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by kiyoshimat | 2012-11-16 11:53 | アドセンス

GDPマイナス 景気の失速回避に全力あげよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 15, 2012)
All-out efforts needed to reverse business slowdown
GDPマイナス 景気の失速回避に全力あげよ(11月14日付・読売社説)

The fall in the nation's gross domestic product for the July-September quarter should be considered a sign of business slowdown. The nation faces a crucial moment of determining whether the economy will be able to avoid weakening even further.
 景気後退のサインとみるべきだ。日本経済の失速を回避できるかどうかの正念場である。

The real-term GDP for the July-September period dropped 0.9 percent from the previous quarter, marking the first negative growth in three quarters. The slide translated into an annualized 3.5 percent decline. Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda expressed a sense of crisis, saying, "It's a dismal figure."
 今年7~9月期の実質国内総生産(GDP)は前期比0・9%減と、3四半期ぶりのマイナス成長となった。年率に換算すると3・5%減で、野田首相は「厳しい数字だ」と危機感を示した。

This contraction is attributable to two chief factors: the drop in foreign demand caused by the slowdown of foreign economies; and a fall in personal consumption and investment in plants and equipment that together account for core domestic demand. A boost in public investment for rebuilding from last year's earthquake and tsunami disaster stopped short of making up for the overall decline.
 海外経済の減速に伴う外需の落ち込みに加え、個人消費と設備投資という内需の二本柱がそろって減少したことが主因だ。復興需要による公共投資の増加では、マイナスを補いきれなかった。

Domestic automobile sales have slackened due to the end of government subsidies for eco-friendly car purchases, and sales of household electrical appliances such as flat-screen TVs have remained sluggish. Increased uncertainty over corporate performance also has restrained corporate investment in plants and equipment.
 消費は、エコカー補助金の終了で自動車販売が苦戦し、薄型テレビなど家電の不振も続いている。企業業績の不透明感が強まり、設備投資が控えられた。

===

Inaccurate recovery scenario

The government and the Bank of Japan sketched out a scenario in which they would wait for foreign economies to recover while sustaining demand at home through reconstruction projects in the hope that this would eventually lead to full-scale growth.
 政府・日銀は、復興需要で内需を支えながら海外経済の回復を待ち、本格的な成長につなげるシナリオを描いていたが、

However, as the slowdown in domestic demand has come earlier than they expected, their scenario is not playing out as they imagined. They must increase their vigilance and make all-out efforts to sustain the economy.
早すぎた内需減速で目算は外れつつある。警戒を強め、景気の下支えに万全を期さねばならない。

Of major concern is that there seems to be slim hope of an early recovery in foreign economies.
 懸念されるのは、海外経済の早期回復が望み薄なことだ。

Europe has fallen into a negative growth phase. The United States, meanwhile, is heading for a "fiscal cliff" from year-end to early next year that involves an end to various tax breaks including last year's temporary payroll tax cuts, thereby threatening to deal another blow to the global economy.
 欧州はマイナス成長に陥っている。米国も年末から来年にかけて減税打ち切りなど「財政の崖」が控えており、世界経済に打撃を与える恐れがある。

Also of major concern is a sharp drop in Japan's exports to China due to a slowdown in the Chinese economy and strained bilateral relations over the Senkaku Islands.
 中国経済の減速と尖閣諸島問題を巡る日中関係の悪化を受け、中国向け輸出が急減していることも大きな不安材料といえよう。

A government-planned small-scale emergency economic package using reserve funds is not strong enough to cope with such adverse conditions. The government must compile a supplementary budget as soon as possible and put together a full-fledged stimulus package.
 こうした逆風に対して、予備費を使った小粒の緊急経済対策では力不足が否めない。政府は補正予算を早期に編成し、本格的な景気対策を打ち出すべきだ。

However, as fiscal conditions remain strict, it is necessary to allocate budgets on a priority basis to public works projects that will have the greatest economic impact.
 ただし財政事情は厳しい。効果の高い公共事業などに、予算を重点配分する必要がある。

===

Use private sector as spur

The development and successful commercialization of private-sector innovation is the biggest driving force for economic growth. Future business opportunities can be expected in such growth industries as environment-related businesses and medical services.
 経済成長は、民間の創意で「売れる商品」を開発し、普及させていくことが最大の推進力となる。特に、環境関連や医療などの成長分野は今後、ビジネスチャンスの拡大が期待される。

We hope such moves will receive sufficient support for research and development projects through an investment tax credit and easing regulations that are hampering new business ventures. Adequate measures must be carefully devised after listening to the private sector's needs.
 投資減税による研究開発への支援や、新事業の障害となる規制の緩和などで後押ししたい。民間の要望に耳を傾け、的確な施策を厳選することが重要となる。

To make the most of the private sector's vigor, the domestic business environment must be improved first and foremost.
 民間活力を最大限に引き出すためには、国内の事業環境を改善させることも急務だろう。

Concrete measures to achieve this include correcting the strength of the record-high yen; lowering the corporate tax rate, which is high compared to international standards; and restarting idled nuclear reactors to avert a possible power shortage.
 具体的には、歴史的な超円高の是正や国際的に高い法人税率の引き下げ、原子力発電所の再稼働による電力不足の解消などだ。

Not least of all, the political situation must be stabilized to help shore up economic growth.
政治の安定を図り、日本の成長をテコ入れしなければならない。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 14, 2012)
(2012年11月14日01時20分 読売新聞)
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by kiyoshimat | 2012-11-16 05:01 | 英字新聞

「TPP解散」 首相は交渉参加の旗を掲げよ

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 14, 2012)
Noda should hoist flag of TPP participation
「TPP解散」 首相は交渉参加の旗を掲げよ(11月13日付・読売社説)

It is vital that Japan promote free trade and boost its economic growth. Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda should decide that the nation will join negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership multilateral trade framework.
 自由貿易を推進し、日本の成長に弾みをつけることが重要だ。野田首相は環太平洋経済連携協定(TPP)への交渉参加を決断すべきである。

At the House of Representatives Budget Committee, the prime minister again indicated that joining talks on the U.S.-led TPP would be among the Democratic Party of Japan's policy pledges for the next lower house election. He said discussions on the matter would be held within the party.
 首相が衆院予算委員会で、米国が主導しているTPPについて、民主党の次期衆院選政権公約(マニフェスト)に盛り込む考えを改めて示し、「党内で議論を進めていく」と述べた。

A year has passed since Noda announced Japan would enter talks with nations concerned with an eye to eventually taking a seat at TPP negotiations. It is problematic that he has kept delaying a decision on TPP participation and failed to take necessary steps for joining the trade pact, such as strengthening the international competitiveness of the agriculture sector to brace it for further market liberalization.
 首相が「TPP交渉参加に向けて関係国との協議に入る」と表明してから1年が過ぎた。一段の市場開放に備えた農業の国際競争力強化策などの環境整備もしないまま、参加の決断を先送りしてきたのは問題である。

Now, more than ever, it would be significant to clearly show a resolve to accelerate Japan's economic growth by harnessing the dynamism of other parts of Asia through joining the TPP.
 ただ、ここに来て、TPP参加によってアジアの活力を取り込み、日本の成長加速を目指す姿勢を鮮明にする意味は大きい。

===

Key election issue

The TPP issue will be a hot topic in the lower house election likely to take place at the year-end or early next year. Detailed discussions should be held on the issue.
 年末から年始の可能性がある次期衆院選はTPPが争点となろう。活発な論議が求められる。

Some DPJ members remain firmly opposed to signing on to the TPP. Maneuvering to block Noda from dissolving the lower house after making the TPP a key campaign issue has become increasingly active.
 民主党内には依然、反対論が強く、首相の「TPP解散」を阻止する動きも活発化している。

However, nothing will be initiated unless Japan sits at the negotiation table. We hope Noda will not wilt in the face of this opposition and exerts strong leadership.
 だが、まずは交渉のテーブルに着かないと物事は始まらない。首相は腰砕けにならず、指導力を発揮してもらいたい。

The Liberal Democratic Party, on the other hand, maintains a cautious stance. It opposes TPP participation if it is premised on eliminating all tariffs.
 一方、自民党は「関税撤廃を前提としたTPP参加に反対」という慎重な構えを崩していない。

But if the LDP is serious about regaining power, it will need to map out concrete steps regarding how Japan as a trading nation can expand trade and invigorate its economy.
 しかし、自民党が政権奪還を目指すなら、通商国家・日本がいかに貿易を拡大し、経済を活性化させるか、具体的な道筋を示すことが不可欠である。

Some LDP members support TPP participation. The party should hold exhaustive discussions and hammer out a convincing policy course.
 自民党内には、TPP参加への賛成論も少なくない。党内論議を尽くし、説得力のある政策を打ち出さねばならない。

===

A security issue, too

Of concern to us is that Japan could be left completely behind while it dithers over making a decision.
 懸念されるのは、日本が決断をもたついている間に、出遅れが決定的になる事態である。

It already has been decided that Canada and Mexico would join TPP negotiations. As U.S. President Barack Obama, a vocal advocate of the TPP, has recently been reelected, negotiations involving 11 nations will likely accelerate through next year.
 すでにカナダとメキシコの参加が決まり、TPPを推進してきたオバマ米大統領が再選された結果、来年にかけて、11か国の交渉は加速する可能性が大きい。

Under the current circumstances, negotiations could proceed without Japan's participation on issues including the elimination or lowering of tariffs and formulation of trade and investment rules. The fate of Japan's national interests will hinge on whether the nation is engaged in these rule-making processes and can reflect its opinions.
 このままでは関税撤廃・引き下げや貿易・投資ルール作りを巡り、日本抜きで交渉が進みかねない。日本がルール作りなどに関与し、意見を反映できるかどうかで、国益が左右されるだろう。

Participation in the TPP is also important in terms of national security. It will lead to stronger Japan-U.S. relations, and also could help restrain the behavior of China, with which the nation has been at odds over the Senkaku Islands.
 TPP参加は安全保障上も重要だ。日米関係の強化につながり、尖閣諸島を巡って対立する中国への牽制(けんせい)効果も期待できる。

In parallel with the TPP, Japan should strive to seal a free trade agreement with China and South Korea and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership in East Asia, among others. It is time to pursue wise, robust trade strategies.
 TPPとともに、日中韓自由貿易協定(FTA)や東アジア包括的経済連携(RCEP)などにも並行的に取り組み、したたかな戦略を推進する必要がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 13, 2012)
(2012年11月13日01時32分 読売新聞)
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by kiyoshimat | 2012-11-14 13:30 | アドセンス

地方公務員給与 自治体はもっと削減努力を

The Yomiuri Shimbun (Nov. 13, 2012)
Local govts need bigger ax to slash personnel costs
地方公務員給与 自治体はもっと削減努力を(11月11日付・読売社説)

Slashing personnel costs is a crucial task for local governments and from the viewpoint of rebuilding the central government's finances. It is essential that local governments redouble their efforts to cut expenditures.
 地方の人件費圧縮は、国の財政再建にも重要な課題だ。
 自治体の削減努力が求められる。

With preparations for compiling a state budget for fiscal 2013 under way, the Finance Ministry announced provisional calculations regarding salary levels of local government employees.
 2013年度予算の編成に向け、財務省が地方公務員の給与水準に関する試算を発表した。

The Laspeyres index--an indicator that compares local government employees' salaries against a base of 100 for salaries of central government workers--stood at 106.9 for fiscal 2012, marking a reversal for the first time in nine years, according to the estimates.
 国家公務員を100としたときの地方公務員の給与水準を示すラスパイレス指数が、12年度は106・9となり、9年ぶりに国と地方の給与が逆転した。

Salaries in more than 80 percent of about 1,800 local entities across Japan exceeded the pay pocketed by central government employees.
 全国約1800自治体の8割以上が国より高水準だった。

This seems partly due to the fact that the central government decided to cut its employees' salaries for two years from fiscal 2012 to raise funds for budgetary appropriations for reconstruction from the Great East Japan Earthquake.
 東日本大震災の復興予算を捻出するため、国家公務員の給与を12年度から2年間、引き下げた措置が影響しているのだろう。

Salaries of local government employees are stipulated by ordinances, mainly after consultations between municipalities and trade unions of their workers. The central government has no say in pay scale decisions by local governments.
 地方公務員の給与は労組との協議などを経て、自治体が条例で決める。国に決定権はない。

===

Averse to pay cuts

However, local government employees' salaries are paid from local tax grants allocated by the central government, in addition to local tax revenues.
 ただ、その財源となるのは、地方税などに加え、国から配分される地方交付税交付金だ。

These tax grants, which are designed to help local governments make up for budget deficits, have reached more than 17 trillion yen a year. The central government funds these grants by incurring debts. Providing cash for local tax grants has been a major cause of the central government's fiscal crunch, along with fast-ballooning social security costs.
地方の財源不足を補う17兆円超の交付税は国が借金しながら支えており、社会保障費と並んで国家財政を圧迫する要因となっている。

Personnel costs account for about one-fourth of the more than 80 trillion yen in total expenses of local governments throughout Japan. Curtailing employees' salaries is essential for turning around the finances of chronically debt-ridden local governments.
 地方全体の歳出80兆円超のうち給与が4分の1を占める。公務員給与の削減は、借金体質が続く地方財政の改革に不可欠だ。

Kyoto Gov. Keiji Yamada, who chairs the Association of Prefectural Governors, has bristled at the Finance Ministry's suggestion that local government workers' salaries must be cut. He said the central government "should recognize the efforts being made by local governments" to reel in budget deficits.
 財務省の指摘に対し、全国知事会長の山田啓二京都府知事は「地方の努力を評価してもらわないと困る」と反発し、

Internal Affairs and Communications Minister Shinji Tarutoko also joined the chorus of criticism, saying the Finance Ministry was "making figures arbitrarily, apparently with the aim of misleading public opinion. This is extremely inappropriate."
樽床総務相も「勝手に数字を出して世論をミスリードするのは甚だ不適切だ」と不快感を表明している。

The way salaries of local government employees are determined is baffling for several reasons.
 しかし、地方公務員給与の現状をみれば、首をかしげたくなるような面も少なくない。

Salary levels for a local government are decided, in principle, after checking salaries of other local entities and the central government, as well as salary trends in the private sector.
 給与水準は国や他の自治体、民間の動向を踏まえて決定することになっている。

===

Fringe benefits too generous

According to the Finance Ministry, workers at local governments in every prefecture earned larger pay packets than the average monthly pay of private business employees. Local government monthly salaries were more than 100,000 yen higher than company employees' salaries in Aomori, Akita and Ehime prefectures, the ministry noted.
だが、財務省によれば、全都道府県で民間の平均月額給与を上回る。青森、秋田、愛媛3県は10万円以上多い。

Aside from regular administrative positions, local government employees handling cleaning and bus-driving duties are paid 1.5 times the amount their private-sector counterparts receive. The figures are 1.9 times higher for security guards and and 1.8 times for telephone operators.
 一般職以外でも、清掃関係やバス運転手は民間の1・5倍、警備員は1・9倍、電話交換手が1・8倍などと厚遇ぶりが目立つ。

Some local entities pay employees housing allowances--a perk already abolished for central government employees. Others give special allowances to teachers for accompanying school excursions and supervising high school exams.
 国家公務員では廃止された持ち家手当を温存し、修学旅行の引率や高校入試の監督まで特殊勤務手当で支給する自治体もある。

Both the ruling and opposition camps appear reluctant to take up the issue of local government salaries. They seem afraid of antagonizing local entities when a House of Representatives election is likely to be held soon.
 与野党とも衆院選を前に地方の反発を恐れ、地方公務員の給与問題には及び腰となりがちだ。

Community residents and assemblies should press harder for administrative reform of local governments.
 地域の住民や議会が一層の行政改革を迫ることが重要だろう。

When the consumption tax rate is raised to 10 percent from October 2015, revenue from 1.54 percentage points of the five-point hike will go to local governments' coffers, which they can use at their discretion.
 15年10月に消費税率が10%に引き上げられた段階で、増税5%のうち1・54%分は自治体に回り、自主財源となる。

Given this, local governments should remain aware of their responsibility to further cut expenditures to ensure fiscal matters are handled effectively and properly.
地方は一段と歳出削減に取り組み、メリハリのある財政運営を行う責任がある。

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, Nov. 11, 2012)
(2012年11月11日01時19分 読売新聞)
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香山リカのココロの万華鏡:強がりな人ほど心に弱さ /東京

November 11, 2012(Mainichi Japan)
Kaleidoscope of the Heart: Feeling upbeat and one's true character
香山リカのココロの万華鏡:強がりな人ほど心に弱さ /東京

Former Tokyo Gov. Shintaro Ishihara, on his final day at work, was asked by reporters for his feelings. He responded, "I don't have any (sadness), I feel upbeat."
 都知事を辞任した石原慎太郎氏は、最後の登庁の日、報道陣に心境を尋ねられて「(寂しさは)全然ない。心ウキウキ、ワクワクだ」と笑顔で語った。

Hearing this, I was probably not the only one to think, "When was the last time I felt upbeat?" Asking this to a university senior who still hasn't secured a job, they told me, "When I open e-mail it's a notice that I've been turned down and my family gets depressed. Even the soccer team I like isn't doing well. There isn't a single bit of good news."
 この言葉を聞いて「最近、ウキウキ、ワクワクしたのはいつだっけ」とつい考えてしまったのは、私だけではないだろう。いまだに来春の就職先が決まらない大学4年生にきくと、「メールを開けば“残念ですが”という不採用通知だし、家族はうつ病になっちゃうし、好きなサッカーチームまで成績が悪くて、楽しいことなんてひとつもないですよ」とのことだった。

Then, why does Ishihara feel upbeat? There may be a feeling of freedom from dropping the burden of governor, but I don't think that is all. The Japan Restoration Party's leader Toru Hashimoto said at the party's formation, "A big battle is coming," and Ishihara, too, may be feeling excitement about forming his own party and leading it into national politics amidst the current political turmoil.
 では石原氏は、いったいどうして「ウキウキ、ワクワク」しているのだろう。都知事の荷を下ろした解放感もあるかもしれないが、それだけではないはずだ。日本維新の会の橋下徹代表は、結党のあいさつで「大いくさが始まる」と述べていたが、新党の発足を予定している石原氏もおそらく、“乱世”のいま、新党を率いて国政の場に打って出ることに高揚感や興奮を感じているのだろう。

Should we feel strength in seeing such political leaders, or be unsettled by how far removed they are from regular people's lives? I am of the latter.
 まさに戦国時代のように奮い立つリーダーたちの姿に、頼もしさを感じるべきなのだろうか。それとも、「あまりにも一般の生活者とかけ離れている」と違和感を抱いてよいのだろうか。正直言って、私は後者だ。

Harold Dwight Lasswell, a political scientist who was influenced by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, writes something interesting in his book "Power and Personality." There are people in the world with a love for power, and they often become politicians, and according to Lasswell, many of them work for personal motives, such as overcoming unpleasant memories from childhood. He writes that these politicians cleverly use arguments for the public good to justify their personal motives.
 精神分析家フロイトの影響を受けたラスウェルという政治学者は、「権力と人間」という本の中で面白いことを述べている。世の中には権力に目がない「政治的タイプ」と呼ばれる人間がいて、この人たちがしばしば政治家になるのだが、ラスウェルによるとその動機の多くは「子ども時代のイヤな思い出の克服」など個人的な動機に基づいているのだという。ラスウェルは、このタイプの政治家について「個人的な動機を、公の目的にうまくすり替え、公共の利益の名において合理化できる人」といった説明をしている。

I don't want to think that all the world's politicians are seeking power for personal reasons like overcoming inferiority complexes from their childhood and showing up the world. However, when I wonder if the fact that the stronger one looks, the weaker they are inside applies to politics as well, I find myself worrying about some politicians.
 すべての政治家が、「子ども時代のコンプレックスを晴らして世の中を見返すために」といった自分だけの動機で権力を目指しているとは思いたくない。とはいえ、「強く見える人ほど、心の中に弱さを持っている」という真実は政治の世界でも生きているのか、と思うとちょっとおかしくなり、「あの政治家はどうなのだろう?」と心配になる。

Of course, we cannot have only weak-willed politicians, but in these difficult times, I would like someone who doesn't forget kindness and compassion to lead society. Am I mistaken to want such a thing?
 もちろん弱気なだけのリーダーばかりでは困るが、このむずかしい時代、やっぱり優しさや思いやりを忘れない人に社会を動かしてもらいたい。そう思うのは間違いなのだろうか。

(By Rika Kayama, psychiatrist)
毎日新聞 2012年11月06日 地方版
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by kiyoshimat | 2012-11-13 00:41 | 英字新聞