit claiming that the bilateral agreement with Japan that settled claims for wartime compensation was unconstitutional.
 韓国の憲法裁判所が、日韓請求権協定の違憲性の確認を求めた訴えを却下した。

The court did not render a judgment on whether the agreement was unconstitutional, so a situation in which the court’s decision would create a new source of friction between the two countries may have been avoided.
 憲法判断に踏み込まなかったことで、日韓関係の新たな火種になる事態は避けられたと言えよう。

The lawsuit was filed by the bereaved family of a South Korean man mobilized by the Japanese government as a civilian employee of the military during the war. His family asserted that a provision in the agreement stipulating that South Korea waives the rights to claim compensation from the Japanese government violates property rights guaranteed under South Korea’s Constitution, and is thus unconstitutional.
 訴えを起こしたのは、戦時中、日本政府に動員された軍属の男性の遺族だ。韓国側の請求権放棄を定めた協定の条項について、「憲法が保障する財産権を侵害し、違憲だ」と主張していた。

The bereaved family had originally filed a lawsuit over the money provided by the South Korean government to victims of those who were “forcibly mobilized.” It was in the course of that litigation that the family made its appeal over the agreement to the Constitutional Court.
 遺族は元々、「強制動員」被害者への韓国政府による支援金支給を巡って訴訟を起こし、その過程で憲法裁に訴えた。

As its reason for dismissing the case, the court said its judgment on whether the agreement was unconstitutional would not affect the ruling on the lawsuit (filed by the family regarding the South Korean government’s provision of money).
 憲法裁は「協定が違憲か否かは、(遺族の)訴訟の判決に影響を与えない」と却下理由を示した。

It also said the family’s claim does not meet the requirements for the case to be examined at the Constitutional Court.
訴えが憲法裁で審理する要件を満たさないとも指摘した。

Considering the content of the lawsuit, in which the family calls for an increase in the money provided by the South Korean government, we consider the court’s latest conclusion to be appropriate.
支援金の増額を求めている訴訟の内容を考えれば、穏当な判断だろう。

Since the left-leaning government under then South Korean President Roh Moo Hyun said in 2005 that the issue of so-called comfort women had not been settled, the country’s judiciary has apparently tended to interpret the bilateral agreement one-sidedly to favor South Korea.
 左派の盧武鉉政権が2005年、慰安婦問題は「未解決」だと表明して以降、韓国司法は請求権協定を自国に都合の良いよう、一方的に解釈する傾向が目立つ。

Room for solution

Had the Constitutional Court ruled that the agreement was unconstitutional, it would have caused serious diplomatic friction, undermining the foundation of the bilateral relationship between Japan and South Korea.
 今回も、憲法裁が違憲判決を出せば、重大な外交問題に発展し、日韓関係の基盤が損なわれる恐れがあった。

As the court turned away the claim, it effectively left room for the two countries to strike a deal on the issue of so-called comfort women.
訴えを門前払いしたことで、慰安婦問題の妥結などに余地が残った形だ。

Following the court’s ruling, the Foreign Ministry of Japan issued a comment that both countries need to make efforts for the advancement of the bilateral relationship.
 判決を受け、日本の外務省は、「日韓関係前進のために双方が努力する必要がある」とのコメントを発表した。

The Agreement on the Settlement of Problems Concerning Property and Claims and on Economic Cooperation Between Japan and the Republic of Korea was concluded in 1965, concurrently with the signing of the Treaty of Basic Relations, which established diplomatic relations between Japan and South Korea.
 請求権協定は1965年、両国が国交を樹立する「基本条約」と同時に締結された。

The agreement stipulated that Japan would provide South Korea with a total of $500 million in economic cooperation in the form of grants and loans, and said the problems concerning property and claims between the two countries as well as their people had been settled completely and finally.
日本が無償・有償で計5億ドルの経済協力を約束し、「両国および国民間の請求権に関する問題が完全かつ最終的に解決された」と明記している。

South Korea later utilized the cooperation money from Japan to build infrastructure, leading to the country’s economic development. The fact that the bilateral agreement has proved beneficial for both countries deserves praise.
 韓国は協力資金をインフラ建設などに活用し、経済発展につなげた。協定が両国のプラスとなったことは、評価されるべきだ。

It is hard to understand the very fact that a lawsuit of this kind was filed with the Constitutional Court.
今回のような訴えが憲法裁に提起されること自体、理解し難い。

South Korean courts are examining other lawsuits whose outcomes also could affect the bilateral relationship. Particularly worrisome is litigation over former requisitioned workers who were mobilized during the war.
 今回の事案以外にも、韓国の裁判所は、日韓関係に影響を及ぼしかねない訴訟を審理している。特に懸念されるのは、戦時中に動員された元徴用工の裁判である。

In 2012, the South Korea’s Supreme Court ruled that illegal actions directly linked to the colonial rule were difficult to recognize as subject to the bilateral agreement on property and claims.
 韓国最高裁は12年、「植民地支配と直結した不法行為」などについては、協定の対象と認め難いという判断を示した。

High courts that had their rulings remanded by the top court handed down numerous decisions ordering Japanese companies, the former employers of the requisitioned workers, to compensate them. These cases are now being heard again at the top court in South Korea.
 審理を差し戻された高裁で、日本企業に賠償を命じる判決が相次ぎ、再び最高裁で審理中だ。

The South Korean government earlier took the position that issues related to the former requisitioned workers were also not subject to the bilateral agreement. We hope the top court in Seoul will make level-headed judgments.
 韓国政府は従来、元徴用工も協定の対象という立場だった。最高裁には冷静な判断を求めたい。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 24, 2015)Speech
[PR]

by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-26 09:32 | 英字新聞

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by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-25 11:48 | アドセンス

米の武器台湾へ 地域の安定へ関与が不可欠だ

The Yomiuri Shimbun
U.S. weapons sale to Taiwan crucial contribution to regional security
米の武器台湾へ 地域の安定へ関与が不可欠だ

Active U.S. engagement is essential for preserving peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, and by extension the whole of East Asia.
 台湾海峡、ひいては東アジアの平和と安定の維持には、米国の積極的な関与が欠かせない。

The administration of U.S. President Barack Obama has decided to sell weapons worth $1.83 billion (about ¥220 billion) to Taiwan. Two decommissioned frigates, amphibious assault vehicles and small surface-to-air missiles are among the weapons the United States will provide to Taiwan.
 オバマ政権が台湾に対し、総額18億3000万ドル(約2200億円)の武器売却を決めた。退役フリゲート艦2隻や水陸両用車、小型の地対空ミサイルなどを供与する。

A domestic U.S. law stipulates that the United States can provide weapons intended to enable Taiwan to maintain sufficient self-defense capabilities. This stipulation was made with China in mind.
 米国は国内法で、中国を念頭に、台湾の自衛力維持を目的とする武器の提供を定めている。

This latest arms sale is not only a political message in defense of Taiwan. It also appears aimed at keeping Beijing in check as it pushes ahead with the creation of artificial islands in the South China Sea and the establishment of military strongholds on those islands.
 今回の売却決定には、「台湾防衛」の政治的メッセージだけでなく、南シナ海で人工島を造成し、軍事拠点化を進める中国をけん制する狙いもあるのだろう。

A candidate of Taiwan’s largest opposition party, which strongly favors Taiwan independence, will likely win January’s presidential election and usher in a new administration. This may lead to deterioration in the ties between Beijing and Taipei. It seems the United States announced the weapons sale this month due to concern that doing so after the election could cause regional tensions to soar.
 来年1月の台湾総統選では、「台湾独立」志向の強い最大野党の候補が勝利し、政権交代する可能性が大きい。中台関係の悪化も予想される。その局面で決定すれば、地域の緊張が高まると懸念し、今回、決めたのではないか。

The United States and China earlier this month confirmed they would cooperate with regard to the Paris agreement, a framework that spells out steps to counter global warming from 2020. Both sides also want to avoid any decisive confrontations.
 米中両国は、2020年以降の地球温暖化対策の枠組み「パリ協定」合意を巡って協調を確認したばかりだ。双方とも決定的な対立は避けたい思惑で一致する。

When the U.S. government announced weapons sales worth about $12 billion in total to Taiwan in 2010 and 2011, China responded angrily and temporarily suspended military exchanges with the United States. Compared with such instances, the latest sale does not include any cutting-edge weapons and could be described as “restrained.”
 米国が10年と11年に計約120億ドルの武器売却を決めた際には、中国がいずれも猛反発し、米中軍事交流を一時停止した。それに比べると、今回の売却には最新兵器も含まれず、抑制的と言える。

China has upper hand

China has deployed a huge number of missiles along its coast facing the Taiwan Strait, and is mass-producing sophisticated fighter aircraft and frigates. The military balance is overwhelmingly tilted in China’s favor.
 中国は台湾海峡を挟んだ沿岸部に大量のミサイルを配備し、新型戦闘機とフリゲート艦などを量産している。軍事バランスは圧倒的に中国優位に傾いている。

Strengthening Taiwan’s air defense readiness and its ability to repel a landing force will be essential to the island’s defense. Taiwan had urged the United States to provide new-model fighter jets and submarines, as well as Aegis-equipped destroyers, but this did not eventuate. The Obama administration apparently did not authorize the sale of such weapons because they were deemed not to be necessary.
 台湾防衛には、防空態勢や上陸阻止能力の強化が不可欠だが、台湾の求める新型戦闘機や潜水艦、イージス駆逐艦の売却は実現しなかった。オバマ政権は「必要ない」として認めなかったという。

China’s Foreign Ministry has demanded that the United States scrap the weapons deal, and announced sanctions would be imposed on U.S. companies involved in the arms sale. However, Beijing did not go as far as halting military exchanges or taking other steps, so this protest was at a lower level than in previous cases. It appears China has judged that this arms package will not be a substantial threat to its security.
 中国外務省は米国に武器売却の撤回を求め、売却に関与する米企業に制裁を科すと表明した。軍事交流停止などには踏み込まず、控えめの抗議だ。実質的に、中国の脅威になる売却ではないと判断しているのだろう。

The administration of Chinese President Xi Jinping is mistaken if it thinks it can continue military exchanges with the United States and avoid a cooling of bilateral relations even without halting its self-righteous maritime advances.
 習近平政権が、独善的な海洋進出をやめなくても、米国との軍事交流を継続し、関係冷却化を回避できると計算しているのなら、筋違いである。

It is also important that Washington continues its strategy of sending U.S. military vessels through waters within 12 nautical miles of the artificial islands China has built in the South China Sea. Such an operation was conducted in late October, and we think the United States needs to stick to its plan to conduct these patrols about twice every three months.
 米国が、南シナ海の人工島の12カイリ内に米艦艇を航行させる作戦を継続することも重要だ。10月下旬に実施したが、3か月に2回程度の頻度で巡視を行う方針を維持する必要がある。

The United States must continue to take concrete steps to urge China to exercise self-control and show that it will not tolerate Beijing’s provocations.
 挑発を容認していると受け取られないよう、具体的な行動で自制を促し続けねばならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Dec. 24, 2015)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-25 11:20 | 英字新聞

香山リカのココロの万華鏡: Xマスは「あなたの日」 /東京

December 20, 2015 (Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Christmas is the season for everyone to feel their worth
香山リカのココロの万華鏡: Xマスは「あなたの日」 /東京

It's almost Christmas -- a fact that is greeted by most visitors to my office not with joyful anticipation, but rather as a reminder of how lonely they feel. Many of my patients tell me with dark expressions on their faces, "When the streets are bustling and lively, it just makes me feel all the more miserable."
 クリスマスが近づいてきた。診察室では「楽しみです」と言う人より「孤独だと思い知らされる」「街がにぎやかだとよけいに自分がみじめ」と顔を暗くする人のほうが多い。

While I was wondering what I could say to these people, I received a handmade pamphlet from a minister by the name of Yoshikazu Okado, who has been turning out the publication for many years.
 どんな言葉をかけてあげればよいのか、と思っているところに、大門義和氏という牧師から小冊子が送られてきた。大門牧師が手づくりで長年、発行しているものだ。

"Christmas is a declaration that all people are important," he writes in the introduction.
 冒頭に「すべての人が貴い人であるとの宣言がクリスマス」という言葉が記されていた。

As I read this I thought, "Isn't Christmas for Jesus Christ, and romantic partners and families?" Further along, however, came a passage about how the Bible says that the light of Jesus shines on everyone without exception or discrimination.
「クリスマスはイエス・キリストと、あとはハッピーな恋人や家族のものじゃないの?」と思いながら読むと、こんなことが書かれていた。聖書にはイエスは「例外なくすべての人を照らす光」とあり、その光は人を区別したり分類したりはしない。

In other words, Christmas -- the day Jesus was born -- is a joyous moment about happiness for all. It is a holiday in which each person is celebrated.
だから、イエスが生まれたクリスマスは、分け隔てなくすべての人にとっての喜びであり、どんな人をも尊び祝う日なのだ……。

When a person arrives in our offices, doctors like me apply the science of psychiatry to determine what illness they may have, and how severe it may be.
 私のような医者は、診察室に来た人の問診をして「何の病気か」「重症度はどれくらいか」とその人を精神医学の体系にあてはめていく。

People leave the office having been treated entirely as "patients," and I send them off with the words, "Don't push yourself too hard, and I'll see you next week."
そして、診察室を出る頃にはその人をすっかり「患者さん」として扱い、「無理しないでくださいね。ではまた来週」と送り出す。

You could say that classifying people is my job.
そうやって区別、分類するのが私の仕事と言ってもよい。

Within that context, I eventually start to wonder about which more personalized categories patients may fall into. Are they happy, or lonely, or feeling pitiable?
 しかし、その医者としての「区別や分類」は、いつの間にか、その人が幸福なのか、孤独なのか、かわいそうなのか、といった人間的な部分にまで及んでいたかもしれない。

And I don't think it's just me.
そして私だけではなくて、

The patient, too, may begin to classify themselves with labels like "worthless," or "loser."
患者さん側も、自分で自分を「私には価値がない」「負け組です」などと分類しているのではないか。

Okado's little pamphlet points out that in Christianity, Christmas is not a holiday to make lonely people feel even more so.
 先の小冊子で私は、キリスト教では、クリスマスは孤独な人がより孤独を感じる行事ではなく、

Rather, it is a day for everyone -- even those feeling lonely -- to have someone tell them, "It's wonderful that you're alive."
孤独だと思っている人も「あなたが生きているのはすばらしいことです」とたたえられるための日なのだ、と知った。

This was something of an epiphany for me.
なるほど、と私は膝を打った。

For the rest of December, I will tell my patients, "I've heard that Christmas is a day when no-one is singled out or discriminated against."
これから12月の診察室では、「クリスマスは誰も区別されない日なんですって」と話すことにしよう。

Actually, I don't think I'll limit this to just the Christmas season.
 いや、クリスマスだけではない。

I'll do the same for New Year's, for all of the various winter festivals around the country, and for all kinds of holidays throughout the year.
お正月、各地で行われる冬のイベント、いろいろな祝日。

If someone says to me with a sad expression on their face, "When everyone around me looks like they're having fun, it just makes me feel all the more miserable," I want to tell them, "This day is for you."
「まわりが楽しそうだとよけいにみじめになる」と暗い顔をする人には、そのたびに「これはあなたのための日ですよ」と声をかけてみることにしたい。

This Christmas season, why don't you try telling yourself, "I'm a precious person, too"?
まずはこのクリスマスシーズンをひとりですごしている人も、「私も貴い人間なんだよね」と笑顔になってみてはどうだろう。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
(精神科医)
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by kiyoshimat | 2015-12-24 12:00 | 英字新聞

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